Update: 2017-01-13 03:02 AM -0500


A Practical Sanskrit Dictionary


by A. A. Macdonell, 1893,
http://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/scans/MDScan/index.php?sfx=jpg 1929.
Nataraj ed., 1st in 2006, 2012

Edited, with additions from Pali sources, by U Kyaw Tun (UKT) (M.S., I.P.S.T., USA) and staff of Tun Institute of Learning (TIL) . Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone. Prepared for students and staff of TIL  Computing and Language Center, Yangon, MYANMAR :  http://www.tuninst.net , www.romabama.blogspot.com

MC-indx.htm | Top

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UKT 170111:
{iRi.} ऋ : - highly rhotic Skt-Dev vowel not present in Bur-Myan & Pal-Myan . However since nobody knows the ancient Sanskrit phonology, and which can be only guessed by how the Hindi-speakers and Tamil-speakers pronounce the same Sanskrit word. We can be sure that the pronunciation would be different, but still recognizable, as in the case of Pal words pronounce differently by Bur-Myan speakers and Mon-Myan speakers. Listen to our salutation to Gautama Buddha:
{na.mau:boad~Da-ya.aid~Dn} - bk-cndl Mon-Pali-salutation<))
Though not present in Bur-Myan & Pal-Myan, {iRi.} ऋ is present in BHS. See TIL HD-PDF-Library and as backup in SD-PDF-Library p151-152
- FE-BHSD<> / Bkp<> (link chk 170111)
See my note on Rhotic vowel .

{iRi.} ऋ  : cf. Pal-Myan {I.} - p044-2.htm & p045.htm
{iRaik~Sa.} : Pseudo-Kha preceding {ga.}
  {iRaig~} / {iRaig} --> {iRaic} cf. {AIc} / {aic}/ & {iAIc~hsa-a.ya.}
  {iRain~} cf. {lan}/{laing}
{iRi.sa.} : Palatal plosive-stop
{iRi.za.} / {iRaiz}

UKT 170107: The story of Parashurama {pa.hyu:ra-ma.} needs to be told to inhabitants of Myanmarpr, and other countries of SEAsia, who are already familiar with the story of Rama in Ramayana.

UKT notes
Crime of mis-transcription: the seed of mistrust
Jamadagni aka Jamdagni, {za.ma.da.g~ni.} जमदग्नि (= ज म द ग ् न ि) is one of the Saptarishis (Seven Great Sages Rishi) in the seventh, current Manvantara.
Nakshatra puja
Parashurama {pa.hyu:ra-ma.}
Parents of Parashurama - Jamdagni (father) and Renuka (mother)
Rhotic vowel : short ऋ ृ and long ॠ ॄ
Rigveda : the power of human-rishis over dva


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{iRi.} ऋ - cf. Pal-Myan {I.}

UKT 170113: The Skt-Dev ऋ ṛ has both vowel-like and consonant-like properties. Note the dot below the English r though it has nothing to do with the sound of consonant /r/ or /ɹ/ and {ra.}. It is similar to English y in words like yellow (y as consonant), and by (y as vowel). Following this lead I represent ऋ ṛ as either {iRi.} and {yRi.}. {iRi.} is used mainly for words like {iRi.i.} 'hermit', and {yRi.} is for words like {yRz-pu-zau} 'sacrifice'.
Skt: {iRi.i.} related to Pal: {I.i} and Bur: {ra..}
Skt: {yRz} relates to Pal: {ya.za.} and Bur: {yz}

Bur-Myan speakers are used to y {ya.} only as a consonant, because of which Skt: {iRi.i.} related to Pal: {I.i} is my favourite form. I will use Skt: {yRz} relates to Pal: {ya.za.} only when necessary, keeping in mind that it be prudent to use {Ri.} as equivalent to ṛ. However be careful of my transliteration.



RI, VI. P. rikkh; V. also III. iyar-ti, V. rino-ti, II. r-ti,
- move; agitate; raise (voice); offer, present; arise; run, flow; fall on; meet; incur, undergo (with abst. nouns); attain, obtain, gain, acquire; cs. arpya, cast, throw; direct (gaze, thoughts); put or place in or on; fasten, insert; present: make over or deliver to; restore. , inflict on (ac.); fall into (misfortune). ud, agitate; raise; call forth; cs. cause to thrive. pra, cs. arouse. prati, fasten; deliver; restore, give anew. vi, open. sam, put together; hasten together to (ac., Ic.); meet with (in.); cs. P. A. fasten; insert; point; deliver, hand over; restore; despatch.


ṛkta- : UKT: highly rhotic vowel ऋ checked by क ?
- hyper-Skt. for rikta-, in rucchata ṛktato 'sārato ... - FE-BHS151c1


ṛgava : UKT: highly rhotic vowel ऋ checked by ग ?
- nt., a high number, corruption for mṛgava, q.v. ... - FE-BHS151c1


ऋच्छति { ऋ } ṛcchati { ṛ } : UKT: highly rhotic vowel ऋ checked by च ?
= ऋ च ् छ त ि  
- verb  get, rise, go, tend upwards, move -- SpkSkt


ऋच्छतु { ऋ } ṛcchatu {ṛ }
- imperative  go! -- SpkSkt


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ऋकार [ ri-kra ]
= ऋ क ा र
Skt: ऋकार [ri-kra] -  m. the sound or letter ri. -- Mac056-2c1
Skt: ऋकार ṛkāra - m. eta [Greek letter] -- SpkSkt


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ऋक्तस् [ rik-ts ]
= ऋ क ् त स ्
- ad. with regard to the rik verses.

UKT 170106: The word "the rik verses" probably refers to Rig Vda
See my note on Rig Veda


ऋक्वत् [ rk-vat ]
- a. singing, shouting; m. singer (a class of gods); -van, a. id.


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{aiRk~Sa.} : Pal-Myan {Ik~ka.}


ऋक्ष [ . riksh ]
= ऋ क ् ष
- a. bald.



ऋक्ष [ . rksha ]
- a. dire; m. bear; kind of monkey; N.: pl. the Great Bear; m. n. star; lunar mansion: , f. she-bear; -rga, m. king of the bears or monkeys; king of the stars, moon; -vat, m. N. of a mountain.

UKT 150528: The term "lunar mansion" aka "asterism" is from Hindu astrology in which the celestial sphere of fixed stars is divided into groups known as Nakshatra नक्षत्र nakṣatra {nak~hkt}. Along the celestial equator are 27 of them beginning with Ashwini अश्विनी aśvinī , Bharani भरणी bharaṇī , & Krittika कृत्तिका kṛttikā , each spanning 13 degrees 20 minutes of arc. The first point of the celestial sphere, 0 0', is the beginning of Ashwini. These astrological terms are very common in Burmese literature especially of Konbaung period of the 18th century which has been dubbed the "Golden Age of Literature". See also Wikipedia:
- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nakshatra 150528
- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Burmese_literature 150531

ऋक्ष [ . rksha ] 
= ऋ क ् ष
Skt: ऋक्ष [ . rksha ] - a. dire; m. bear; kind of monkey; N.: pl. the Great Bear [Ursa Major ] ;
--------------------------- m. n. star; lunar mansion: - Mac056c1
Skt: ऋक्ष ṛkṣa - m. bear -- SpkSkt
Pal: {Ik~ka.} - UHS PMD0189

  UKT from UHS: m. ape, bear



ऋक्षेष्टि [ riksha‿ishti ]
- f. offering to the lunar mansions.

See my note on Nakshatra Puja


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UKT 150529: Inability of Skt-Dev speakers to pronounce /θ/ has made transcription of Pal-Myan into Skt-Dev complex. Skt-Dev have to pronounce स as /s/. {iRaik~a.} is pronounced as /{RAIk~Sa.}/.


ऋक्संहिता [ rik-samhit ]
= ऋ क ् स ं ह ि त ा
- f. arranged collection of the rik verses.


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{RAIg~} / {RAIg} --> {RAIc} cf. / {aic} & {AIc~hsa-a.ya.}

UKT 150531: Based on my own articulation of {aic} when I tried to articulate , I found it to be almost impossible unless I moved R to the fore.

Bur: {AIc~hsa-a.ya.} - n. 1. desire. 2. that which fulfils desire. - MLC MED2006-625


ऋग्गाथा [ rig-gth ]
= ऋ ग ् ग ा थ ा --> {RAIg~ga-hta}
- f. rik chant.

ṛjuka : UKT: highly rhotic vowel ऋ checked by ज ?
BHS: ṛjuka - adj. (also ujjuka ; = Pali ujuka, ujjuka; Skt. ṛju plus ka), straight, right : SP 324.2 (but see s.v. ujjuka); KP 8.1 (prose) ... FE-BHS151c1
Pal: {U.zu.ka.}/ {OAz~zu.ka.} - UHS MPD0204c2
  UKT from UHS: mfn. straight, righteous




ऋग्मिन् [ rig-mn ]
= ऋ ग ् म ि न ्
- a. praising, shouting; -mya (or rg-), a. praiseworthy; -yagusha, n. the Rik and the Yagus verses; -vidhna, n. employment of the rik verses; T. of a work; -ved, m. Veda of verses or hymns, Rig-veda (i.e. the rik verses with or without the ritual and speculative works connected with them).

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ऋघाय [ righya ]
- den. quiver [shake], rage.



ऋघावत् rghâ-vat, ˚वन् [ -van ]
- a. raging, stormy.


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{iRan~} cf. {lan}

{laing} - n. feature. 2. genitalia; sex. 3.gender. 4. the ten rules of conduct for novice monks - MLC MED2006-451


ऋङ्मय [ riṅ-mya ]
= ऋ ङ ् म य
- a. consisting of rik verses.


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ऋच् [ rik ]
- f.  lustre; sacred hymn or verse, exp. as distinguished from that which is sung (saman) and from the sacrificial formula (yagus); verse to which a rite or explanation refers; aggregate of the rik verse, the Rig. veds (generally pl.).



ऋच् [ rik ]
i. p. rka , beam, shine; sing; praise; sing hymns (ac.) in praise of (d.); honour, worship; adorn: pp. arkita, honoured, highly respected; respectfully presented; cs. arkaya, cause to beam; honour, worship; salute. abhi sing, praise; duly honour, respectfully salute. sam-abhi, honour, worship; greet. pra, begin to sing; praise.


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ऋच ṛca   [ rika ]
Skt: ऋच [ rika ] - m. - = rik , hymn, verse - Mac056c2
Skt: ऋच ṛca - n. sacred verse - SpkSkt



ऋचीक [ rik-ka ]
- m. N. of Gamadagni's father; N. of a country.

See my notes on
1. Jamadagni aka Jamdagni, {za.ma.da.g~ni.} जमदग्नि (= ज म द ग ् न ि) is one of the Saptarishis (Seven Great Sages Rishi) in the seventh, current Manvantara.
2. Parashurama {pa.hyu:ra-ma.}
3. Parashurama's parents [father: Jamdagni (Skt: जमदग्नि jamdagni) , mother: Renuka (रेणुका reṇukā)]. See also:
Dowson's Classical Dictionary of Hindu Mythology  -110816
The Dictionary only on pdf p029: previous pages are advertisements. Look for: jamdagni , reṇukā.
Downloaded in TIL HD-PDF Library, and its back up in TIL SD-PDF Library
- JDawsonClassDict1888<>  Bkp<>


ऋचीषम [ rk-sha-ma ]
- a. ep. of Indra.



ऋछ् [rikh ] (need to chk spelling)
- vi. p. rikkh (pr. base only), meet with; fall on; incur, fall into; attain; attack, insult 


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= ऋ ज ्  --> {aiRz} 
Skt: ऋज् - i. p. arga , procure; acquire, obtain; cs. p. . id. upa, cs. id. -- Mac056c3
Skt: अर्जते { ऋज् } arjate {ṛj} - v. go, stand or be firm, acquire, be strong or healthy -- SpkSkt 
*Pal: {AIz~za}
- - UHS-PMD0190
  UKT from UHS: f. act of puja

See my note on Rig Veda {aiRz-b-da.}
UKT 170107: At present in Myanmarpr, by {b-da.} we mean the 'science' or 'discipline' in words such as Chemistry {Da-tu.b-da.}.


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{RI.za.}/{iRi.za.} / {RAIz}


ऋजिप्य [ rig-ipy ]
- a. hastening forward.



ऋजीक [ rig-k ]
- a. glittering (--); m. ep. of Indra.



ऋजीति [ rg-ti ]
- f. glowing, sparkling.



- c.pv. of  rigu .



ऋजीष [ rig-sh-a ]
- a. rushing on; n. N. of a hell; -n, a. rushing on.



ऋजु [ rig- ]
- a. (rigv) straight; right, just; honest: -t, f. straightness; candour; -tva, n. straightforwardness; -dh, ad. straight way; rightly; -mita‿akshar, f. N. of a commentary on Ygavalkya's code.

UKT 170107: Ygavalkya's code is mentioned in - http://www.sacred-texts.com/hin/sbe07/sbe07002.htm 170107
"Regarding the code of Ygavalkya we learn from tradition that a Vedic teacher of that name was the reputed author of the White Yagur-veda."



[rig-kri ]
- make straight



ऋज्र [ rig-r ]
- a. reddish, colour. bay.



ऋञ्जते rigte, 3 sg. pr., ऋञ्जसान [ rigasn ]
- aor. pt. √rag.

( end of old p056-2.htm )

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ऋण [ ri-n ]
- (pp.) a. guilty; n. obligation, debt; -m dhraya, owe (ac.) to (g.); -m kri, borrow from (ab.); -pra-yam, -n, -sam-n, pay off a debt; -d, id.; lend to (lc.); -pra‿p, incur a debt; -mrigaya or yk, ask for a loan.

ऋण [ ri-n ]
--> {iRi.Na.}
Skt: ऋण [ ri-n ] - (pp.) a. guilty; n. obligation, debt; -- Mac056c3
Pal: {I.Na.} [pronounced as  {i.Na.}] - UHS-PMD0191
  UKT from UHS: {I.Na.} is pronounced as  {i.Na.} n. debt, obligation

ऋणधारय [ ri-ndhraya ] (sp?)
Skt: ऋणधारय [ ri-ndhraya ] - m. owe (ac.) to (g.); -- Mac056c3
BHS: ṛṇa-dhara or hara, haraka - adj., in clich said after birth of a son, ... FE-BHS151c1







[ rina-kartri ]
- a. contracting debts; -kheda, m. discharge of a debt; -ta, f. indebtedness; -dasa, m. one who pays his debt by becoming a slave; -ntrmoksha, m. release from an obligation to (g.); -pradatri, m. money-lender; -vat, a. indebted (to, g.) ; -samuddhara, m. discharge of debt.

( end of new p056-2.htm )

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UKT notes

The Crime of Mis-transcription
- the seed of mistrust between speakers of languages

 UKT 120121, 140218, 140403, 170102:

It was some years ago when I first I realized that representation of Skt-Dev ऋ (U+090B) is a problem in Romabama. I am reluctant to call ऋ (U+090B) the "vocalic R" and represent it as {Ri.}, because it would appear as a consonant to the reader. It is a vowel with a short form ऋ (1 eye-blink) and a long form ॠ (2 blnk).

Recognition that ऋ (U+090B) is a vowel and NOT a consonant was the first step in the solution of the problem. Further, if you can remember that English <y> is a semi-vowel, and that in Bur-Myan {ya.} and {ra.} are pronounced almost the same, I was tempted to represent this highly rhotic vowel as {yRi.}. However, since Bur-Myan usually view {ya.} as a consonant, even though English <y> is a semi-vowel, I have to give up this form of representation and use only {iRi.}

ऋ (U+090B) is the letter-form of highly rhotic form of the IPA vowel /i/, and is not present in Bur-Myan. When combined with consonants, it is represented by its vowel-sign ृ (U+0943). It corresponds to Pal-Myan (and Bur-Myan) {I.}. ऋ (U+090B) is the close-front short-vowel with vowel duration of 1 eye-blink. However, some Bur-Myan and Pal-Myan words have the same meaning as words with Skt-Dev ऋ (U+090B), from which we can conclude that there is always a possibility of mix-up in pronunciation, e.g. {U.tu.}.

Back vowels

I intend to go into how human speech sounds - vowels - are produced in different language groups. It is still an ongoing study since early 2014. See: Human Voice -- indx-HV.htm (link chk 170103).

The reason is simple, my presentation is based on phonology of a particular language, Bur-Myan, and may not be able to represent words of other language groups. I got the confirmation when I take up Mon-Myan. Romabama is not strictly applicable to Mon-Myan words.

Listen to how Mon-Myan speakers sing their vowels and consonants:
- bk-cndl-row#1vow<))
- bk-cndl-row #2vow<))

- bk-cndl-{ka.}-row<)) 
- bk-cndl-{sa.}-row<)) : Mon pronounce {sa.} as /{kya.}/ same as in Skt-Dev
- bk-cndl-{Ta.}-row<)) 
- bk-cndl-{ta.}-row<)) 
- bk-cndl-{pa.}-row<))
- bk-cndl-{ya.}-row<))
- bk-cndl-{ha.}-row<)) 
  Concentrate on the last three consonants {a.}, {aa.}, {}

The reason for pronunciation difference is simple. Different speakers of different language-groups use different sets of vocal muscles.

Bur-Myan is totally non-rhotic, whereas British English is slightly so, but the prevalent dialect American English is definitely rhotic. Secondly, Bur-Myan is a Thibilant (non-hissing) language, but English is definitely sibilant with some thibilant character. If we go by German, the problem is accentuated in its being a Sibilant (hissing) language. Bur-Myan grammar is without inflexions whereas English has inflexions.

The Bur-Myan (and possibly Pal-Myan} {o} and {aw} are definitely rounded vowels, the remaining {au} can be lip-spread or lip-round.

Mis-representing ऋ (U+090B) as the "vocalic-R" (with the implication that it is a consonant), breaks up the relationship of Skt-Dev to Pali-Myan and to Bur-Myan. I consider it to be a crime leading to mistrust between various speakers. I hope my work on BEPS would be one the building blocks of understanding between the citizens of countries of the sub-continent India, and those of Myanmarpr and other SEAsian countries.

I remember that my first teacher (1952-55) of Organic Chemistry, Mr. B. K. Menon, a native of Kerala State in India, used to pronounce the English <y> as <i>. What my teacher had done was legitimate because <y> is a semi-vowel in Eng-Lat. Taking Mr. Menon's pronunciation as a cue, I had thought it might be proper to pronounce the vowel ऋ as both {iRi.} and {yRi.}. However, since Bur-Myan speakers would never consider <y> as a vowel, I had to give up the idea of representing ऋ as {yRi.}.

A vowel pair that had been lost, during Vedic to Sanskrit transition is the lateral vowel called "vocalic L" which was present in Vedic. It too is made up of short ऌ (U+090C) (vow-duration 1 blnk), and long ॡ (U+0961) (2 blnk). Since, it is not present in the classical-Sanskrit of Panini, I have not assigned glyphs for Romabama.

Go back Crime-mis-transcription-note-b

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Nakshatra Puja

-- UKT 140123

I have never heard of Nakshatra puja until in 2010, I was invited to one held in the precincts of a pagoda at Mhawbi by a Bur-Myan Buddhist Rashi. It is held at midnight on the Full-Moon of Tanzaungboan. It involves a procession of 27 lanterns with the name of nakshatra written on it. The lanterns were held aloft by devotees on bamboo poles, bent at the top.

From: http://www.rudraksha-ratna.com/nakshatra-puja_5631.php4 140123

A nakshatra is one of the 27 divisions of the sky. Each one of them covers 13 degrees and 20 minutes of the zodiac. Each Nakshatra is the head of particular group of stars. The Nakshatra in which the Moon is placed at time of one's birth is called Janma Nakshatra. It determines our thinking pattern, nature and destiny. It also determines our instincts as well as the subconscious aspects of our personality. Performing a nakshatra shanti homam accrues all round beneficial effects and removes all doshas.

It is said in our vedas that Nakshatra puja is very important in our lives. It is conducted once a year for the betterment of one's life.

The Nakshatra puja is recommended only for these 6 Gandaak Nakshatra: Mula, Jyestha, Ashlesha, Revati, Magha, Ashwini.

Go back naks-puja-note-b

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Parents of Parashurama : Jamdagni (father) and Renuka (mother)

UKT 110816, 140404, 170106 :

UKT 170106: Keep in mind the "races" of the participants of the story. Remember that humans can be deified after death to become dva, asura, gandharva. Remember also that in Hinduism the characters must either be male and female who can have sex, and children. The idea is very different in Theravada Buddhism. It will cast the story in a different light.
Humans: Parashu-rama {pa.hyu:ra-ma.} (m.), Jamdagni (m.), Renuka (f.), Rama (m) & Sita (f) - the last two taken together as SitaRam.
  - who have come to have yogic powers (more powerful then magic powers) because of yogic practices {a.ma.hta.} (different from {wi.p~a.na}) based on high morals and strenuous physical and mental exercise. Yogic powers can be lost if the underlying morals are destroyed.
Axiomatic characters: Mahabrahma (m.), Vishnu (m), Manu (m). Similar YHVH, God, and Allah.
  - whose powers are "created" or "just come into being". They are sometimes explained as various forms of Energy by their present-day adherents. Living humans are made up of both Matter and Energy.
Axiomatic characters who were once humans before death: dva, asura, and gandharva
  - who have come to have magical powers because of the accident of birth, which they can misuse without the power becoming faded.

Most educated peoples of Myanmarpr know the story of Rama {ra-ma.} and Sita - yet few would know the story of Parashurama aka Rama with {pa.ra.u.} 'axe'. Those Theravada-Buddhist Bur-Myan who worship Rama as a {nt} 'dva' with annual festivals every year, pronounce the name as {pa.hyu:ra-ma.}. My family became friends with such a group from Ygaw, East Rangoon, in the late 1940s and early 1950s.

Pal: {pa.ra.u.}
- - UHS-PMD0617
  UKT from UHS: m. axe

We are concerned with the story of Rama because of its cultural influence on the non-Hindu countries of South-east Asia: Cambodia, Indonesia, Malaysia, Myanmarpr, and Thailand. These I have named the Land of Rama in one of my unpublished editorials for North Renfrew Times of Deep River, Ontario, Canada in the late 1990s. - UKT110816

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jamadagni 110816
UKT: There was something wrong with the original text which spelled "Jamdagni" wrong in more than one place. I have corrected the English text to the best of my ability. - UKT110816

Jamdagni, Skt: जमदग्नि [ = ज म द ग ् न ि ] is one of the Saptarishis (Seven Great Sages Rishi) in the seventh, i.e. the present Manvantara. [1] [UKT ]

UKT 170103: Manvantara is a world-cycle or epoch.
See: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manvantara 170103.
" Manvantara or Manuvantara or " Manvanter" , [1] or age of a Manu, [2] the Hindu progenitor of humanity, is an astronomical period of time measurement. Manvantara is a Sanskrit word, a compound of manu and antara [cf. English word <interval>], manu-antara or manvantara, literally meaning the duration of a Manu, or his life span. [3]

Jamdagni, was a descendant of the sage Bhrigu [Pal: Bhagu {Ba.gu.}], one of the Prajapatis created by Brahma, the God of Creation. Jamdagniagni has five children with wife Renuka, the youngest of whom was Parashurama, an Avatar of Lord Vishnu.

Renuka was such very devoted wife and the power of her chastity was manifest. Such was this power, that she used to fetch water from the river in a pot made of unbaked clay every day. The pot would hold together because of her devotion to her husband.

One day, when she was at the river, a handsome Gandharva [musicians of Indra] happened to be passing by in the sky, in his chariot. Smitten with desire for this handsome youth, for merely an instant, the damage to her powers was done. The unbaked pot that she was carrying, dissolved into the river. [UKT ]

She was no longer chaste of mind. Afraid to go back to her husband, she waited at the river bank. Jamdagni, who was waiting for fresh water to begin his morning sacrifices, noticed that his wife had not yet returned from the river. By his yogic powers, he divined all that had taken place. [UKT ]

Exceedingly angry with his wife, he called his eldest son, told him what had happened and asked him to execute his mother. Horror-stricken, his son refused to perform this deed. He then asked all of his sons, in the order of their seniority, to execute their mother. While all the elder sons refused (Jamdagni turned them to stone), only his youngest son, Parashurama, ever-obedient and righteous, at once beheaded his mother. [UKT ]

Jamadagni, pleased, offered to grant two boons to Parashurama, who at once asked that his mother be restored to life and his brothers to be unturned from stone and accepted into the family again. Impressed by his son's devotion and affection, Jamadagni granted this boon.

Jamadagni was later killed by a Kshatriya king Kartavirya Arjuna, over a dispute over a divine calf. Jamadagni was restored to life by Lord Shiva, as he was among a saptarishi and his devout worshipper (as quoted in Shiva Mahapurana).

UKT 170103: Mention of the name "Lord Shiva" the "Shiva-dva", as quoted in Shiva Mahapurana shows that the original story had been doctored by the Shaivite priests {i-wa.gen:wn poaN~Na:}.

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Renuka 110816
[UKT: The story of Renuka is about the so-called "temple prostitutes" in India, whereas it concerns the story of poverty stricken young Southern India girls who came to Burma and Malayasia in the 19th and 20th centuries together with the young man-folk to become common wives for them. They usually became prostitutes for every one. The quarter of Ali-mula in East Rangoon was well known as a red-light district of Indian prostitutes in my younger days. - UKT110816]

Renuka or Yellamma (Marathi: श्री रेणुका/ येल्लुआई , Kanada: ಶ್ರೀ ಎಲ್ಲಮ್ಮ ರೇಣುಕಾ, Telugu: శ్రీ రేణుక/ ఎల్లమ్మ) is worshiped as the Goddess (devi) of the fallen [prostitute?], in the Hindu pantheon. Yellamma is a patron goddess of rural folk of Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh. Her devotees have revered her as the "Mother of the Universe" or Jagadamba. Legends say that Yellamma is the incarnation of Kali, who on one hand symbolizes the death of ego, and on the other hand is the mother who is compassionate about her children. [1]

Yellamma is worshipped mostly in South India, including Karnataka, Tamilnadu [Madras], Andhra Pradesh and Maharastra, where the deity is known by many names: Mahankali, Jogamma, Somalamma, Gundamma, Pochamma, Mysamma, Jagadambika, Holiyamma, Renukamata, Yellu aai, and Renuka Devi.

In ancient ages, the Yellamma temples were cared for by women known as " devadasis" (which means the servants of gods), who dwelt in the temples and were educated as courtesans or artists. To this day, girls are being dedicated as devadasis to Yellamma, even though the practice is now illegal the women lead a life as sex workers. [2]

UKT: More in the Wikipedia articles.

Go back Parashurama-parents-note 

Contents of this page

Rhotic vowel : short ऋ ृ and long ॠ ॄ

UKT 150527, 150621, 170103:

Note: Some of the labels on BEPS vowel-diagram may have to be changed as I progress in my study.

Highly rhotic Skt-Dev vowel ऋ is not present in Bur-Myan & Pal-Myan. It {iRi.} ऋ is present in BHS. See TIL HD-PDF-Library and as backup in SD-PDF-Library p151-152 - FE-BHSD<> / Bkp<> (link chk 170111)

Skt-Dev vowel ऋ  is generally known as "Vocalic R" but since it does not have any relationship to regular English consonant R, I prefer to call it "Rhotic vowel". Notice how I have differentiated it from common {ra.ric} sign. Vocalic R ऋ ṛ (Eng-Lat <r> with a dot below) is a vowel-letter. Its vowel-sign is ृ. Vocalic R ऋ ṛ has a vowel duration of 1 eye-blink and is commonly described as "short vowel".

क k + ऋ ṛ {RI.} --> कृ kṛ {kRI.} 
e.g., कृष्णः गृहे अस्ति वा?  kṛṣṇaḥ gṛhe asti vā ? - sent. Is Mr. Krishna at home?

It has a counter part, a "long vowel" of 2 blnk duration, ॠ ॄ .

The English transliteration and pronunciation of this vowel as "RI" in many Skt-Dev words, has broken up their relationships to Pal-Myan words, e.g.

"Rishi" ऋषि ṛṣi [ rsh-i ] --> {I.i.} - UHS-PMD0195
Since, Pal {I.i.} is the same as Bur {ra..}, we have a reason to transcribe ऋषि ṛṣi as Skt-Myan {RI.shi.}. But the relationship between Skt-Dev and Pal-Myan is broken up.

CAVEAT 150621, 170103: The tendency to pronounce (iRi) as a derivative r consonant is wrong. There is a rhotic sound but remember that is a rhotic vowel. Yet is has consonant properties. It is similar to English y (equiv. of {ya.} - the well known semivowel. It may very well be called semi-consonant.  In transcribing some words with ऋ such as for 'sacrifice', I find it useful to depict it as {yRi.} {yRaz-pu-zau}. The Bur-Myan word is {yz-pu-zau}.

Sanskrit is spoken by both Hindi-speakers and Tamil-speakers, and the two groups pronounce the same Sanskrit word differently as is found in the same Pali word pronounce differently by Bur-Myan speakers and Mon-Myan speakers. And thus my transcription of Skt-Dev ऋ ṛ to Skt-Myan and Romabama may have to be changed eventually.

For the present, I am treating as the rhotic counter-part of {I.}, and have spelled it as {iRi.}. To show the connection between Pali and Sanskrit, the Skt-Dev counterpart ऋ should be pronounced as {iRi.} - not {RI.} .

A further warning is needed when a sans-serif font such as Arial Unicode is used. If needed, change the font to Times New Roman, e.g. {iRi.}, {iRaig}.

The use of Dental-fricative {Sa.}/ {S} or {sha.}/ {sh} is not to get mixed up with mg border="0" src="AK/sa1.gif" width="9" height="22" align="center"> {sa.}/ {c}. The possibility of the mix-up can be seen in the case below:

Bur: {AIc~hsa-a.ya.} - n. 1. desire. 2. that which fulfils desire. - MLC MED2006-625
Skt: इच्छति { इष् } icchati { iṣ } = इ च ् छ त ि   - verb 6  desire - SpkSkt

When I tried to articulate , I found it almost impossible unless R is moved to the fore as /{RAIc}/. I, therefore, had to change my Romabama presentation to {Raig~} & {Raig}. However, on finding that it produces more confusion, I have to try to pronounce as a vowel with a rhotic slur which is indicated by R .

Though words with Lateral-vowels ऌ/ॄ and ॡ/ॣ  are not common in Skt-Dev, whenever there is a need to use them , we can transcribe them in Romabama as {LI} as in {RI} considering both to be derivatives of  {I}.

Continue reading my note Rigveda .

Go back Rhotic-vowel-note-b

Contents of this page

Rigveda : the power of human-rishis over dvas  

- UKT 150528, 170103:

I am curious to know who the human authors were who wrote the original Rigvda. The indications are that they may be among the ancient rishis praised by Gautama Buddha himself: Vedic rishis "Atthako, Vmako, Vmadevo, Vessmitto {w~a.mt~ta}, Yamataggi {ya.ma.tag~gi} (sp chk needed), Angiras, Bhradvjo, Vsettho, Kassapo, and Bhagu {Ba.gu.} - mentioned in Buddhist Vinaya Pitaka of the Mahavagga .

Inset pix on right: Buddhist Forum Vol. V: Philological Approach to Buddhism - by K. R. Norman, 1994
UKT 170109: The transliteration "Yamataggi" to "Jamadagni" shows to me that "there was a pre-Pali dialect", and that it was Magadhi - the language of Buddha mostly retained in Myanmarpr by Theravada Buddhists.

The following is my analysis based on my study and personal experience. As my study and experience progress, I may have to rewrite this piece.
Refer also to: Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rigveda 150528

The Rigveda ऋग्वेद ṛgveda = ऋ ग ् व े द) {iRaig w-da.}, is a compound of ṛc 'verse' and veda 'knowledge'. The word {iRaic} ṛc 'verse' and Macdonell's use of the word ऋच् [ rik ] has made me interested in the word ऋच् ṛc 'verse'.

UKT 150530: When you look at the phonologies of Pali and Sanskrit based on the akshara matrices, you will see that & are not very different.

The coda-akshara of is from 
   row#1 velar plosive-stop, {ka.} {hka.} {ga.},
is from 
   row#2 palatal plosive-stop, {sa.} {hsa.} {za.}.

However, Skt-Dev speakers, and, Mon-Myan speakers pronounce
   row#2 as affricates, {kya.} {hkya.} {gya.},
resulting in confusion between & .

We have in Bur-Myan tradition, two similar words Mundun {mn~tn} 'yogic spell' , and Ghahta {ga-hta} 'spell.' {mn~tn} and {ga-hta} - formulated by human rishis - are more powerful than the dva-gods and other celestial beings. Because of which Indra, the king of the dva afraid of being deposed by humans is always on the lookout to destroy the human-rishi who have discovered such a yogic spell.

The word {mn~tn} is derived from three terms in esoteric Buddhism: Tantra तन्त्र 'technique', Mantra मन्त्र 'spell', Yantra यन्त्र 'instrument'. On the other hand, the word {ga-hta} 'spell' composed in poetic meter as an aid to memory is chanted without music. A {ga-hta} recited meticulously without any distraction such as music, according to a set formula is a {mn~tn} which the dva including the Celestial King Indra must obey.

To me, who has studied the Burmese esoteric practices as a novice, the Hindu method of chanting mantras with music is useless. A case of a mantra powerful enough to invoke the celestials - the Sun-god, Dva-King Indra, and others, who must obey the wish of the human is cited in Mahabharata. In the story, Kunti had been taught the mantra by a human rishi. She had the power to over the celestial beings make her conceive (similar to conception of Jesus) heroes from Karna to Pandavas. See:
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kunti 170103 ,
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Virgin_birth_of_Jesus 170103
Note: Immaculate conception and Virgin birth of Jesus are different:
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Immaculate_Conception

Here we must note what you, if not a Theravada Buddhist, might call the arrogance of the Bur-Buddhist monks. Theravada Burmese-Buddhists, especially the monks, do not {rhi.hko:} 'worship' to ask for 'favours' from any god (YHVH, God, and Allah), ma'nes (equal to Nat {nt}), and other supernatural beings. With our strong belief in the wisdom of the Buddha, we feel we are equal to any being who are not free from anger and sex. It is humans alone who can attain the supreme wisdom or Buddha-hood and are thus more worthy than the any gods. By {rhi.hko:} we just pay respect.

By means of the {mn~tn} and {ga-hta}, a human-being can become more powerful than any celestial beings including Indra (Hindu) or Sakka (Buddhist) himself who have come to have whatever power they have just because of birth - not because of endeavour in the present-life.

Thus Hindu-Indra is always on the lookout for these {mn~tn}-wielding human rhishis {ra..}, and is ready to destroy them. He would send a celestial dancer {d-wic~hsa.ra} in his employ who would try to seduce and have sex with the {mn~tn}-possessor and thereby destroy his powers.

However the Buddhist-Sakka would "worship" the holy humans, the rahans {ra.hn}, including the rhishis {ra..}, not for their {mn~tn}, but for their moral conduct. See the story of Sakka on his journey making his celestial chariot-driver {ma-ta.li.} to stop for a while to "worship" the holy ones. - See https://suttacentral.net/en/sn11.20 150622.

We should note here that Hindus place a high value on 'magic formulas' - the {mn~tn}, whilst the Buddhists on moral conduct.

According to popular beliefs in Myanmarpr, any human by living a life of high conduct, and practising the yogic practice known as {a.ma.hta.} 'concentration' of mind - different from {wi.pa.a.na} 'the higher insight' - one can come up with the knowledge of how to control the body functions. I have the experience of fasting -- taking only water for long periods -- to concentrate the mind. It is one of the common practices of ancient rishis.

At this stage, one must decide how to proceed. One can continue with {pa.ma.hta.} and gain control over celestial beings (if there are any in modern scientific sense, or natural phenomenon personified by them)* by formulating yogic formulas {mn~tn}. This is not recommended by Theravada Buddhism. Or, switch over to {wi.pa.a.na} 'the higher insight' to gain knowledge such as the Four Natural Truths discovered by Siddhartha Rishi who then claimed himself to be the Buddha. This second line is the one praised by Theravada Buddhism.

*UKT 170105: The ancient peoples, such as the indigenous races of India and Myanmarpr and elsewhere, had the tendency to portray natural phenomena and historical facts as gods and goddesses, and their actions. See:
1. Cliff's notes - https://www.cliffsnotes.com/literature/m/mythology/about-mythology 170105
2. Goddesses (or Mothers) in Ancient India - by P K Agrawala - mei-tau-indx.htm - to be updated later
--- The ink-on-paper printed book is available in TIL library at Research Center in Yangon

In writing this note, I have at my disposal two experiences. One is, on my study of esoteric practices such as casting {n:}, and Astrology. Based on these experiences I would say Rig Vda {iRz-bda.} is mostly a collection of mantras which are to be recited with a concentrated mind while casting a magic rune or {in:}:

{n: hsn wn: si: rwit hso . Ga-hta: mya:}

The mantras are not just "joyous" songs to be accompanied by music. There are accounts which are probably based on historical facts which have been portrayed as exploits of the dvas against the asuras.

My second experience, is the experience fasting for long periods extending into days: the last time for more than 6 days or 150 hours to come up with an answer to a common human failing. It is not self-mortification because my actions are completely under my mind-control. Since anyone, including the Buddha and Arahats who have gained Control of Greed, Anger, Sex, and Pride (the attributes of Nirvana) can still suffer "physical hardships such as pain, body injury and even death". My quest was to find the cause and the remedy. I found it to be Jealousy of another individual who is bent on destroying one whom he thought is trying to outdo him: just as Indra trying to destroy the rishi. And there is no remedy even for Buddha who could not prevent others trying to assassinate him!

Inset pix shows the celestial dancer Menaka, an Apsara (not a dvi), sent by Hindu-Indra who succeeded in seducing the Rishi Vishvamitra {w~a.mt~ta} (a former human king). Realizing that sex had destroyed his powers, the Rishi rejected both the mother and child. The Rishi after more yogic practice austerities regained not only his original powers but more. Only then the Hindu-Indra made peace with him, pretending that he had sent Menaka just to test the Rishi. However, now that the Rishi had regained his powers, he would "promote" him to the status of a Brahma or Brahmarishi .

UKT comment 150624: What a trickster the heavenly Hindu-king is, so unlike his Buddhist counter-part, Sakka, who is wholly devoted to "Truth" {ic~sa}. "Speaking the Truth" {ic~sa hso hkyn:} is equal to calling up unseen powers - the basis of many Parittas in Burmese-Buddhism, such as the Burmese-version of Inguli-mala { n~gu.li.ma-la.} Sutta. I remember a time when I told the story of Inguli-mala to an Indian-Buddhist, who refer the Buddhist-saint as "Angulimala". He failed to grasp the "power of {ic~sa hso hkyn:}" .

Vishvamitra {w~a.mt~ta} is said to have founded the Gayatri Mantra. It is a powerful mantra - not just a poem. I opine that these mantras were of Tib-Bur origin which were taken over by Brahmin-Poannars {braah~ma.Na. poaN~Na:} (Indo-Europeans or IE) and {i-wa.gen:wn poaN~Na:} (Dravadians). These writers made the Mantras just songs or hymns to praise their male dva-gods.

See Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vishvamitra 150529
from which I have taken the following excerpt:
On the right is the entry from J. Dawson- Classical Dictionary of Hindu Myth, ... 1888, reprd in 2013 in pdf, p054, pdf 100/464, in TIL HD-PDF Library and bkp in SD-PDF Library:
JDawson-ClassiDictHinduMyth<>  Bkp> (link chk 170109)

" In the Buddhist Vinaya Pitaka of the Mahavagga (I.245) [7] section the Buddha pays respect to Vishwamitra by declaring that the Veda in its true form * was discovered by declared to the Vedic rishis "Atthako, Vmako, Vmadevo, Vessmitto {w~a.mt~ta}, Yamataggi, Angiras, Bhradvjo, Vsettho, Kassapo, and Bhagu {Ba.gu.} [8] and because that true Veda was altered by some priests he - the Buddha - refused to pay homage to the altered version. [9] "

* UKT 150622: Time before the male-gods worshipping, Skt speaking {braah~ma.Na. poaN~Na:}, came into India (through north-western frontier), and {i-wa.gen:wn poaN~Na:} from the south. The indigenous peoples were worshipping Mother Goddesses. The Vedic rishis were not Hindus - they were Tib-Bur speaking indigenous peoples of Bronze Age (ca 3000 - 2000 BC based on info in Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bronze_Age_India 150622) .

"declared to" implies the existence of a Creator "declaring secrets to his chosen {poaN~Na:}". Since, I as a Theravada Buddhist with modern scientific views cannot accept it, I have struck it out, and have inserted "was discovered" by human rishis.

Go online and watch the following videos, or watch my downloaded ones in mp4 .
Bhrigu Rishi bhṛgu aka Bhagu {Ba.gu. ra..} kicks Vishnu Dva-god (spelling according to UTM-PDMD200) in the chest
  - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0bw50p2lGNE 150531 , Bhrigu-Laxmi-Vishnu<> (link chk 170108)
Bhrigu Rishi bhṛgu aka Bhagu {Ba.gu. ra..} also curses Shiva Dva-god {i-wa. nt} for wasting his time enjoying sensual pleasures together with his wife, Parvati, in his home Mount Kailash {k-la-a.} कैलाश kailāśa*, instead of looking after the human-world
  - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=U4XJGBkOQxI 170107, Bhrigu-Parvati-Shiva<>  (link chk 170108)
   *It is said that in Apte Sanskrit-English Dictionary, we find two entries: कैलासः and केलासः
See: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mount_Kailash 170107

At present (170103), I have not come across any source how Bhrigu Rishi came to have the "power" to visit the Dva Loka (heaven), I have already come across the story of Vessmitto Rishi , and how Indra dva had tried to destroy his power acquired through yogic practices.

The story of Rishi Vishvamitra who eventually discovered and wrote the Gayatri Mantra recorded in Rig Veda is such a story. See Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vishvamitra 140403 . The name Rishi Vishvamitra is Vessamitta   {w~a.mt~ta.} {Bo:tau ra..}. The second word is Bur-Myan word for 'grand-sire-rishi'. The Burmese Buddhists interpret the story differently from the Hindus. The mantra has its equivalent in the Mora Paritta - the Peacock Sutra.

Gautama Buddha has respect for the ancient Vedic Rishis such as Vishvamitra. In Vinaya Pitaka fo the Mahavagga section the Buddha paid respect to them: "Atthaka, Vmaka, Vmadeva, Vessmitta, Yamataggi, Aṅgirasa, Bhradvga, Vsettha, Kassapo, and Bhagu" . The Buddha rejected the later "rishis" who were Hindu protagonists who tried to alter the Rig Vda by adding what they called the ancient texts of Vishnu and Siva.

UKT 170107:
Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jamadagni 170107 states:
"In the Buddhist Vinaya Pitaka section of the Mahavagga (I.245) [5] the Buddha pays respect to Jamadagni by declaring that the Vedas in their true form were revealed to the original Vedic rishis, including Jamadagni. [6] [7] "
fn06. P. 245 The Vinaya piṭakaṃ: one of the principle Buddhist holy scriptures ..., Volume 1 edited by Hermann Oldenberg
fn07. The Vinaya Pitaka's section Anguttara Nikaya: Panchaka Nipata, P. 44 The legends and theories of the Buddhists, compared with history and science By Robert Spence Hardy

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rigveda 150528

The Rigveda ऋग्वेद ṛgveda, a compound of ṛc "praise, verse" [1] and veda "knowledge") is an ancient Indian sacred collection of Vedic Sanskrit hymns. [2] It is counted among the four canonical sacred texts (śruti) of Hinduism known as the Vedas. [note 1]

It is one of the oldest extant texts in any Indo-European language. [3] Philological and linguistic evidence indicate that the Rigveda was composed in the north-western region of the Indian subcontinent, most likely between c. 15001200 BCE, [4] [5] [6] though a wider approximation of c. 17001100 BCE has also been given. [7] [8] [note 2]

The Rigveda contains several mythological and poetical accounts of the origin of the world, hymns praising the gods, and ancient prayers for life, prosperity, etc. [9] Some of its verses are still recited as Hindu prayers, at religious functions and other occasions, making it probably the world's oldest religious texts in continued use. [10]

---------- from older text

- UKT 140124, 140404, 170109:

The above group of Vedic rishis are mentioned in the Buddhist texts given below. The downloaded pdf are in TIL library. However, I still need to read through them to find the above rishis.
#1. http://ia700406.us.archive.org/35/items/vinayatexts01davi/vinayatexts01davi_bw.pdf 140404
   - not available on 170104
#2. http://ia600409.us.archive.org/31/items/vinayatexts02davi/vinayatexts02davi_bw.pdf 140404
   - source damaged and could not be saved. Source could still be opened online on 170103
#3. http://ia600401.us.archive.org/1/items/vinayatexts03davi/vinayatexts03davi_bw.pdf 140404
  - source damaged and could not be opened on 170108
#4. http://archive.org/stream/bookofdiscipline14hornuoft/bookofdiscipline14hornuoft_djvu.txt 140303

At present, #1 to #3 is by T. W. Rhys Davids, and, Herman Oldenberg (joint tr): Vinaya texts, Oxford, The Clarendon press 1881 are lost in the TIL Library. They probably books by Sacred Books, edited by Max Mullar, I will have to go through my collection.

#4 is by I. B. HORNER, M.A. Associate of Newnham College, Cambridge, 1951 .
- https://ia802700.us.archive.org/2/items/bookofdiscipline14hornuoft/bookofdiscipline14hornuoft.pdf 170104
See downloaded in TIL HD-PDF-Library & SD-PDF-Library:
- IBHorner-Mahavagga-1951<> / Bkp<> (link chk 170105)
Note: In reproducing this excerpt, I have given the footnotes, citing the page number. I have used this style also in F. Edgerton, Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Grammar and Dictionary .
Near the end of p336, and on p337, it is stated that:

Then the Lord, walking on tour, (fn336-08) in due course arrived at Āpaṇa. (fn336-09) The matted hair Keniya (fn336-10) heard : " Verily, (p336end-p337begin)

fn336-08: From here to the end of || 5 ||, cf. Sn. 102 ff. = M. ii 146 ff.
fn336-09: This is called a market town, nigamma, of Anga at S. v 225 ; a market town of Anguttarāpa at Sn. 103, M. i 359, 447. Āpaṇa was so named because it had a quantity of shops, SnA. ii. 440, MA. iii 37.
fn336-10: Spelt Keṇiya at Sn. p103 , MA. iii. 399, he was a very wealthy (mahāsāla ) brahmin who became a jaṭila (matted hair) ascetic so as to protect his wealth, and he was also the protector of five thousand families ; but although he wore the yellow robes by day, by night he indulged in pleasures of the senses. At DA. i 270 he is given as an example, among eight types ascetics, of the type who supports wife and children (sa-puttabhāriya ). See also DhA i. 323, UdA. 241.  

35.ɪ3] MAHAVAGGA VI 337
the recluse Gotama, the son of the Sakyans, who has gone forth from a Sakyan family, has reached Āpana and is staying in Āpana. A lovely reputation (fn337-01) has gone forth concerning the Lord Gotama, thus : ... He explains with the spirit and the letter the Brahma-faring completely fulfilled and wholly pure. Good indeed it were to see perfected ones like this."  Then it occurred to Keniya the matted hair ascetic : " Now, what could I get conveyed to the recluse Gotama ? " || ɪ ||

Then it occurred to Keniya the matted hair ascetic : " Now, those who were (fn337-02) formerly seers of the brahmins, makers of mantras, (fn337-03) preservers of mantras, whose ancient mantras as sung, taught, (fn337-04) and composed the brahmins of to-day still sing, still speak ; they still speak what was spoken, they still teach what was taught, that is to say (by) Aṭṭhaka, (fn337-05) Vamaka, (fn337-06) Vamadeva, (fn337-07) Vessamitta, Yamataggi, (fn337-08) Angirasa, Bharadvaja, Vasettha, Kassapa, (fn337-09) Bhagu   these abstaining from food at night, restrained from eating at the wrong time, (fn337-10) (yet) consented to such things as drinks. || 2 ||

" The recluse Gotama also abstains from food at night and is restrained from eating at the wrong time (fn337-11) ; the recluse Gotama also is worthy (fn337-12) to consent to such things as drinks," and having had abundant drinks prepared, having had them taken on carrying-poles, (fn337-12) he approached the Lord ; having approached, he exchanged greetings with the Lord ; having exchanged greetings of friendliness and courtesy with the Lord, he stood at a respectful distance. As he was standing at a respectful distance, Keniya the matted hair ascetic spoke thus ( p337end-p338begin)

fn337-01: as above p332.
fn337-02: Down to the name Bhagu = D. i. 104, 238, 242 ; A. iii. 224, 229 ; M. ii. 169, 200.
fn337-03: I.e. the Vedas.
fn337-04: pavutta , explained at DA. 273 as "spoken for others," taught (vācita , made to speak).
fn337-05: On the names of these ṛṣis or seers , see Vin. Texts  ii. 130, n. 3. Aṭṭhaka is usually identified with Aṣṭka  mentioned as author of RV. X. 104.
fn337-06: C.f. RV. X. 99.
fn337-07: C.f. RV. IV. 26.
fn337-08: Under Jamadagni in Vedic Index he is connected with RV. III. 62, 18; VIII. 101, 8 ; IX. 62, 24 ; 65, 25.
fn337-09: C.f. RV. IX, 114, 2.
fn337-10: "Wrong time" for eating defined at Vin. iv. 86 as "after noon has passed until sunrise".
fn337-11: C.f. D. i. 5.
fn337-12: arahati samaṇo pi Gotamo  The meaning is that he is worthy enough to confer a boon on the giver of things which he consents to accept.
fn337-13: kāja, c.f. M. iii. 148

to the Lord "Let the revered Gotama accept drink from me."

"Well then, Keniya, give it to the monks. The monks being scrupulous, did not accept it. (The Lord said:) "Accept it, monks, make use of it." || 3 ||

... ... ...

Above, I have said that from Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vishvamitra 140403 , I got the Pali name of Rishi Vishvamitra as Vessamitta   {w~a.mt~ta.} {Bo:tau ra..}. The second rishi name I got is from Shree Maharishi Bhrigu Ashram, a Hindu website, http://www.bhriguashram.org/ver3/buddha.php 140304. The website gives the story of Buddha and his Father , which essentially states that though the son and father are so genetically near, yet spiritually the distance between them is very far - infinite.

The Burmese-Buddhist aim is to gain the ultimate knowledge to escape from the Samsara rather than to control the celestial beings and make oneself the Universal Monarch. Since even the most powerful Rishi Vishvamitra has to die and still be trapped in the Samsara, the aim is to escape from the clutches of Anger, Greed, Sex and Pride or the instruments of the Samsara.

Rig Veda {iRaiz-b-da.} was probably a religious text of the original inhabitants of India - the Tib-Bur speakers who hold that the inhabitants of the Three worlds, the celestial (sky), the earth, and the ocean are equal in potential and a knowledgeable human being such as a Buddha can have more power than the dva-gods. This idea was taken over by Brahmin-Poannars {braah~ma.Na. poaN~Na:} (Indo-Europeans or IE), and {i-wa.gen:wn poaN~Na:} (Dravadians), who now claim it as their own.

The Theravada Myanmar Buddhist idea of the Three Worlds is not appreciated by the English reading global public, in which even the Creator God (even if where there were one) is counted as a mere inhabitant still subject to age, decay and death. Listen to the idea being summarised in a song: {t:Bon-mha.}, a favorite song (in Burmese) of my father U Tun Pe :
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yzqEGnn4tfY 140209
I still have to come up with an English translation of the song. -- UKT 140404

Since the word "vda" means 'knowledge' there are texts which are mere "songs" to please the dva-gods. This collection of songs extol the virtues of the king (Indra) - the father figure, his messenger (Agni), and the queen (Soma) - mother figure to sooth the troubles of her children. Soma is now interpreted as the tranquilizer, an alcoholic drink or even a opiate. Other entities are worshipped for favours, or simply out of fear.

There are also other vdas more useful to the humans: on language, sciences and medicine, and of course the science or art of forecasting the weather and even the future of human beings.

For me , who is not a Hindu (Hindus believe in Atta - an axiom), but a Theravada-Buddhist (who have no use of axioms as religion), and a down-to-earth scientist (the Skeptical Chemist), the other vdas are more useful. For these refer to Vdanga in Dictionary of Pali-derived words (in Bur-Myan) by U Tun Myint, Univ. of Rangoon Press, 1968, (in Bur-Myan), p302. See also p.201.

In Esoteric Bur-Myan Buddhist term, Rig Vda is the collection of mantras which are to be recited with a concentrated mind while, for example in writing a rune or an {in:}.

{n: hsn wn: si: rwit hso . Ga-hta: mya:}

The mantras are not just "joyous" songs to be accompanied by music.

It should also be noted that the early Europeans, who were studying Sanskrit and Pali texts could comprehend Rig Veda as a collection of hymns because of their Christian background. However they could not understand the Theravada Buddhism.

Professor Max Muller had said: "The religion of Buddha, was made for a madhouse."
See the downloaded Buddha and Early Buddhism - by Authur Lillie, 1881, in TIL HD-PDF Library and backup in TIL SD-PDF Library:
- ALillie-BuddhaEarlyBuddhism<> Bkp<> (link chk 170105)

Read Chapter 01 of the above book: The Religion of Rishi, p001-012.

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rigveda 140124

 The Rigveda , ऋग्वेद = ऋ ग ् व े द ṛgveda, a compound of ṛc "praise, verse" [1] and veda "knowledge") is an ancient Indian sacred collection of Vedic Sanskrit hymns. [2] [UKT ]

UKT 140124: ग {ga.} is probably a mistake. It should have been ज {za.}. The mistake probably arises out of the old transliterations as is given by Macdonell, where ज {za.} is given as g .

The Vdic hymns are of two distinct forms of religions: the religion of the Rishi (prophet) and the religion of the Poannar {poaN~Na:} (priest). Buddha rejected the works of the latter. Moreover, I opine that the old Rishis were Tibeto-Burman speakers of the Bronze Age and that the {poaN~Na:} were the priests of the invaders with iron weapons - the Indo-Europeans. They portrayed themselves as the highest caste - the chosen of the Creator, and the conquered races as the servants whose fate is to serve them - the Sudras. They wrote what they claimed to be old treatises to support their claims.

It is counted among the four canonical sacred texts (śruti) of Hinduism known as the Vedas. [3] Some of its verses are still recited as Hindu prayers, at religious functions and other occasions, putting these as the world's oldest religious texts in continued use. [4] The Rigveda contains several mythological and poetical accounts of the origin of the world, hymns praising the gods, and ancient prayers for life, prosperity, etc. [5]

UKT 140124: When the Rig Vda was "written", when the indigenous population were Tib-Bur speakers, and long before Panini codified the language into Classical Sanskrit. The language was therefore Vedic - not Sanskrit as the Brahmin-Poannas would like to claim. And I would have to claim that it is not IE (Indo-European) in any sense.

It is one of the oldest extant texts in any Indo-European language. Philological and linguistic evidence indicate that the Rigveda was composed in the north-western region of the Indian subcontinent, roughly between 17001100 BC [6] (the early Vedic period). There are strong linguistic and cultural similarities with the early Iranian Avesta, deriving from the Proto-Indo-Iranian times, often associated with the early Andronovo and Sintashta-Petrovka cultures of c. 2200 1600 BC.

UKT: more in the Wikipedia article.

Now that we know something of the Religion of the Rishi, let's see what is the Religion of the Rig Vda itself. I refer to A Vedic Reader for Students by A A Macdonell, 1917, downloaded into TIL HD-PDF Library and its backup in TIL SD-PDF Libray. - AAMacdonell-VedaReader<>  Bkp<> (link chk 170109)

In the Introduction, 7. Religion of the Rigveda , we read: "... The gods are usually stated in the RV, to be thirty-three in number, being divided into three groups of eleven distributed in earth, air, and heaven (UKT 170109: I interpret "heaven" as the 'Celestial Sphere' based on my knowledge of Hindu Astrology, and as the 'Dva Loka' based on Buddhist Cosmology), the three divisions of the Universe. Troops of deities, such as the Maruts, are of course not included in this number. The gods were believed to have had a beginning. But they were not thought to have all come into being at the same time; for the RV, occasionally refers to earlier gods, and certain deities are described as the offspring of others. That they were considered to have been originally mortal is implied in the statement that they acquired immortality by drinking Soma or by receiving it as a gift from Agni and Savitṛ."


Excerpt from Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vedas 140126

The various Indian philosophies and sects have taken differing positions on the Vedas. Schools of Indian philosophy which cite the Vedas as their scriptural authority are classified as "orthodox" (āstika). Other traditions, notably Buddhism and Jainism, which did not regard the Vedas as authorities are referred to by traditional Hindu texts as "heterodox" or "non-orthodox" (nāstika) schools.[10] [11] In addition to Buddhism and Jainism, Sikhism [12] [13] and Brahmoism, [14] many non-Brahmin Hindus in South India [15] do not accept the authority of the Vedas. Certain South Indian Brahmin communities such as Iyengars consider the Tamil Divya Prabandham or writing of the Alvar saints as equivalent to the Vedas. [16]

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