Update: 2017-01-01 05:27 PM -0500

TIL

A Practical Sanskrit Dictionary

p055-1.htm

by A. A. Macdonell, 1893,
http://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/scans/MDScan/index.php?sfx=jpg 1929.
Nataraj ed., 1st in 2006, 2012

Edited, with additions from Pali sources, by U Kyaw Tun (UKT) (M.S., I.P.S.T., USA) and staff of Tun Institute of Learning (TIL) . Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone. Prepared for students and staff of TIL  Computing and Language Center, Yangon, MYANMAR :  http://www.tuninst.net , www.romabama.blogspot.com

MC-indx.htm | Top
MCv2pp-indx.htm

Contents of this page

Remember the proper spelling is with vowel-letter {U.} उ in both Skt and Pali.
short vowel, 1 blnk, उ u = {u.} / {U.}
long vowel, 2 blnk,  ऊ ū = {u} / {U}-Bur , {U}-Mon

{u.Ba.}/ {U.Ba.} - cont
  p055-1c1
{u.ma.}/ {U.ma.} 

  Semi-consonants aka semivowels
{u.ra.}/ {U.ra.}
  p055-1c2
{ur} / {ur~} : repha
{u.la.}/ {U.la.}
{ul} / {ul~}
{u.wa.}/ {U.wa.}

  Dental-Fricatives
{u.sha.}/ {U.sha.} 
  p055-1c3
{u.Sa.}/  {U.Sa.} : Skt-Dev
{u.a.}/ {U.a.} : Pal-Myan
{u.ha.}/ {U.ha.} 

Orphan -
उल्लोल [ ul-lola ]
- a. [ud + lola] violently agitated, surging.

UKT notes :

Ghost and ghost
Kushan Empire : Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit (BHS)
Goddess Parvati : a Tib-Burman Mother-goddess who became Shiva-dva's wife
Urvashi - the Apsara : "one who controls the heart"
Usha : Vdic goddess - the Dawn

 

Contents of this page

{u.Ba.}/ {U.Ba.} - cont

p055-1c1

p055-1c1-b00

उभय [ ubh-ya ]
- a. () sg. & pl. both; -kma, a. desirous of both; -guna, a. having both qualities; -kakravartin, a. ruling both worlds.

 

p055-1c1-b01

उभयतस् [ ubhay-tas ]
- ad. from or on both sides, of (ac. or g.); in both cases; (h)-sasya, a. bearing crops at both seasons; -tas-tkshna, a. sharp at both ends; -to-dant, a. having two rows of teeth; ()to-mukha, having a spout on both sides (vessel).

 

p055-1c1-b02

उभयत्र [ ubhay-tra ]
- ad. in both places; in both cases; -th, ad. in both ways or cases.

 

p055-1c1-b03

उभयप्राप्ति [ ubhaya-prpti ]
- a. validity in both cases (gr.); a. valid in both cases; -vetana, a. receiving wages from both, serving two masters; -sntaka, a. having bathed after both (i.e. his apprenticeship and his vow of chastity).

 

p055-1c1-b04

उभया [ ubhay ]
- ad. in both ways.

 

p055-1c1-b05

उभयात्मक [ ubhaya‿tmaka ]
- a. belonging to both sets.

 

p055-1c1-b06

उभयाद [ ubhay-da ]
- a. having two rows of teeth.

 

p055-1c1-b07

उभयावृत्ति [ ubhaya‿vritti ]
- f. recurrence of words identical in form and meaning.

 

Contents of this page

{u.ma.}/ {U.ma.} 

p055-1c1-b08

उमा [ m ]
- f. flax; N. of Siva's wife (Prvat, Durg); -ntha, m. husband of Um, Siva; -pati, -‿sa, m. id.

See my note on the name of Goddess Prvat

( end of old p055-1.htm )

Contents of this page

 

Semi-consonants aka semivowels

UKT 161231: Many authors call the phonemes of row#6 and row#7 as semivowels. Example: Ven. Narada Thera (1898-1983) in his An Elementary Pali Grammar course (in English), p010 Table of Contents. See: TIL HD-Library and TIL SD-Library
- NaradaLanka-Pali<> / bkp<> (link chk 161231)
However, since these phonemes are presented in the consonant table, I prefer to call them semi-consonants.

{u.ra.}/ {U.ra.} 

p055-1c1-b09

उरःकपाट [ urah-kapta ]
- m. n. broad chest; -pratipesham, abs. breast pressing breast.

 

p055-1c1-b10

उरग [ ur-ga ]
- m. [breast-goer], snake: -‿asana, m. snake-eater, ep. of Garuda.

UKT 140117: There are two kinds of large snakes common to our parts of the world: the non-poisonous constrictors aka pythons, and poisonous cobras. Because of reference to word [breast-goer] meaning crushing the chest of the victim, I conclude that it is the python. Garuda is a [mythical] large bird of prey which prey on all kinds of snakes including the semi-divine Naga. See also Roc.
- n. . A mythical bird of prey having enormous size and strength. [Arabic from Persian rukh] - AHTD

 

p055-1c1-b11

उरगास्य [ uraga‿sya ]
- n. (snake-face), kind of spade.

 

p055-1c1-b12

उरंग uram-ga, ˚म [ -ma ]
- m. [breast-goer], snake.

 

p055-1c1-b13

उरण [ r-ana ], उरभ्र [ ura-bhra ]
- m. ram; lamb.

 

p055-1c1-b14

[urar-kri]
- spread out; receive; assume, display; admit; begin with (ac.)

 

p055-1c1-b15

उरश््छद [ uras-khada ]
- m. cuirass.

cuirass
- n. 1. a. A piece of armor for protecting the breast and back.  b. The breastplate alone. -- AHTD
See my note on Kushan Empire कुषाण राजवंश {ku.Sa-Na.}

 

p055-1c1-b16

उरस् [ r-as ]
- n. breast: - dh, (.) wear on the breast; -ka, a. -breasted, -chested (--).

 

p055-1c1-b17

उरःसूत्रिका [ urah-strik ]
- f. pearl necklace worn on the breast.

 

p055-1c1-b18

उरा [ r- ]
- f. sheep.

 

p055-1c1-b19

[ur-kri ]
- receive; place at one's disposal, give up; promise; begin with

 

p055-1c1-b20

उरु [ ur- ]
= उ र ु
- a. (f. id. or urv&isharp;) wide, broad; spacious, extensive; great (also fig.); n. distance; free space; ad. far; far away.

 

p055-1c1-b21

उरुक्रम [ uru-kram ]
- a. far-striding; -gy, id.; far-extending; m. ep. of Vishnu; -vikrama, a. of great courage; -vykas, a. capacious; -vyak, a. id.; extensive: f. urk&isharp;, earth; -smsa, a. praising aloud; far-ruling.

 

p055-1c1-b22

उरुष्य [ uru-shy ]
- den. P. make for the distance; escape from (ac.); rescue or protect from (ab.).

 

p055-1c1-b23

[urka]
- m. = ulka, owl

 

p055-1c1-b24

उरूणस [ ur-nas ]
- a. broad-nosed.

 

p055-1c1-b25

उरोज [ uro-ga ]
- m. female breast; -vidram, abs. while his breast was lacerated.

 

Contents of this page

p055-1c2

{ur} / {ur~} : repha

p055-1c2-b00

उर्वरा [ urvr ]
- f. corn-field; earth.

UKT 110815, 140119: Based on the fact that "corn-on-cob" was developed by American Indians, we must conclude that it was unknown in the East, and so it must be another kind of cereal .
See also http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maize 140119

 

p055-1c2-b01

उर्वरित [ urvarita ]
- pp. left over, escaped, saved.

 

p055-1c2-b02

उर्वशी [ ur-vs- ]
- f. ardour, passion, fervent desire; N. of an Apsaras.

See my note on Apsara Urvasi : "one who controls the heart"

 

p055-1c2-b03

उर्विया [ urviy ]
- ad. far, far and wide.

 

p055-1c2-b04

उर्वी [ urv&isharp; ]
- f. earth; du. heaven and earth: pl. w. shash, the six terrestrial spaces (four quarters, above & below; sometimes explained as heaven & earth, day & night, water & plants).

UKT 140120: The English word <heaven>, the abode of the Abrahamic creator (JHVH, God, Allah), is a source of misunderstanding in BEPS languages, simply because the speakers are of two opposing philosophies: Atta & Anatta. This is my underlying theme in the study of BEPS: a language must be free of religion. Thus to say Sanskrit to be the holy language of Hinduism, and Pali as the holy language of Theravada Buddhism is simply wrong. I must admit before my study of BEPS, I had held the view that Pali is the holy language of Theravada Buddhism. Thus, in the meanings given the word <heaven> should be replaced by <sky> or <Space above the Earth>.

p055-1c2-b05

उर्वीतल [ urv-tala ]
- n. surface of the earth, earth; -dhara, m. mountain; -pati, m. king; -bhug, m. id.; -bhrit, m. mountain; -ruha, a. sprung from the earth; m. tree.

 

Contents of this page

{u.la.}/ / {U.la.}

p055-1c2-b06

उलूक [ lka ]
- m. owl; ep. of Indra: pl. N. of a people.

 

p055-1c2-b07

उलूखल [ ul&usharp;khala ]
- n. mortar: -musala, n. du. mortar and pestle; i-ka, a. using as a mortar (--).

 

p055-1c2-b08

[ulpa]
- m. a plant

 

Contents of this page

{ul} / {ul~}

p055-1c2-b09

उल्का [ ulk ]
- f. meteor; firebrand, torch; -mukha, m. kind of spectre [aka specter].

specter n. . A ghostly apparition; a phantom. . A haunting or disturbing image or prospect: the terrible specter of nuclear war. -- AHTD
See my note on the English words "Ghost and ghost"

 

p055-1c2-b10

उल्ब [ lba ]
- (m.) n. caul; womb.

 

p055-1c2-b11

उल्बण [ ulban ]
- a. excessive; extraordinary; abounding in, full of (-- or in.): -t, f. abst. ɴ.

 

p055-1c2-b12

उल्मुक [ lmuka ]
- n. firebrand.

 

p055-1c2-b13

उल्लङ्घन [ ul-laṅgh-ana ]
- n. overstepping; transgression, infringement; -anya, fp. to be infringed; -ya, fp. id.

 

p055-1c2-b14

उल्ललन [ ul-lalana ]
- a. swarming (bee).

 

p055-1c2-b15

उल्लसित [ul-las-ita], उल्लासित [ ul-lsita ]
- pp. √las.

 

p055-1c2-b16

उल्लाघ [ ul-lgha ]
- a. convalescent: -t, f. convalescence.

 

p055-1c2-b17

उल्लाघय [ ullgha-ya ]
- den. P. restore to life.

UKT 140120: The English phrase <restore to life> seems simple enough. However, it is not so in ancient beliefs such as Burmese, Egyptian, Indian, Tibetan, and even in Welsh. It is connected to the idea of "spirit", "ghost" (English), "bardo" (Tibetan), "Ka" (Egyptian), or, "{laip-pra} 'butter-fly' " (Burmese). A recently-dead body - brain activity fully stopped - can be re-animated by introduction of a foreign {laip-pra}' by a {waiz~za}, and by some {zau-gyi}. To every one around the dead person including his or her own spouse, it appears as a restoration to life , but it is not!. See the Story of Yogananda , in The Quarterly Oriental Magazine: review and register, Vol 1, March & June1824, p.71-
downloaded from books.google.ca/books?id=kA0-AAAAcAAJ  140103
PDF in TIL library - not online : The_Quarterly_Oriental_magazine_review_a.pdf (link chk 140102).

 

p055-1c2-b18

उल्लाप [ ul-lp-a ]
- m. abuse; -in, a. calling out; exclaiming.

 

p055-1c2-b19

उल्लास [ ul-ls-a ]
- m. appearance; growth; joy; -ana, n. flashing; -in, a. playing, skipping.

 

p055-1c2-b20

उल्लिखित [ ul-likh-ita ]
- pp. scratched, scraped.

 

p055-1c2-b21

उल्लिङ्गय [ ul-liṅga-ya ]
- den. P. infer by tokens.

 

p055-1c2-b22

उल्लुx{093c}ञ्चन [ ul-lukana ]
- n. pulling.

 

p055-1c2-b23

उल्लेख [ ul-lekh-a ]
- m. mention; description; -ana, a. painting, describing; n. scraping; mention; statement; -in, a. scraping = extending to; -ya, fp. to be scratched on or written down on (--).

 

p055-1c2-b24

उल्व ulva, ˚ण [ -na ]
- v. ulba, -na.

 

Contents of this page

{u.wa.}

p055-1c2-b25

उवाच [ u-vka ]
- pf. √vak.

 

p055-1c2-b26

उवास [ u-vsa ]
- pf. √vas, dwell.

( end of old p055-2.htm )

Contents of this page

Dental-Fricatives: Sibilants (hushser & hisser), and Thibilant (non-hissing)

UKT 140121: There are many more words using the hissing sounds, /ʃ/ & /s/, in Skt-Dev than in Pal-Myan, because the speakers of Skt-Dev cannot articulate the non-hissing sound, /θ/. Remember to refer to /ʃ/ as a husher, and /s/ as a hisser, and the hissing sounds as sibilants, and non-hissing sound as thibilant. In going from Skt-Dev to Pal-Myan, based on underlying meanings, many hushers, and almost all hissers are changed into thibilants. However, always keep in mind the possibility of exchange with the Palatal-stops. Sibilants and Thibilant are Dental-fricatives.

{u.sha.}/ {U.sha.}

p055-1c2-b27

उशत् [ us-t ]
- pr. pt. (√vas), willing, eager.

 

p055-1c2-b28

उशनस् [ us-n-as ]
- m. (nm. ) N. of a Rishi; in C. identified with Sukra & the planet Venus.

 

p055-1c2-b29

उशना [ us-n ]
= उ श न ा --> {u.sha.na}
- (in.) ad. eagerly, joyously; swiftly.

 

p055-1c2-b30

उशब्द [ u-sabda ]
- m. the word u.

 

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p055-1c3

p055-1c3-b00

उशिज् [us-ig
- a. eager, ready, willing 

 

p055-1c3-b01

  उशीनर [ us-nara ]
- m. pl. N. of a people in Madhyadesa; sg. king of the Usnaras.

 

p055-1c3-b02

उशीर [us-ra]
- m. n. a fragrant root 

 

Contents of this page

{u.Sa.}/ {U.Sa.} 

UKT 140121, 161231: Be careful: in following it is {oaS} उष् , NOT {oash} . Using the transformation Sibilant-to-Thibilant, it becomes {OA}. Please reminded that I am on very dangerous ground in transformation and I may have to change them again and again.

{oaS} उष्  is the same as Bur-Myan astrological term {OAc} [UKT: 'an exalted planet'). It is usually used with the word {ka.ic} (MED2006-007). From the meanings given, {OAc} may not be the same as {OA}. Note: I have been out of touch with Astrology for many decades, and I need to refresh my knowledge.

 

p055-1c3-b03

उष् [ . ush ]
= उ ष ् --> {oaS} [sibilant-to-thibilant] -> {OA} : Mac <sh> is misleading
Skt: - . i.p. osha , ix. p. ush-n , burn (tr.); chastise; destroy. upa , prati , scorch -- Mac055c3
Pal: {U.a} - UHS-PMD0246
- - UHS-PMD0246
  UKT from UHS: {U.a} - f. scorch (may be due to external cause, or stomach burn), food (solid, nutritive)
*Pal: {OAc~sa.} - UHS-PMD0202
- - UHS-PMD0202
  UKT from UHS: {OAc~sa.} - mfn. high (elevation, position, exaltation)

 

p055-1c3-b04

उष् [ . sh ]
- f. (only g. sg. & ac. pl.) dawn.

 

p055-1c3-b05

उष [ sh-a ]
- a. eager, desirous.

 

p055-1c3-b06

उषर्बुध् [ ushar-bdh ]
= (उ ष र ्) (ब ु ध ्) -> {OASar}{OA} {boad}
- a. waking early.

 

p055-1c3-b07

उषस् usas [ ush-s ]
= उ ष स ् --> {u.sa} :
Skt: उषस् [ ush-s ] - f. dawn; Aurora; morning; evening-red (rarer); du. night and morning. -- Mac055c3
Skt: उषस्य uṣasya - adj. dawn - SpkSkt
Bur: {a.roaN} - n. dawn [Pal: {a.ru.Na.}] - MED2006-589

 

p055-1c3-b08

उषस्य [ ushas-ya ]
- a. sacred to Ushas.

See my note on Ushas : the Vdic goddess of dawn.

 

p055-1c3-b09

उषा [ ush- ]
- f. dawn, break of day.

 

p055-1c3-b10

उषासानक्ता [ ushs-nkt ]
- f. du. dawn and night.

 

p055-1c3-b11

उषित [ ush-ita ]
- pp. √ush and √vas, dwell; -itavya, fp. n. the night must be passed.

 

p055-1c3-b12

उषोजल [ usho-gala ]
- n. pl. dew; -devat, f. goddess of dawn; -rga, m. dawn.

UKT: Note the above term -devat used for the goddess of dawn. This is the work of later-day writers who would not designate her as a -dvi . See my note on Ushas : the Vdic goddess of dawn

p055-1c3-b13

[sh-tri ] (or -tr )
- m. ploughing bull

UKT 140121, 170101: Male cattle used for plowing or pulling heavy loads is usually castrated. It is known as "ox", whereas uncastrated male used as "stud for breeding" is "bull". Similarly, buffalos, camels used for plowing, and carrying heavy loads are castrated.

 

p055-1c3-b14

उष्ट्र [ ush-tra ]
- m., , f. buffalo; camel.

 

p055-1c3-b15

उष्ट्रिका [ ushtr-ik ]
- f. she-camel.

 

p055-1c3-b16

उष्ण [ ush-n ]
- a. hot, warm; deep (sigh): -m, ad. deeply (sigh); n. heat; hot season; -kara, m. sun; -kla, m. hot season; -kirana, m. sun; -t, f., -tva, n. heat; -ddhiti, -bhs, -rasmi, -ruki, m. sun; -vrana, n. umbrella; -samaya, m. hot season; -sparsa-vat, a. hot to the touch.

 

p055-1c3-b17

उष्णांशु [ ushna‿amsu ]
- m. (hot-rayed), sun.

 

p055-1c3-b18

उष्णालु [ ushna‿lu ]
- a. suffering from the heat.

 

p055-1c3-b19

उष्णिमन् [ ushn-i-man ]
- m. heat.

 

p055-1c3-b20

उष्णिह् [ ushnh ]
- f. (nm. k) a metre.

 

p055-1c3-b21

[usha-kri ]
- heat, warm

 

p055-1c3-b22

उष्णीष [ ushn&isharp;sha ]
- m. n. head-band, turban; -patta, m. id.

 

p055-1c3-b23

उष्णोदक [ ushna‿udaka ]
- n. warm water.

 

p055-1c3-b24

उष्मन् [ ush-man ]
- m. heat, warmth, ardour; hot moisture, vapour; -ya, ir. gd. = ushitv (√vas, dwell).

 

p055-1c3-b25

[us-r ]
- f. = ush-as

 

Contents of this page

{u.a.}/ {U.a.} 

p055-1c3-b26

उस्र [ us-r ]
= उ स ् र
- a. matutinal, bright; m. ray; bull.

matutinal - adj. formal . of or occurring in the morning, e.g. "his matutinal jog" -- Google

p055-1c3-b27

उस्रा [ us-r ]
- f. dawn, light of morn; cow; milk.

 

p055-1c3-b28

उस्रि [ s-ri ]
- f. morning; brightness, light.

 

p055-1c3-b29

उस्रिक [ usri-k ]
- m. little ox.

 

p055-1c3-b30

उस्रिय [ usr-ya ]
- a. reddish; coming from a bull; m. bull; , f. radiance, light; cow; milk and other products of the cow.

 

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{u.ha.}/ {U.ha.}

p055-1c3-b31

उह् [ UH ]
- v.  H.

 

p055-1c3-b32

उह्य [ uh-ya ]
- v. √vah.

(end of old p055-1c3.htm). It is also the end of entries on short {u.}.

Contents of this page

 

UKT notes

Ghost and ghost

-- UKT 140120

The English word <spectre>, spelt <specter> in American dialect, is specific for the "spirit of a dead person". It is usually confused with the word <ghost>, which had traditionally meant to be the "the spirit of a person living or dead".

When spelled with a capital letter <Ghost>, it meant the "Universal Spirit" as can be seen from the usage "God the Father, God the Son, and God the Holy Ghost". That was how, I as a child, was introduced to Christianity, by the Anglican (it was then known as "Church of England") community in Rangoon to which my own mother, Mary Lwai, had belonged.

My mother had been sent as a boarder to the Diocesan Girls School in Rangoon by her father who had his business office in Pegu. The School was exclusively set up by the English community in Rangoon by the English administrators headed by the British Governor himself. Only the children of the English, and very wealthy Chinese and Indians were admitted, specifically excluding the Burmese children. My mother's  principal was Miss Laughlin (sp?) whom my mother described as a "spinster".

When it was time for her to be baptised, after the death of her Chinese father and after the failure of his very lucrative Carpentry business with its head office in Pegu, her elders from her mother side had pulled her out. Yet, my mother continued to have close association with the Anglican community well into her age 40.

Soon after the WWII, I was sent to Silva Dale English Primary school, ran by the d'Silva sisters, Nancy & Annie, of Rangoon. I was given a Christian name, Harry Kyaw Tun. I used to accompany my mother's best friend, Mrs. Eva Rafael, to church every Sunday. Aunty Eva stayed with us at 221 Thompson Street, East Rangoon, for almost a year. We went to Anglican churches almost exclusively to the Cathedral (near Scott Market and Rangoon General Hospital), and sometimes to St. Michael Church (Kemmendine), and St. Banabas Church (East Rangoon). The Bishop was English from England, the service was in English. It is the  church in Rangoon to which the English officers of the Fourteenth Army came.

And when attended the Silva Dale school, I received my Bible lessons in English. Then the Trinity was "God the Father, God the Son, and God the Holy Ghost". Later when I read about the Crucifixion, in the passage referring to Jesus dying on the Cross, I had read "he gave up his ghost".

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ghost 140120

In traditional belief and fiction, a ghost (sometimes known as a spectre (British English) or specter (American English), phantom, apparition or spook) is the soul or spirit of a dead person or animal that can appear, in visible form or other manifestation, to the living. Descriptions of the apparition of ghosts vary widely from an invisible presence to translucent or barely visible wispy shapes, to realistic, lifelike visions. The deliberate attempt to contact the spirit of a deceased person is known as necromancy, or in spiritism as a sance.

The belief in manifestations of the spirits of the dead is widespread, dating back to animism or ancestor worship in pre-literate cultures [Wiki is wrong with Chinese - UKT]. Certain religious practices funeral rites, exorcisms, and some practices of spiritualism and ritual magic are specifically designed to rest the spirits of the dead. Ghosts are generally described as solitary essences that haunt particular locations, objects, or people they were associated with in life, though stories of phantom armies, ghost trains, phantom ships, and even ghost animals have also been recounted.[2][3]

UKT 140120: What about the Roman Ma'nes ? Based on my cursory study of Burmese beliefs on Nats {nt}, I have come to conclude that Ma'nes and Nats are of the same kind. The belief in {nt} was of Tib-Myan origin, and seems to have nothing to do with {d-va.} of Buddhism and Hinduism. To describe the Buddhist-Hindu entity, the compound {nt d-wa} is used. Different from them are {nt saim:} 'the green nats'. The Burmese "Treasure Guardians" seem to be the same as the Irish Leprechauns - the difference is the female Treasure guardian is a beautiful maiden who will co-habit with a human male who alone can see her and make him rich, whereas the Leprechauns are males, ugly and miserly.

UKT: More in the Wikipedia article.

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Kushan Empire : Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit (BHS)

- UKT 140117, 161229

The following is my conjecture of the pronunciation difference between Pal-Bur-Myan and Pal-Mon-Myan in Dental fricative thibilant /θ/ in row #6, and Palatal plosive-stops row #2 of the akshara table.

Listen to Mon-Myan
row #2 - bk-cndl-{sa.}-row<)) : Mon pronounce {sa.} as /{kya.}/
row #6 - bk-cndl-{ya.}-row<)) : Mon pronounce {a.} as /{Sa.}/
See Mon-Myan Language: Speech and Script
- spk-all-indx.htm (link chk 161230)

I had never heard of Bamiyan Buddha statues in Afghanistan (part of the old Kushan Empire {ku.Sa-Na.}) before the devout Muslims had destroyed them. A Indian friend of mine, a Jain now settled in Deep River, On., Canada, then asked me to demonstrate condemning the act. He was a community leader, and he promised me that he and his friends would join me. I then replied, as a material scientist and as a Theravada Buddhist, I am firm in my belief that there is always a time for material things to go. That is what I understand by "Impermanence" or Anatta. The statutes were built when Afghanistan was Buddhist by Mahayana Buddhists which uses Sanskrit.

See Video on the destruction of Bamiyan statutes uploaded by Sinhalese Buddhist on 2011Sep20
- http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xYYBlPWYb7Y

When the Chinese pilgrims came to India, they came through the Kushan Empire. In India they came to know both forms of Buddhism - Mahayana and Theravada. Mahayana had more appeal to them and when they took back the Buddhist texts with them to China, they were in a form of Sanskrit now known as Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit (BHS).
See: Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Grammar and Dictionary, by F. Edgerton
- BHS-indx.htm (link chk 161230)

The Buddhist texts, before the split into Mahayana and Theravada were in Magadhi-Asokan the language of the Magadha Mahajanapada "place where peoples of Magadha culture had set their foot", where Gautama Buddha was born and died. In this respect he was neither Indian nor Npali - as we would like to portray him in modern times. Please remember the culture of Magadha Mahajanapada has extended into northern Myanmarpr to the ancient kingdom of Tagaung {ta.kan: pr}. The audience of the Buddha was mainly the locals who spoke a Tib-Bur language, and not the "learned" Brahmanical Poannas {braah~ma.Na. poaN~Na:} whose language was Sanskrit - an IE (Indo-European language).

The ancient language of Magadha and the Pyu language of northern Myanmarpr were both Tibeto-Burman languages, and so the language used by the Buddhist monks of Myanmarpr must be similar in pronunciation to the language used by the Buddha, and in some cases similar in the meanings as well. This is attested by the fact of the presence of words beginning with the sound /ŋ/ such as for <fish> {nga} ङ (Nwari - the present-day blood relatives of the Buddha) or {nga:} (Bur-Myan). See:

#1. A Comparative and Etymological Dictionary of Nepali Language by R L Turner
- http://dsal.uchicago.edu/dictionaries/turner/ (link chk 160119)
Downloaded in TIL SD-Library Turner-NepalDict<> / bkp<> (link chk 161002)
Beginning from p001 you can proceed up to p654 (last page), you can start from p100, p200, p300 ...
On downloaded Turner-Nepali-Lang-Dictionary, p159, there are a few words beginning with {nga.}
#2. English to Nepal Bhasa Dictionary by Sabin Bhuju सबिन भुजु , 2005
- SBhuju-NewarDict<> / bkp<> (link chk 160914)
Being both Tib-Bur languages Bur-Myan and Newa-Dev have words beginning with {nga.} ङ,
e.g. for <fish> न्या ; ङा

My source for Npali (IE) with the IAST and Devanagari script.
- Kramer-NepalDict<> / bkp<> (link chk 160912)

The ancient language of Magadha was taken by Asoka missionaries to Sri Lanka where a new language known as Pali, to serve Theravada Buddhism, was born. Thus Pali of Sri Lanka has both the Tib-Bur roots as well as the Dravidian (Austro-Asiatic language group) roots of Sri Lanka. Then, this Pali was taken to the Mons of southern Myanmarpr. Thus the Pali of the Mons was similar to that of Sri Lanka. This is the reason why words beginning with the sound /ŋ/ are not found in Pal-Myan. See U Hoke Sein, Pali-Myan Dictionary p0378.

When King Anawrahta, drove out the Arigyis of northern Myanmarpr and brought in the Mon monks from the south, the Buddhist language of the north got mixed up with that of Sri Lanka. But still the Pali as spoken in Myanmarpr is Tib-Bur, whereas the Pal spoken by Mon-Myan is very much like Skt-Dev.

Then the Europeans - Germans, French, and English - came to Sri Lanka and studied both Sanskrit and Pali there. Since the European languages are IE, the International Pal that they produced came to have IE colouring as well. When the British overran Myanmarpr, the International Pali they brought with them came to be taught in the universities they established. Thus, in Myanmarpr you will find two varieties of Pali: Pal-Lat (International Pali) taught in the universities, and Pal-Myan (derived from Magadhi) used by the Buddhist monks and nuns. The Mon monks continued to use the Pali derived from Sri-Lanka.

Since it my conjecture that Pal-Myan (derived from Magadhi) is close in pronunciation to the Magadhi used by the Gautama Buddha, I use only the Pal-Myan with Dental fricative thibilant /θ/ pronounced as in English <thin>.

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kushan_Empire 140117
The transcriptions in Bur-Myan below are mine derived from aks-to-aks transforms.
-- UKT140119

The Kushan Empire कुषाण राजवंश, kuṣāṇ rājavaṃśa {ku.Sa-Na.}; BHS:guṣāṇa-vaṃśa {gu.a-Na.}[3]) was an empire in South Asia originally formed in the early 1st century CE under Kujula Kadphises in the territories of ancient Bactria around the Oxus River ( Amu Darya), and later based near Kabul, Afghanistan. [4] The Kushans spread from the Kabul River Valley to defeat other Central Asian tribes that had previously conquered parts of the northern central Iranian Plateau once ruled by the Parthians, and reached their peak under the Buddhist emperor Kanishka (127151), whose realm stretched from Turfan in the Tarim Basin to Pataliputra on the Gangetic Plain." [2]

The Kushans were one of five branches of the Yuezhi confederation, [5] [6] a possibly Tocharian, [7] Indo-European [8] nomadic people who had migrated from the Tarim Basin and settled in ancient Bactria. [6] They may also have been of Iranian origin. [9] [UKT ]

During the 1st and early 2nd centuries CE, the Kushans expanded across the northern parts of the Indian subcontinent at least as far as Saketa and Sarnath near Varanasi (Benares), where inscriptions have been found dating to the era of the Kushan emperor Kanishka, which began about 127 CE [10] [11] [12] Around 152 CE, Kanishka sent his armies north of the Karakoram mountains. They captured territories as far as Kashgar, Khotan and Yarkant, in the Tarim Basin of modern-day Xinjiang, China. A direct road from Gandhara to China was opened which remained under Kushan control for more than 100 years. The security offered by the Kushans encouraged travel across the Khunjerab Pass and facilitated the spread of Mahayana Buddhism to China.

The Kushan dynasty had diplomatic contacts with the Roman Empire, Sassanid Persia and Han China. While much philosophy, art, and science was created within its borders, the only textual record we have of the empire's history today comes from inscriptions and accounts in other languages, particularly Chinese.[13] The Kushan control fragmented into semi-independent kingdoms in the 3rd century CE, which fell to the Sassanians who targeted from the west. In the fourth century, the Guptas, an Indian dynasty also pressed from the east. The last of the Kushan and Sassanian kingdoms were eventually overwhelmed by the Hepthalites, another Indo-European people from the north. [2]

Kushans and [Mahayana] Buddhism

Between the mid-first century and the mid-third century, Buddhism extended to China and other Asian countries through the Silk Road. Due to the fact that most of the Kushans were Buddhist, their patronage of Buddhist institutions allowed them to grow as a commercial power. [43]

During the first century CE, Buddhist books were being produced and carried by monks, and their trader patrons. Also, monasteries were being established along these land routes that went from China and other parts of Asia. With the development of Buddhist books, it caused a new written language called Gandhara. Gandhara consists of eastern Afghanistan and northern Pakistan. Scholars are said to have found many Buddhist scrolls that contained the Gandhari language. [44]

Kanishka is renowned in Buddhist tradition for having convened a great Buddhist council in Kashmir. Along with the Indian emperors Ashoka and Harsha Vardhana and the Indo-Greek king Menander I (Milinda), Kanishka is considered by Buddhism as one of its greatest benefactors.

UKT 140121: Based on Wikipedia:
#1. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Second_Buddhist_council 140121
#2. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/...#Third...council_.28c._247_BCE.29 140121.
UKT 161229: I now have a new source on schisms in Buddhism in
Dissent and protest in the ancient Indian Buddhism
- by Ven. Tran Dong Nhat (b.1968), Univ. of Delhi, 2008. Ph.D. thesis,
- Buddh-sch-indx.htm (link chk 161229)

The split into various Buddhist groups began in the Second Council held in 4th BCE in Vaiśālī. It is also said that another council was in Pāṭaliputra. By the time the Third Council was held the split has become a reality, and several "Third Councils" were said to be held. There were at least two Fourth Councils, one in Kashmir in 78 AD by Mahayana, and the other in SriLanka in 1st century BCE by Theravada.

The Theravada school held the Fifth Council in Mandalay, Burma, in 1871 in the reign of King Mindon. SriLanka was already under the British who being Christian would not give royal patronage. Sad to say, Burma was in the process of being swallowed by the British. Two thirds of the country had already been swallowed by them, and Buddhism was under attack by the Christians. The Christians had turned a blind eye on Indian Muslims (their fellow Abrahamic religionists)  building their mosques right in the middle of the towns. It was totally in disregard to the Burmese Buddhist tradition of building pagodas and monasteries outside the populated areas. A lot of Buddhist monks from the British held territories had fled to the only remaining Buddhist area of northern Myanmarpr. King Mindon, sizing up the situation chose to convene the Fifth Council in his territory instead of preparing to resist the British militarily. As school children we were taught by the British-Burma educators and their faithful Burmese followers that it was the folly of the king not to prepare for war. And we had believed in their propaganda. Only now do I realize that it was the wisdom and civility on part of the king to strengthen the Theravada Buddhist faith before the British would try to destroy it once they had swallowed the whole country.

The reign of Huvishka corresponds to the first known epigraphic evidence of the Buddha Amitabha, on the bottom part of a 2nd-century statue which has been found in Govindo-Nagar, and now at the Mathura Museum. The statue is dated to "the 28th year of the reign of Huvishka", and dedicated to "Amitabha Buddha" by a family of merchants. There is also some evidence that Huvishka himself was a follower of Mahāyāna Buddhism. A Sanskrit manuscript fragment in the Schyen Collection describes Huvishka as one who has "set forth in the Mahāyāna." [45]

UKT: More in the Wikipedia article.

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Goddess Parvati

UKT 150525, 161228:

It is my opinion that Prvat, Durg, etc., were Mother Goddesses {m-tau} of the Tib-Bur tribes in the sub-continent of India extending into South-east Asia in the Bronze Age. Then, in the Iron Age, came the incursion of male-dominated warlike tribes. The {braah~ma.Na. poaN~Na:} 'priests of the intruders' wrote what they call the "Old Treatises" which are supposed to be "divine messages" from the Creator himself.

The Creator , an axiomatic character, is the Maha-Dva Brahma {brah~ma} [entirely different from Buddhist brahma] according to the Vaishnavite-Hindu sect, and Shiva {i-wa.} dva according to Shaivite-Hindu sect. These are males who took females dvis as wives. In this respect they are entirely different from YHVH and Allah who are not in human forms and thus asexual.

However, according to some Christian legends portrayed by artists, the Christian God who created Adam - the first man, and Eve - the first woman, complete with sexual organs, is an old man. Thus we cannot categorically say that the Christian God is asexual. Since there are no legends that say that God has a wife, the Christian God is entirely different from the Hindu Creator.

In these man-written Treatises the priests, the Poannars {poaN~Na:} married off the Mother Goddesses to their male dva-gods. The most prolific writers were the Shaivite priests who hold Siva-dva as the Creator ( http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shaivism 150525).

In the process the Shaivite priests {i.wa.geiN: poaN~Na:} made their Creator-god the most sex-hungry god by marrying almost all the native Mother Goddesses {m-tau}, and engaging in "perpetual" sexual-intercourse with Prvat - the idols of the naked performers doing their carnal act in the presence of equally naked goddesses. The Shiva's Lingum (penis) is perpetually stuck in Parvati's Yoni (virgina), and the human devotees must never let the idol become dry. These idols are worshipped in some Shaivite-Hindu temples. Because of such Axiomatic ideas, the meaning of उमा [ m ] is to be taken as - f. flax.

flax n. . a. Any of several plants of the genus Linum, especially the widely cultivated L. usitatissimum, having blue flowers, seeds that yield linseed oil [UKT: a semi-drying oil that polymerises into a hard surface used in paints], and slender stems from which a textile fiber is obtained. b. The fine, light-colored textile fiber obtained from this plant. c. Any of several similar plants. . Color A pale grayish yellow. -- AHTD

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Urvashi - the Apsara

- UKT 140119, 161230

Ever since childhood, I have heard of unseen beings such as dvas, asuras, nats, ghosts, and treasure-guardians as popular stories. As a child, elders had tried to frightened me into submission with these stories, which I as grow up, I learn to make fun of. The following is one funny picture of the {ta-wa.tin~pa} the "Kingdom of Thirty-three Comrades".

The average Bur-Myan man, especially the villagers of northern Myanmarpr, are not afraid of such unseen entities. They hold them, even the "dvas" as their "equals", and call (Skt) Trāyastriṃśa, (Pal-Myan) {ta-wa.tin~a} itself as the "village of the nats", as a phrasal noun, {ta-wa.tin~a nt.to. rwa} . This is not true of Mon-Myan of southern Myanmarpr. The Mon speakers, and even their descendants - who may not know a single word of Mon-Myan -  are mortally afraid of unseen entities.

Before going into the story of Urvashi, we should be clear about who the Apsara are. They are celestial female dancers in the employ of the Celestial king, with the title of Indra.

Note that the Hindu Indra / {ain~da.}, and Buddhist Sakka  {ak~ka.} are not the same with different characters: see A Dictionary of the Pali Language (in Pal-Dev) by R.C. Childers, 1874, reprint 2007 (available in TIL library in Research Center in Yangon), p.419

UKT 150519, 161201: Indra / {ain~da.} and Sakka  {ak~ka.} are not the same. See A Dictionary of the Pali Language (in Pal-Dev) by R.C. Childers 1874, p419.

We should also differentiate Sakka {ak~ka.} 'an axiomatic entity' from Sakya {a.kya.} aka {a.kya. a-ki-wn myo:nw} 'the relatives of Gaudama Buddha' who are human beings.

Indra / {ain~da.} is the King of Heaven in Hinduism, whereas Sakka  {ak~ka.} in Buddhism is just a king in a lower dva world known as Trāyastriṃśa or Tāvatiṃsa "The world "of the Thirty-three (dvas)" is a wide flat space on the top of Mount Sumeru {u.m-ru.} aka {mrn:mor-tan} 'a mythical mountain', filled with the gardens and palaces of the dvas. Mount Sumeru is the highest point of terra firma. Its ruler is Śakra devānām indra, "Śakra, lord of the devas".
See also Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Buddhist_cosmology 150519, 161201

Indra is not just one individual: there were many throughout the celestial history, but only one at a time. It appears that the Celestial world, made up of many celestial kingdoms, is populated by many different celestials beings with various divine attributes and powers. See Dva Sutta: The Dvas (about Jhāna), Tipitaka, Anguttara Nikaya, Nines, translated from Pali by Thanissaro Bhikkhu, 2011,
- http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka/an/an09/an09.039.than.html 140120

At one time the present Celestial world was ruled by the Asuras, who were deposed by a group of 33 dvas. Because of this power grab the present Celestial world is ruled by the Thirty-three Comrades, and is called the Kingdom of Thirty-three {ta-wa.tain~pa}. Other Celestial kingdoms have submitted to its rule, except one, the Asura Kingdom, still ruled by the old Asura who had been deposed by the Thirty-three Comrades.

The chief of the Thirty-Three comrades, not only had made himself the master of the central kingdom, but had the insolence to marry the daughters of the Asura king as his queens. What a sight it would make to see the proud dva generals from among the Thirty-three Comrades prostrate before the Asura-females, now queens of the dva king the Indra!.

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Urvashi 140120

Urvashi (Urvaśī, from Ur "heart" + Vashi "one who controls", "one who controls the heart") is an Apsara (nymph) in Hindu legend. She was a celestial maiden in Indra's court and was considered the most beautiful of all the Apsaras.

She became the wife of king Pururavas (Purūrvas, from purū +rvas "crying much or loudly"), an ancient chief of the lunar race. ShBr 11.5.1, and treated in Kalidasa's drama Vikramōrvaśīyam.

She is perennially youthful and infinitely charming but always elusive. [1] She is a source as much of delight as of dolour [Sorrow; grief - AHTD]. [2]

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Usha : the Vdic goddess

-- UKT 140121
There are many in these modern times not to know the joy of the Dawn. The air is cool and many stars, especially the more luminous ones are still visible. If there were the Planet Venus, it was a most beautiful sight to see - the Morning Star. Birds start to sing. I had many such experience as a child especially travelling in a boat in the Delta creeks. As a grown up travelling overland in northern Myanmarpr with my wife and children, the joy remains the same but with a different flavour. By that time, I could recognize many constellations, especially Orion, which I pointed to my wife and children, and told them the story the Greek Hunter, with his hunting dog following him.


UKT: If only there was the Morning Star, how perfect the picture would be!

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ushas 140121

Ushasउषस् uṣas 'dawn' [1] is a Vedic deity, and consequently a Hindu deity as well.

Sanskrit uṣas is an s-stem, i.e. the genitive case is uṣsas. It is from PIE * h₂ausos-, cognate to Greek Eos and Latin Aurora.

Ushas is an exalted goddess in the Rig Veda but less prominent in post-Rgvedic texts. She is often spoken of in the plural, "the Dawns." She is portrayed as warding off evil spirits of the night, and as a beautifully adorned young woman riding in a golden chariot on her path across the sky. Due to her color she is often identified with the reddish cows, and both are released by Indra from the Vala cave at the beginning of time. [2]

UKT 140122, 150527, 161231: What is <dawn> in Pal-Myan is a problem, though MED2006-589 gives it as {a.ru.Na.}. The inset is from FE-BHS-065c2

Excerpt from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ushas 150527
"Ushas उषस् uṣas 'dawn' a Vedic deity, and consequently a Hindu deity as well. ... Ushas is an exalted goddess in the Rig Veda but less prominent in post-Rigvedic texts. ... Twenty of the 1,028 hymns of the Rig Veda are dedicated to the Dawn ... The Goddess is still worshipped in the form of Chhathi Maiya in the popular festival Chhath Puja, held in the Indian states of Bihar and Uttar Pradesh, and the adjoining country of Nepal. ..."

We have seen
   उशनस् [ us-n-as ] - m. (nm. ) N. of a Rishi; in C. identified with Sukra & the planet Venus.
   - Macp055-1c2-b28.
The planet Venus aka the Friday-Planet Sukra (astrology) is associated with Asuras.

To the Brahmin-Poanna  {braah~ma.Na. poaN~Na:} , the Asuras are Demons, and we should expect them to drop the name in their post-Rigvedic which they were writing into modern times in which they pretended what they had written to be "Old Treatises", straight from the mouth of the Creator which they - the chosen ones only - could hear. I wonder what sort of "sound" waves their Creator - has used for the human-ears of the chosen ones to hear. No wonder Gautama Buddha, the ancient scientist who had to give up the views of Theists, held them to be heretics - short of liars. However in states of Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, and Nepal in which the old Tib-Bur roots have been retained, we can expect the Dawn planet, Venus, to be still venerated. See: Language problem of primitive Buddhism in LANGUAGE AND RELIGION - lang-relig-indx.htm > lang-probl.htm (link chk 161231)

Twenty of the 1028 hymns of the Rig Veda are dedicated to the Dawn: Book 7 has seven hymns, books 46 have two hymns each, and the younger books 1 and 10 have six and one respectively. In RV 6.64.1-2 (trans. Griffith) Ushas is invoked as follows:

1. The radiant Dawns have risen up for glory, in their white splendour like the waves of waters.
  She maketh paths all easy, fair to travel, and, rich, hath shown herself benign and friendly.

2. We see that thou art good: far shines thy lustre; thy beams, thy splendours have flown up to heaven.
  Decking thyself, thou makest bare thy bosom, shining in majesty, thou Goddess Morning.

In the "family books" of the Rig Veda (e.g. RV 6.64.5), Ushas is the divine daughter a div duhit   of Dyaus Pita "Sky Father." This is taken literally in the traditional genealogies of Hindu mythology.

In one recent Hindu interpretation, Sri Aurobindo in his Secret of the Veda, described Ushas as "the medium of the awakening, the activity and the growth of the other gods; she is the first condition of the Vedic realisation. By her increasing illumination the whole nature of man is clarified; through her [mankind] arrives at the Truth, through her he enjoys [Truth's] beatitude." [3]

UKT: End of Wiki article.

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