Update: 2016-12-27 06:43 PM -0500


A Practical Sanskrit Dictionary


by A. A. Macdonell, 1893,
http://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/scans/MDScan/index.php?sfx=jpg 1929.
Nataraj ed., 1st in 2006, 2012

Edited, with additions from Pali sources, by U Kyaw Tun (UKT) (M.S., I.P.S.T., USA) and staff of Tun Institute of Learning (TIL) . Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone. Prepared for students and staff of TIL  Computing and Language Center, Yangon, MYANMAR :  http://www.tuninst.net , www.romabama.blogspot.com

MC-indx.htm | Top

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Remember the proper spelling is with vowel-letter {U.} उ in both Skt and Pali.
short vowel, 1 blnk, उ u = {u.} / {U.}
long vowel, 2 blnk,  ऊ ū = {u} / {U}-Bur , {U}-Mon


/ {u.pa.wa.} - cont

{u.pa.sha.}/  {U.pa.sha.}
{u.pa.Sa.}/ {U.pa.Sa.} : {u.Sa.}/ {U.Sa.} - Skt-Dev transformed to Skt-Myan
{u.pa.a.}/ {U.pa.a.} - Pal-Myan 
{u.pa.ha.}/ {U.pa.ha.}

{u.pa}/  {U.pa-ha.}
{u.p}/ {U.p} 
{u.pau:}/ {U.pau:}

{u.ba.}/ {U.ba.}
{u.Ba.}/ {U.Ba.} 

UKT 140116, 161225: Don't forget the official representation of the three Dental fricatives in Bur-Myan, and Pal-Myan: IPA pronunciation of the three can be described as
#1. /ʃ/ - the Dental-fricative husher
#2. /s/ - the Dental-fricative hisser
#3. /θ/ - the Dental-fricative thibilant
official representation
/ʃ/  - the husher is {rha.} in the majority, but in some cases {hya.}
   It is represented in Romabama as {sha.}/{sh}
/s/ - As the onset phoneme the Dental-hisser {Sa.}/{S} is not differentiated
   from the Palatal-stop {sa.}/{c}. They are differentiated only in the coda as: {S} and {c.}.
/θ/ - the thibilant {a.}/{} does not have a trace of either a hushing or a hissing sound
Romabama representation
/ʃ/  - the husher is {sha.}. It is derived from {Sa.ha.hto:}. Its origin is Dental-fricative
  {Sa.}/{S} which is not present in Bur-Myan. If {sa.loan: ha.hto:} has been derived
  from Palatal-plosive stop {sa.}/{c}, it would not have been allowed
/s/ - the hisser is Dental-fricative hisser {Sa.}/{S} in which {Sa.} is the initial, and {S} the coda
/θ/ - the thibilant {a.}/{} is Dental-fricative thibilant present in Bur-Myan, Eng-Lat, & Pal-Myan,
  but not in Skt-Dev.

UKT notes :
Sunda and Upasunda - the Naga chieftains:
Nagas, Pythons, Kraits and Cobras of Myanmarpr  \
Upa'thoanda {U.pa.oan~da.} उपसुन्द [ upa-sunda ]
UKT 150710: Transliteration of Devanagari to Myanmar gives me {U.pa.oan~da.} from उपसुन्द [ upa-sunda ].


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/ {u.pa.wa.} - cont


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उपवेश्य [ upa-vesya ]
- cs. gd. having made to sit down.


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{u.pa.sha.}/ {U.pa.sha.}


उपशम [ upa-sama ]
- m. cessation; abatement; extinction; calmness; -na, n. appeasement; -vat, a. having peace of mind.



उपशय [ upa-say ]
- a. lying beside; m. lying-in-wait; -stha, a. being on the watch (for game - animal).



उपशल्य [ upa-salya ]
- n. open space near a town or village: -ka, n. small open space in the neighbourhood.



उपशान्ति [ upa-snti ]
- f. tranquillization; cessation; abatement.



उपशायिन् [ upa-syin ]
- a. sleeping; going to rest.



उपशिक्षा [ upa-siksh ]
- f. acquirement (--); eagerness to learn.



उपशोभन [ upa-sobh-ana ]
- n. trimming; -, f. ornament.



उपश््लेष [ upa-slesha ]
- m. embrace.



उपश््लोकयितव्य [ upa-slokay-itavya ]
- fp. to be sung of in slokas.

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{u.pa.Sa.}/ {U.pa.Sa.} : {u.Sa.}/ {U.Sa.} - Skt-Dev transformed to Skt-Myan


 उपष्टभ [upa-shtambha]
= उ प ष ् ट भ :
- v. -stambha

UKT 161226: Skt-Dev rendering is mine and needs checking.
Skt-Dev ष is Romabama {Sa.}/{S} which together with {Ta.} is represented as {S~Ta.} pronounced as /sta./.


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{u.pa.a.}/  {U.pa.a.} 


उपसंव्यान [ upa-samvyna ]
- n. under-garment.



उपसंहार [ upa-sam-hra ]
- m. drawing back; recapitulation; conclusion; -hrita-tva, n. withdrawal from consideration; -hriti, f. denouement, catastrophe (in a play).

denouement also dnouement  n. 1. a. The final resolution or clarification of a dramatic or narrative plot. b. The events following the climax of a drama or novel in which such a resolution or clarification takes place. 2. The outcome of a sequence of events; the end result. [French dnouement from Old French desnouement an untying from desnouer to undo des- de- nouer to tie( from Latin nōdāre)(from nōdus knot) ;See ned- in Indo-European Roots.] -- AHTD



उपसंक्रान्ति [ upa-samkrnti ]
- f. getting across.



उपसंक्षेप [ upa-samkshepa ]
- m. brief summary.



उपसंख्यान [ upa-samkhyna ]
- n. superaddition.



उपसंगमन [ upa-sam-gamana ]
- n. sexual intercourse; -graha, m. clasping (e.g. the feet in token of respect); taking (a wife): -na, n. clasping; respectful salutation by clasping the feet; -grhya, fp. whose feet should be clasped.



[upa-sttri ]
- m. inhabitant



उपसदन [ upa-sadana ]
- n. respectful salutation; performance; -sdya, fp. to be respectfully approached or served; -sanna, pp. (√sad) having entered as a pupil.



उपसंध्यम् [ upa-samdhyam ]
- ad. about the time of twilight.



उपसपत्नि [ upa-sapatni ]
- ad. in presence of a co-wife.



उपसरण [ upa-sarana ]
- n. approaching (--).



उपसर्ग [ upa-sarga ]
- m. addition; trouble; calamity; eclipse; preposition (gr.); -sargana, n. addition; obscuration, eclipse; secondary thing; subordinate person; representative; dependent (in a compound or as a derivative) word determining another (gr.).



उपसर्पण [ upa-sarp-ana ]
- n. approach; going out into (--); -in, a. approaching.



उपसान्त्वन [ upa-sntvana ]
- n. kind word.



उपसिन्धु [ upa-sindhu ]
- ad. near the Indus.



उपसुन्द [ upa-sunda ]
- m. N. of a Daitya (younger brother of Sunda).

See my note on Sunda and Upasunda - the Naga chieftains
and Nagas, Pythons, Kraits and Cobras of Myanmarpr



उपसेचन [ upa-skana ]
- n. besprinkling; , f. butter-spoon.



उपसेवक [ upa-sev-aka ]
- a. courting (--); -ana, n. courting; carnal intercourse with (--); addition to, indulgence in (--); , f. carnal intercourse with; devotion to; indulgence in (--); -in, a. serving; reverencing; worshipping; practising (--).

UKT 150524: "carnal intercourse" is an old expression for "sexual intercourse". See Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carnal_knowledge 150524



उपस्कर [ upa-skara ]
- m. (n.) implement; domestic utensil; broom.



उपस्तम्भ [ upa-stambha ]
- m. support, stimulant; -na, n. support.


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उपस्तरण [ upa-strana ]
- n. mattress.



उपस्ति [ pa-sti (or -st) ]
- m. dependent, servant.



उपस्तिरे [ upa-stre ]
- d. inf. to spread out, to cover.



उपस्तुति [ pa-stuti ]
- f. invocation.



उपस्थ [ up-stha ]
- m. lap; driver's seat; m. n. organs of generation: -nigraha, m. control of the sexual passion; -sthtavya, fp. n. one should appear; one should wait upon; -sthtri, a. putting in an appearance (leg.); -sthna, n. presence; approach; attendance; service; veneration; assembly; -sthyika, m. attendant on the sick; -sthyin, a. putting in an appearance (leg.); -sthita, pp. √sth.



उपस्पर्शन [ upa-spars-ana ]
- n. touching; bathing, ablution; rinsing the mouth; -in, a. touching, bathing in (--); -sprs, a. touching; f. caress.

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{u.pa.ha.}/ {U.pa.ha.} 


उपहतात्मन् [ upa-hata‿tman ]
- a. blinded, beguiled; -hatn, a. assailing; -hantavya, fp. to be killed.



उपहरण [ upa-har-ana ]
- n. offering, presentation; -tavya, fp. to be presented; -tri, m. server up (of meat).



उपहस्तिका [ upa-hasti-k ]
- f. betel-case.



उपहार [ upa-hra ]
- m. offering; presentation, gift; peace purchased by indemnification: -m vi-dh, offer (ac.) as a victim: a-ka, m., i-k, f. id.; -t, f., -tva, n. abst. ɴ.: -pni, a. bringing a present in one's hand; -varman, m. N.; -kri, offer up, sacrifice (ac.); -kikrshu, des. a. wishing to offer up as a sacrifice (ac.).



उपहास [ upa-hs-a ]
- m. laughter; ridicule, mockery; jest; -in, a. ridiculing; -ya, fp. to be ridiculed: -t, f. derision: -m gam,= become a laughing-stock.



उपहित [ upa-hita ]
- pp. (√dh) conditioned by (--): -tva, n. being conditioned by (--).



उपहूति [ upa-hti ]
- f. challenge.


उपहोम [ upa-hom ]
- m. additional sacrifice.



उपह्वर [ upa-hvar ]
- m. slope; secluded place: lc. privately; neighbourhood: lc. near.

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{u.pa}/ {U.pa-ha.}


उपांशु [ upa‿ams ]
- ad. [at the Soma], silently; secretly; privately; m. silent prayer; -krdita, pp. played with secretly, sharing one's private amusements; -vadha, m. secret murder; -vrata, n. silent vow.



उपाकरण [ upa‿-karana ]
- n. preparation; beginning of Vedic study; -karman, n. id.



उपाख्यान [ upa‿khyna ]
- n. subordinate tale, episode; -ka, n. short tale.



उपाङ्ग [ upa‿aṅga ]
- n. subordinate member; subdivision; unimportant supplement; -gta, n. choral song.



उपञ्जन [ upa‿agana ]
- n. anointing, smearing.



उपात्त [ upa‿-tta ]
- pp. √d; -vidya, a. who has acquired knowledge; -sra, a. the best of which has been appropriated.



उपादान [ upa‿dna ]
- n. taking, seizure, appropriation; apprehension; admission, non-exclusion; employment; mention, quotation; material cause.



उपादेय [ upa‿-deya ]
- fp. (√d) to be accepted or chosen; excellent; contained in (--).



उपाधि [ upa‿-dhi ]
- m. substitution; all that comes under the head of (--); epithet; condition, assumption; that which conditions.


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उपाध्याय [ upa‿adhyy-a ]
- m. teacher; -n, f. wife of a teacher.



उपानद्गूढ [ upnad-gdha ]
- pp. covered with a shoe.



उपानह् [ up-nh ]
- f. (nm. -nat) sandal, shoe.



  उपानह [ upnah-a ]
- m. (esp. --) id.; -in, a. shod.



उपान्त [ upa‿ant- ]
- n. nearness of the end; border, edge; outskirts; immediate proximity: lc., --, near (g. or --): -bhga, m. edge, rim, border; -ika, n. vicinity: -m, ad. up to (g.); ab. near; lc. near = into (g.).



उपान्त्य [ upa‿antya ]
- a. last but one.


उपाय [ upa‿aya ]
- m. approach; means; expedient, stratagem, device, craft: in. or -tas, cleverly, craftily; -kint, f. devising an expedient; -ga, a. fertile in resources; -samdarsana-ga, a. arising from the manifestation of successful means.



उपायन [ upa‿ayana ]
- n. approach; present, offering: -kri, make a present of.



उपायोपेय [ upya‿upeya ]
- n. means and end.



उपार्जन [ upa‿arg-ana ]
- n., , f. acquisition; -ita, pp. (√rig) acquired.



उपालब्धव्य [ upa‿-labdhavya ]
- fp. to be blamed; -labhya, fp. id.; -lambha, m. reproach, blame, censure: -na, n. id.



उपालि [ upa‿li ]
- ad. in his mistress' presence.



उपावर्तन [ upa‿vartana ]
- n. return.



उपावसायिन् [ upa‿avasyin ]
- a. submitting to (g.).



उपाश्रय [ upa‿sraya ]
- m. refuge.


उपासक [ upa‿s-aka ]
- a. serving; m. servant; follower, worshipper (esp. of Buddha); -ana, n. attendance; honour; devotion, worship; practice; domestic fire; -ya, fp. to be honoured.

उपासक [ upa‿s-aka ]
Skt: उपासक [ upa‿s-aka ] - a. serving; m. servant; follower, worshipper (esp. of Buddha) - Mac054c3
Pal: {U.pa-a.ka.} - UHS-PMD0235
  UKT from UHS: m. a devotee of Buddha, Dharma, & Sangha, upholder of Precepts



उपाहित [ upa‿-hita ]
- pp. (√dh); n. conflagration.


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{u.p}/ {U.p}


उपेक्षक [ upa‿ksh-aka ]
= उ प े क ् ष क
- a. indifferent; -ana, n. disregard; indifference; indulgence, tolerance; -, f. disregard, indifference; neglect; -ya, fp. to be disregarded or overlooked.

उपेक्षक [ upa‿ksh-aka ]
Skt: = उ प े क ् ष क - a. indifferent; - Mac054c3
Pal: {U.pk~hka.} - UHS-PMD0236
  UKT from UHS: mfn. indifference, Buddhist translation: equanimity - to be checked  



उपेत [ upa‿ita ]
- pp. endued: -prva, a. previously apprenticed to a teacher.



[upetri ]
m. undertaker; employer of expedients



उपेन्द्र [ upa‿indra ]
- m. ep. of Vishnu (sub-Indra); -vagr, f. a metre.



उपेय [ upya ]
- fp. (√i) that is to be undertaken; to be approached (carnally).



उपेयिवस् [ upa‿yivas ]
- pt. pf. √i, having gone to.


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{u.pau:}/ {U.pau:}


उपोढ [ upa‿dha ]
- pp. (√vah) married.



उपोदक [ upa‿udaka ]
- a. close to the water; , f. a plant.



उपोद्घात [ upa‿udghta ]
- m. introduction; beginning; apt instance.



उपोद्बलक [ upa‿ud-bala-ka ]
- a. supporting: -tva, n. abst. ɴ.; -bala-ya, den. P. support.



उपोषण [ upa‿oshana ]
- n. fasting.



उपोषित [ upa‿ushita ]
- pp. (√vas, dwell) n. id.



उप्त [ up-ta ]
= उ प ् त
- pp. √vap; -ti, f. sowing.



उप्रत्यय [ u-pratyaya ]
- m. suffix u.

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{u.ba.}/ {U.ba.}


उब्ज् [ubg ]
Skt: उब्ज् [ubg ] vi. p. keep down, restrain - Mac054c3
Skt: उब्ज ubja - adj. turned downwards, bent downwards - SpkSkt


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{u.Ba.}/ {U.Ba.}


उभ् [ubh]
- vi. p. umbh , ix. p. ubh-n , vii. p. unp-ti , knit, bind; compress



उभ [ ubh- ]
- du. both.


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UKT notes

Sunda and Upasunda :
Nagas, Pythons, Kraits and Cobras of Myanmarpr

UKT 140116, 161227:

Sunda and his younger brother Upasuda were Naga chieftains. Nagas are considered to be Daityas. Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Naga_Kingdom 140116

"In the Mahabharata the Naga Kingdom, the territory of a hardy and warlike [1] tribe called Nagas. They were also considered as one of the supernatural races like the Kinnaras."

Nagas played important parts in Buddhism (see the story of Naga king Mucalinda protecting Gautama Buddha from the weather soon after his enlightenment http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mucalinda 140116)


Bur-Myan speakers always have a soft spot in their hearts for Naga, and we find it imbedded in the akshara-glyph for IPA phoneme /n/ as {na.}.

It is likely that the Nagas are also connected to the north-western mountains of Myanmarpr as the story of Mahabharata hero Arjuna and Naga princess Ulūpī shows.

The son of Arjuna and and the Naga princess Ulūpī , Iravan , इरावान्, Irāvāṇ, aka Iravat (इरावत्, Irāvat and Iravant, is probably connected with Irrawaddy River, the main river of Myanmarpr.

The principal king of the Pyus of Myanmarpr, King Duttabaung, was supposed to have been served by Naga sailors (in human form) in their boat propelled by Naga scales. The boat did not need any moving parts to sail in the ocean. It is probable that this boat was no fiction. See  magnetohydrodynamic drive or MHD in Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Magnetohydrodynamic_drive 140116

Whether there are still Nagas living in Myanmarpr or not, I do not know. But it is a fact that wild pythons do co-exist with the local population. Many Buddhist pagodas boasts of their Python inhabitants. Below are two photographs taken by Daw Khin Wutyi (TIL) & her husband Ko Hpyo L at a pagoda near Pegu at the end of November 2013. If you are not afraid you can touch the python which is not in glass cage. The python  would sometimes move among the worshippers.

I can also boast that a wild Krait has lived in garden of old home and now my research station at 35 Thatadalan, Yangon. At one time cobras were regular visitors. I have given strict orders to my staff not to harm any kindred of the Nagas.

I have come to conclude that snakes are not afraid of me since the time a snake (a cold blooded creature) leisurely crossed over my foot (warm blooded) one day while I was in Mandalay in 1970. I had not noticed it approaching me standing at the edge of the lawn in front of my house. I came to notice it as it was crossing over my foot. It then approached my house, raised its hood, looked up inside the house, and leisurely went back to the grass.

Go back Sunda-note-b

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Upa'thoanda {U.pa.oan~da.} उपसुन्द [ upa-sunda ]

- UKT 150524:

The word "Sunda" present in the word {U.pa.oan~da.} उपसुन्द [ upa-sunda ] is of interest. An excerpt from Wikipedia on Sundanese people of Java: "The name Sunda derives from the Sanskrit prefix su- which means "goodness" or "possessing good quality". The example is suvarna  {u.wuN~Na.} (lit:"good color") used to describe gold. Sunda is also another name for Hindu God Vishnu. In Sanskrit, the term Sundara (masculine) or Sundari (feminine), {oan~da.ri.} means "beautiful" or "excellence". [3] The term Sunda also means bright, light, purity, cleanness and white. [4] ... there is also a hypothesis that argues that the Austronesian ancestors of contemporary Sundanese people originally came from Sundaland, a sunken massive peninsula that today formed Java Sea, Malacca and Sunda straits, and the islands between them. [6] However, this is an extremely minority view among professional archaeologists, linguists, and geneticists." - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sundanese_people 150524


UKT 150524: Reading the article http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sundaland 150524, has set me wondering if there was a connection to {u.wN~Na. Boan~mi.} aka {u.wN~Na. Bu~mi.} - the name applied to southern Myanmarpr with the ancient capital near present day Thaton {a.hton mro.}. And also if there was a connection between ancient peoples of southern Myanmarpr and those of Indus-Sarasvati valley aka Harappan civilisation. See: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indus_Valley_Civilization 150524.

Go back Upathoanda-note-b

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End of TIL file