Update: 2019-06-25 11:56 PM -0400

TIL

Practical Sanskrit Dictionary for Buddhists and Hindus

p000.htm

A Practical Sanskrikt Dictionary, by A. A. Macdonell, 1893,
http://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/scans/MDScan/index.php?sfx=jpg; 1929.
- Nataraj ed., 1st in 2006, 2012.
- https://dsal.uchicago.edu/dictionaries/macdonell/ 190516
The Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Grammar and Dictionary, BHS, vol.2, by F. Edgerton, pp. 627.
- FEdgerton-BHSD<> / Bkp<> (link chk 180627)
The Student's Pali English dictionary , by U Pe Maung Tin, 1920.
- (ref: UPMT-PEDxxx).  Downloaded copies in TIL HD-PDF and SD-PDF libraries:
- UPMT-PaliDict1920<> / bkp<> (link chk 190113)
  Pali-Myanmar Dictionary (in Pal-Myan), by U Hoke Sein,
- (ref: UHS-PMD). The dictionary in printed form is in TIL Research Library.
Latin-English Vocabulary II, by Hans H rberg, 1998
- HHOrberg-LinguaLatina<> / Bkp<> (link chk 190624)

Edited by U Kyaw Tun (UKT) (M.S., I.P.S.T., USA), Daw Khin Wutyi, Daw Thuzar Myint, Daw Zinthiri Han and staff of Tun Institute of Learning (TIL). Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone. Prepared for students and staff of TIL  Research Station, Yangon, MYANMAR 
 - http://www.tuninst.net , www.romabama.blogspot.com 

MC-indx.htm | Top
MCv1pp-indx.htm

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Remember the proper spelling is with vowel-letter {U.} उ in both Skt and Pali.
short vowel, 1 blnk, उ u = {u.} / {U.}
long vowel, 2 blnk,  ऊ ū = {u} / {U}-Bur , {U}-Mon

{u.pa.da.}/ {U.pa.da.} - cont
  p053c1
{u.pa.Da.}/ {U.pa.Da.}
{u.pa.na.}/ {U.pa.na.}

{u.pa.pa.}/ {U.pa.pa.}
  p053c2
{u.pa.ba.}/ {U.pa.ba.}
{u.pa.Ba.}/ {U.pa.Ba.}
{u.pa.ma.}/ {U.pa.ma.}

{u.pa.ya.}/ {U.pa.ya.}
{u.pa.ra.}/ {U.pa.ra.}
  p053c3
{u.pa.la.}/ {U.pa.la.} 
{u.pa.wa.}/ {U.pa.wa.}

Orphan
उपवास upavasa [ upa-vs-a ]
= m. fasting; -aka, n. id.; -in, a. fasting.

 

UKT notes :
Purana :   {pu.raaN: kym:}
Upanishad : {U.pa.ni.a}

 

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/ {u.pa.da.} - cont

p053c1

p053c1-b00/ p046 

उपद्रव [ upa-drava ]
- m. mischance, accident; adversity, distress; mischief, evil; infirmity; symptom (of disease).
 उपद्रव   upa-drava mischance, accident; adversity, distress; mischief, evil; infirmity; symptom (of disease).

 

p053c1-b01

[ups-drashtri ]
- m. spectator, witness

 

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/ {u.pa.Da.}/ {U.pa.Da.} 

p053c1-b02/ p046 

उपधर्म [ upa-dharma ]
- m. subordinate duty.
 उपधर्म   upa-dharma subordinate duty.

 

p053c1-b03/ p046 

उपधा [ upa-dh ]
- f. fraud; intrigue; moral test; penultimate or preceding letter (gr.); ()-na, a. putting on; n. placing upon; cushion, pillow; -nya, n. cushion; -yin, a. making a pillow of (--).
 उपधा   upa-dh fraud; intrigue; moral test; penultimate or preceding letter (gr.); (aN)-na, a. putting on; n. placing upon; cushion, pillow; -nya, n. cushion; -yin, a. making a pillow of (--).

 

p053c1-b04/ p046 

उपधि [ upa-dh ]
- m. addition; fraud; part of wheel between nave and felly.
 उपधि   upa-dh addition; fraud; part of wheel between nave and felly.

 

p053c1-b05/ p046 

उपधेनु [ upa-dhenu ]
- ad. near the cows.
 उपधेनु   upa-dhenu near the cows. 

 

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{u.pa.na.}/ {U.pa.na.}

p053c1-b06/ p046 

उपनय [ upa-naya ]
- m. bringing, supplying; application; introduction: -na, n. id.; initiation of a pupil; investiture; offering.
 उपनय   upa-naya bringing, supplying; application; introduction: -na, n. id.; initiation of a pupil; investiture; offering.

 

p053c1-b07/ p046 

उपनायन [ upa-nyana ]
- n. investiture.
 उपनायन   upa-nyana investiture.

 

p053c1-b08/ p046 

उपनिक्षेप [ upa-nikshepa ]
- m. deposit.
 उपनिक्षेप   upa-nikshepa deposit.

 

p053c1-b09

[upa-nidhtri ]
- a. setting down

 

p053c1-b10/ p046 

उपनिधि [ upa-nidhi ]
- m. (sealed) deposit.
 उपनिधि   upa-nidhi deposit.

 

p053c1-b11/ p046 

उपनिपात [ upa-nipt-a ]
- m. entrance; sudden appearance; sudden attack; -in, a. falling upon (--).
 उपनिपात   upa-nipt-a entrance; sudden appearance; sudden attack; -in, a. falling upon (--).

 

p053c1-b12

[upa-niband-dhri]
- m. composer, editor; -tva , m. abst. ɴ.

 

p053c1-b13/ p046 

उपनिबन्ध [ upa-nibandha ]
- m. engagement, oath: -na, n. description.
 उपनिबन्ध   upa-nibandha engagement, oath: -na, n. description.

 

p053c1-b14/ p046 

उपनिमन्त्रण [ upa-nimantrana ]
- n. invitation.
 उपनिमन्त्रण   upa-nimantrana invitation.

 

p053c1-b15/ p046 

उपनिषद् [ upa-ni-shd ]
- f. [sitting down beside], secret or esoteric doctrine; N. of a class of works treating of the secret meaning of the Vda.
उपनिषद्   upa-ni-shd [sitting down beside], secret or esoteric doctrine; N. of a class of works treating of the secret meaning of the Veda.

उपनिषद्  upaniṣad 
= उ प न ि ष द ् --> {U.pa.ni.Sd}
BHS: upaniṣad - f. upaniṣā , also written śā , , sad (= Pali upanisā , in mgs. 1 and 2; on relation to Skt. upaniṣd, see Schayer, RO 3.57 (1926), magic correspondence ; Renou, in C. Kunhan Raja Presentation Volume, mettre en regard, confronter ), ... -- FE-BHS138c1
Pal: {U.pa.ni.a} - UHS-PMD0226c2

  UKT from UHS: f. meaning to the root in steps, powerful description, secret instruction.
BPal: {U.pa.nai~a.ya.} - UHS-PMD0227c1
  UKT from UHS: m. a powerful dependable method.

UKT 140210, 161219: Upanishads are the works of Brahmin-Poannas who claimed themselves to be the chosen mouth-piece of the MahaBrahma the Creator which itself is an Axiomatic entity - similar the Euclidian Geometric Point x=0, y=0, z=0 - whose truth is "self evident" and need no verification. See Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Point_geometry 161219

They are Theists or upholders of Atta Principle. Prince-rishi Siddartha following their teachings nearly died of starvation, because of which he propounded the Anatta Principle  which is non-Axiomatic just as modern Science is. The First Principle of Buddhism is therefore a natural law not bounded by Space-Time. Buddhists are not Atheists.
See my note on Upanishad उपनिषद् 

 

p053c1-b16/ p046 

उपनिष्क्रमण [ upa-nish-kramana ]
- n. going out to anything; open space.
 उपनिष्क्रमण   upa-nish-kramana going out to anything; open space.

 

p053c1-b17/ p046 

उपनेतव्य [ upa-ne-tavya ]
- fp. to be brought; -tri, m., -tr, f. bringer; preceptor.
 उपनेतव्य   upa-ne-tavya to be brought; -tri, m., -tr, f. bringer; preceptor.

 

p053c1-b18/ p046 

उपन्यसन [ upa-nyas-ana ]
- n. adduction of a topic; preaching; -ta, pp. (√2. as) intimation, remark.
 उपन्यसन   upa-nyas-ana adduction of a topic; preaching; -ta, pp. (√2. as) intimation, remark.

 

p053c1-b19/ p046 

उपन्यास [ upa-nysa ]
- a. procuring; m. adjunction; procurement; incidental mention, intimation; statement, declaration; discussion; kind of alliance or peace: -m, ad. while alleging (--).
 उपन्यास   upa-nysa procuring; m. adjunction; procurement; incidental mention, intimation; statement, declaration; discussion; kind of alliance or peace: -m, ad. while alleging (--). 

 

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{u.pa.pa.}/ {U.pa.pa.}

p053c1-b20/ p046 

उपपति [ upa-pat ]
- m. paramour, adulterer.
 उपपति   upa-pat paramour, adulterer.

 

p053c1-b21/ p046 

उपपत्ति [ upa-patti ]
- f. coming about, occurrence, appearance; success; resultance, demonstration, establishment, proof; suitableness: -pari-tyakta, pp. unfounded; -yukta, pp. proved.
 उपपत्ति   upa-patti coming about, occurrence, appearance; success; resultance, demonstration, establishment, proof; suitableness: -pari-tyakta, pp. unfounded; -yukta, pp. proved.

 

p053c1-b22/ p046 

उपपद [ upa-pada ]
- n. secondary word accompanying another (gr.).
 उपपद   upa-pada secondary word accompanying another (gr.).

 

p053c1-b23/ p046 

उपपन्न [ upa-panna ]
- pp. √pad.
 उपपन्न   upa-panna √pad.

 

p053c1-b24/ p046 

उपपात [ upa-pta ]
- m. chance, accident.
 उपपात   upa-pta chance, accident.

 

p053c1-b25/ p046 

उपपातक [ upa-pta-ka ]
- n. minor crime; -kin, a. guilty of a lesser offence.
 उपपातक   upa-pta-ka minor crime; -kin, a. guilty of a lesser offence.

 

p053c1-b26/ p046 

उपपातिन् [ upapt-in ]
- a. befalling (--).
 उपपातिन्   upapt-in befalling (--).

 

p053c1-b27/ p046 

उपपादक [ upa-pda-ka ]
- a. effecting, bringing about; -na, a. bringing forward; n. procurement; appearance; demonstration.
 उपपादक   upa-pda-ka effecting, bringing about; -na, a. bringing forward; n. procurement; appearance; demonstration.

 

p053c1-b28/ p046 

उपपाप [ upa-ppa ]
- n. minor crime.
 उपपाप   upa-ppa minor crime.

 

p053c1-b29/ p046 

उपपार्श्व [ upa-prsva ]
- m. shoulder-blade.
 उपपार्श्व   upa-prsva shoulder-blade.

 

p053c1-b30/ p046 

उपपीडन [ upa-pdana ]
- n. tormenting; pang.
उपपीडन   upa-pdana tormenting; pang.

 

p053c1-b31/ p046 

उपपुराण [ upa-purna ]
- n. secondary Purna.
 उपपुराण   upa-purna secondary Purna.

See my note on Purana

 

p053c1-b32/ p046 

उपपूर्व [ upa-prva ]
- a. preceded by = compounded with prva.
 उपपूर्व   upa-prva preceded by=compounded with prva.

 

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p053c2

p053c2-b00/ p046 

उपपौरक [ upa-paura-ka ]
- m. ad. near a suburban grove.
 उपपौरक   upa-paura-ka near a suburban grove. 

 

p053c2-b01/ p046 

उपप्रदान [ upa-pradna ]
- n. donation, gift.
 उपप्रदान   upa-pradna donation, gift.

 

p053c2-b02/ p046 

उपप्रलोभन [ upa-pralobhana ]
- n. seduction, allurement.
उपप्रलोभन   upa-pralobhana seduction, allurement.

 

p053c2-b03/ p046 

उपप्रेक्षण [ upa-prekshana ]
- n. overlooking.
 उपप्रेक्षण   upa-prekshana overlooking.

 

p053c2-b04/ p046 

उपप्रैष [ upa-praisha ]
- m. ritual invitation.
 उपप्रैष   upa-praisha invitation.

 

p053c2-b05/ p046 

उपप्लव [ upa-plav-a ]
- m. disaster, misfortune, visitation; portent; eclipse; -in, a. assailed by calamity; eclipsed.
  उपप्लव   upa-plav-a disaster, misfortune, visitation; portent; eclipse; -in, a. assailed by calamity; eclipsed.

 

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{u.pa.ba.}/ {U.pa.ba.} 

p053c2-b06/ p046 

उपबन्ध [ upa-bandha ]
- m. connexion; employment (of a word); kind of sitting posture.
 उपबन्ध   upa-bandha connexion; employment (of a word); kind of sitting posture.

 

p053c2-b07/ p046 

उपबृंहिन् [ upa-brimhin ]
- a. confirming, furthering.
 उपबृंहिन्   upa-brimhin confirming, furthering.

 

p053c2-b08/ p046 

उपब्द [ up-abd ]
- m. noise, clatter; -abdhi, m. id.: -mt, a. noisy.
 उपब्द   up-abd noise, clatter; -abdhi, m. id.: -mt, a. noisy. 

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{u.pa.Ba.}/ {U.pa.Ba.} 

p053c2-b09/ p046 

उपभङ्ग [ upa-bhaṅga ]
- m. line (of a stanza).
 उपभङ्ग   upa-bhaṅga line (of a stanza).

 

p053c2-b10/ p046 

उपभाषा [ upa-bhsh ]
- f. subordinate provincial dialect.
 उपभाषा   upa-bhsh subordinate provincial dialect.

 

p053c2-b11/ p046 

उपभुक्तधन [ upa-bhukta-dhana ]
- a. having enjoyed his wealth; m. N. of a merchant.
  उपभुक्तधन   upa-bhukta-dhana having enjoyed his wealth; m. N. of a merchant.

 

p053c2-b12/ p046 

उपभृत् [ upa-bhrt ]
- f. wooden sacrificial cup.
 उपभृत्   upa-bhrt wooden sacrificial cup.

 

p053c2-b13/ p046 

उपभोक्तव्य [ upa-bhoktavya ]
- fp. to be enjoyed.
उपभोक्तव्य   upa-bhoktavya to be enjoyed.

 

p053c2-b14/ p046 

उपभोग [ upa-bhog-a ]
- m. enjoyment, use; eating: -vat, a. affording enjoyment; -in, a. enjoying, using (--); -ya, fp. to be enjoyed or used; n. object of enjoyment.
उपभोग   upa-bhog-a enjoyment, use; eating: -vat, a. affording enjoyment; -in, a. enjoying, using (--); -ya, fp. to be enjoyed or used; n. object of enjoyment.

 

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{u.pa.ma.}/ {U.pa.ma.} 

p053c2-b15/ p046 

उपम [ upa-m ] --> {U.pa.ma.}
- spv. uppermost, highest; most exalted or excellent; nearest, next; first; last.
  उपम   upa-m uppermost, highest; most exalted or excellent; nearest, next; first; last.

 

p053c2-b16/ p046

उपमन्त्रिन् [ upa-mantrn ]
- a. encouraging.
 उपमन्त्रिन्   upa-mantrn encouraging.

 

p053c2-b17/ p046 

उपमन्यु [ upa-many ]
- a. zealous; m. N.
 उपमन्यु   upa-many zealous; m. N.

 

p053c2-b18/ p046 

उपमर्द [ upa-marda ]
- m. violent pressure; injury; destruction: -ka, a. destroying; -na, n. doing an injury; offence.
  उपमर्द   upa-marda violent pressure; injury; destruction: -ka, a. destroying; -na, n. doing an injury; offence.

 

p053c2-b19/ p046 

उपमा [ upa-m ]
- f. comparison; likeness; image; simile: -- a, a. like; ()-na, n. comparison; likeness, resemblance; analogy; object with which anything is compared; -- a. like, comparable to; -‿artha, m. purport of an image: in. figuratively; -vyatireka, m. kind of simile.
 उपमा   upa-maN comparison; likeness; image; simile: -- a, a. like; ()-na, n. comparison; likeness, resemblance; analogy; object with which anything is compared; -- a. like, comparable to; -̮artha, m. purport of an image: in. figuratively; -vyatireka, m. kind of simile.

 

p053c2-b20/ p046 

उपमिति [ upa-miti ]
- f. similarity; analogical inference, induction; -meya, fp. comparable with (in., --); n. object compared (opp. to upamna): -‿upam, f. reciprocal simile.
  उपमिति   upa-miti similarity; analogical inference, induction; -meya, fp. comparable with (in., --); n. object compared (opp. to upamna): -̮upam, f. reciprocal simile.

( end of old p053-1.htm )

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{u.pa.ya.}/ {U.pa.ya.}

UKT 140113, 161219: The entries with prefix {u.pa.}/ {U.pa.} are pronounced with close back vowel sounds. Their contrastive sounds, are those of open front vowels, {a.pa.} . We should expect exactly the opposite meanings in them. We immediately notice that there are more of {u.pa.}/ {U.pa.} words compared to those with {a.pa.}.

 

 

p053c2-b21

[upa-yantri ]
- m. husband; -yama , m. marrying a wife; -ymana , a. supporting; n. marrying a wife

 

p053c2-b22/ p046 

उपयाचन [ upa-yk-ana ]
- n. solicitation; -ita, (pp.) n. prayer, request.
 उपयाचन   upa-yk-ana solicitation; -ita, (pp.) n. prayer, request.

 

p053c2-b23/ p046 

उपयान [ upa-yna ]
- n. approach, arrival.
 उपयान   upa-yna approach, arrival.

 

p053c2-b24/ p046 

उपयायिन् [ upa-yyin ]
- a. approaching.
 उपयायिन्   upa-yyin approaching. 

 

p053c2-b25/ p046 

उपयोक्तव्य [ upa-yoktavya ]
- fp. to be enjoyed.
 उपयोक्तव्य   upa-yoktavya to be enjoyed.

 

p053c2-b26/ p046 

उपयोग [ upa-yog-a ]
- m. application, employment; use, utility; enjoyment; acquirement; -in, a. applicable, serviceable, suitable; --, employing, using.
  उपयोग   upa-yog-a application, employment; use, utility; enjoyment; acquirement; -in, a. applicable, serviceable, suitable; --, employing, using.

 

p053c2-b27/ p046 

उपयोज्य [ upa-yogya ]
- fp. to be employed; applicable.
 उपयोज्य   upa-yogya to be employed; applicable. 

 

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{u.pa.ra.}

p053c2-b28/ p046 

उपर [ pa-ra ]
- cpv. lower; later; nearer; m. the nether stone (on which Soma is pounded).
 उपर   pa-ra lower; later; nearer; m. the nether stone (on which Soma is pounded).

 

p053c2-b29/ p046 

उपरति [ upa-rati ]
- f. cessation; quiescence; death; -rama, m. cessation; relinquishment; decease: -na, n. cessation from (ab.), -tva, n. quiescence.
उपरति   upa-rati cessation; quiescence; death; -rama, m. cessation; relinquishment; decease: -na, n. cessation from (ab.), -tva, n. quiescence.

 

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p053c3

p053c3-b01/ p046 

उपराग [ upa-rga ]
- m. coloration; eclipse, darkness; influence: -vat, a. eclipsed (by Rhu).
 उपराग   upa-rga coloration; eclipse, darkness; influence: -vat, a. eclipsed (by Rhu).

 

p053c3-b02/ p046 

उपरि [ upri ]
Skt: उपरि [ upri ] - ad. above, over; up, upwards; moreover; afterwards; repeated: one above the other; always upwards; again and again; prp. above, over, beyond, upon (ac., g., ab., lc.: -- or -ad.); above (of number or rank), after (time: g. or -- ad.); concerning, on account of (g.); repeated: far above (g.). - Mac053c3
 उपरि   upri above, over; up, upwards; moreover; afterwards; repeated: one above the other; always upwards; again and again; prp. above, over, beyond, upon (ac., g., ab., lc.: -- or -- ad.); above (of number or rank), after (time: g. or -- ad.); concerning, on account of (g.); repeated: far above (g.).
BPal: {U.pa.ri.} - UHS-PMD0229
  UKT from UHS: - ad. above, upwards, more

 

p053c3-b03/ p046 

उपरिजानु [ upari-gnu ]
- ad. above the knee; -tana, a. upper; -tala, n. surface; -yna, n. going to heaven.
 उपरिजानु   upari-gnu above the knee; -tana, a. upper; -tala, n. surface; -yna, n. going to heaven.

[upari-tala]
Skt: [upari-tala] - n. surface - Mac053c3
BPal: {U.pa.ri.ta.la.} - n. upper plane - UHS-PMD0229

 

p053c3-b04/ p046 

उपरिभाग [ upari-bhga ]
- m. upper part.
 उपरिभाग   upari-bhga upper part.

 

p053c3-b05/ p046 

उपरिष्टात् [ uprish-tt ]
- ad. above; afterwards, later, below (in a book); prp. over, upon (ac. or g.); after (g.); about, concerning (g.).
 उपरिष्टात्   uprish-tt above; afterwards, later, below (in a book); prp. over, upon (ac. or g.); after (g.); about, concerning (g.).

 

p053c3-b06/ p046 

उपरिष्ठ [ upari-shtha ]
- a. standing or being above or upon (g., --).
उपरिष्ठ   upari-shtha standing or being above or upon (g., --).

 

p053c3-b07/ p046 

उपरुदित [ upa-rudita ]
- (pp.) n. lamentation.
 उपरुदित   upa-rudita lamentation.

 

p053c3-b08/ p046 

उपरुद्ध [ upa-ruddha ]
- (pp.) n. private apartment.
 उपरुद्ध   upa-ruddha private apartment.

 

p053c3-b09/ p046 

उपरूपक [ upa-rpaka ]
- n. second class drama.
 उपरूपक   upa-rpaka second class drama.

 

p053c3-b10/ p046 

उपरोध [ upa-rodh-a ]
- m. obstruction, obstacle, hindrance; disturbance; injury; detriment; dissension; -ana, n. siege; obstacle; -in, a. hindered or interrupted by; detrimental to, disturbing (--).
 उपरोध   upa-rodh-a obstruction, obstacle, hindrance; disturbance; injury; detriment; dissension; -ana, n. siege; obstacle; -in, a. hindered or interrupted by; detrimental to, disturbing (--).

 

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{u.pa.la.}

p053c3-b11/ p046 

उपल [ upala ]
- m. stone; gem.
 उपल   upala stone; gem. 

 

p053c3-b12/ p046 

उपलक्षक [ upa-laksh-aka ]
- a. expressing implicitly; perceiving, guessing; -ana, n. looking after; mark; designation; implicit or elliptical designation: -t, f., -tva, n. abst. ɴ.
 उपलक्षक   upa-laksh-aka expressing implicitly; perceiving, guessing; -ana, n. looking after; mark; designation; implicit or elliptical designation: -t, f., -tva, n. abst. n.

 

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[upala-prakshin ]
- a. (n-i) working the millstone

 

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उपलब्धि [ upa-labdhi ]
- f. acquisition; apprehension, perception.
 उपलब्धि   upa-labdhi acquisition; apprehension, perception.

 

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उपलभ्य [ upa-labhya ]
- fp. obtainable; perceptible; -lambha, m. acquisition; observation; perception, feeling: -ka, a. perceiving; causing perception.
 उपलभ्य   upa-labhya obtainable; perceptible; -lambha, m. acquisition; observation; perception, feeling: -ka, a. perceiving; causing perception.

 

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उपलविषम [ upala-vishama ]
- a. rough with rocks.
 उपलविषम   upala-vishama rough with rocks. 

 

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उपला [ pal ]
- f. upper (smaller) millstone.
उपला   pal upper (smaller) millstone.

 

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उपलिप्सा upalipsa [ upa-lip-s ]
- (des.) f. desire for (--); -su, des. a. desirous to learn (ac.).
 उपलिप्सा   upa-lip-s desire for (--); -su, des. a. desirous to learn (ac.). 

 

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उपलेपन [ upa-lepana ]
- n. smearing (esp. with cow dung).
  उपलेपन   upa-lepana smearing (esp. with cowdung).

 

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{u.pa.wa.}/ {U.pa.wa.} 

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उपवन [ upa-vana ]
- n. little wood, grove: -vriti, f. garden hedge.
उपवन   upa-vana little wood, grove: -vriti, f. garden hedge.

 

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उपवनम् [ upa-vanam ]
- ad. in the forest.
 उपवनम्   upa-vanam in the forest.

 

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उपवर्णन [ upa-varnana ]
- n. description, exact account; panegyric.
 उपवर्णन   upa-varnana description, exact account; panegyric.

 

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उपवर्ष [ upa-varsha ]
- m. N. of a younger brother of Varsha.
 उपवर्ष   upa-varsha younger brother of Varsha.

 

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उपवसथ [ upa-vasath ]
- m. fast on the eve of the Soma sacrifice.
 उपवसथ   upa-vasath fast on the eve of the Soma sacrifice.

 

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उपवास [ upa-vs-a ]
- m. fasting; -aka, n. id.; -in, a. fasting.
 उपवास   upa-vs-a fasting; -aka, n. id.; -in, a. fasting.

 

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उपवाह्य [ upa-vhya ]
- fp. to be led up; suitable for driving or riding.
  उपवाह्य   upa-vhya to be led up; suitable for driving or riding.

 

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उपविष्ट [ upa-vishta ]
- pp. (√vis) alighted; seated.
 उपविष्ट   upa-vishta (√vis) alighted; seated.

 

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उपवीणय [ upa-vnaya ]
- den. P. play to (ac.) on the vn.
उपवीणय   upa-vnaya P. play to (ac.) on the vn.

 

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[upa-vita],
- (pp. √vye) n. wearing of the sacred thread; sacred cord; -vitn , a. wearing the sacred thread over the left shoulder

 

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उपवेशन [ upa-ves-ana ]
- n. sitting down, seat; undergoing (--); -in, a. undergoing, practising (--).
 उपवेशन   upa-ves-ana sitting down, seat; undergoing (--); -in, a. undergoing, practising (--).

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UKT notes

Purana

- UKT 140111

Purna पुराण  purāṇa aka   {pu.raaN: kym:} are well known, at least in name, to every student of Bur-Myan language and literature.

{pu.raaN: kym:}
- n. the Purana, a religious and legendary compilation originating in India, traceable to Vedic times. -- MLC MED2006-258
Note: {kym:} in Bur-Myan is "treatise".

 

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Puranas 140111

The Puranas पुराण purāṇa "of ancient times") are ancient Hindu texts eulogizing various deities, primarily the divine Trimurti God in Hinduism through divine stories. [UKT ]

UKT 140112: The Christian Trinity - God the Father, God the Son, and God the Holy Ghost, and modern-day Hindu Trimurti, are not comparable. (When we were young it was the "Holy Ghost" - now it has been changed to "Holy Spirit". )

The Abrahamic entity - YHWH, God, Allah - is unknowable: beyond our human knowledge. As such "He-She-It" is sexless in human terms. Yet in Christianity "He-She-It" has been given a masculine character - He.

On the other hand, the Trimuti of Vaishnavite Hinduism, is made up of three separate males, Mahbrahma dva (spouse = Saraswati) - the Creator, Vishnu dva (spouse = Lashmi) - the Administrator, and Siva dva (1st spouse = Sati, 2nd spouse = Parvati.) - the Destroyer (something like a policeman who destroys evil entities). Trimuti enjoy sex. In some Hindu temples, Siva is shown nude having sex with nude Parvati, in the company of other nude females. The Sole Creator of Shaivite Hinduism is also a male who is supposed to be the husband of many Mother-Goddess, the chiefs being Mother Kali - the fierce female who drinks fresh blood, and the much more gentler form Parvati.

Puranas may also be described as a genre of important Hindu [not necessarily Vedic] religious texts alongside some Jain and Buddhist [not necessarily Theravada] religious texts, notably consisting of narratives of the history of the universe from creation to destruction, genealogies of kings, heroes, sages, and demigods, and descriptions of Hindu cosmology, philosophy, and geography. [1] The Puranas are frequently classified according to the Trimurti (Trinity or the three aspects of the divine). [2] The Padma Purana classifies them in accordance with the three gunas or qualities as Sattva (Truth and Purity), Rajas (Dimness and Passion) and Tamas (Darkness and Ignorance). [3]

Puranas usually give prominence to a particular deity, employing an abundance of religious and philosophical concepts. They are usually written in the form of stories related by one person to another. The Puranas are available in vernacular translations and are disseminated by Brahmin scholars, who read from them and tell their stories, usually in Katha sessions (in which a traveling Brahmin-Poanna {braah~ma.Na. poaN~Na:} settles for a few weeks in a temple and narrates parts of a Purana, usually with a Bhakti perspective).

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Upanishad

-- UKT 140110, 161219, 170824:

The Upanishads [Pali: {U.pa.ni.a} - UHS PMD0226c2] were the works of Atta believers, who were trying to establish the axiom as a physical reality, and when the authors happened to be Brahmin-Poannas {braah~ma.Na. poaN~Na:}, they were trying to establish themselves as the only "chosen class" of the Brahma - the Creator [ {brah~ma} (note the sp. diff. of first syllable from ), and that they were hearing the Truth from the very mouth of the Creator. To establish their importance these self-appointed mouth-pieces of the Brahma continue to write Upanishads right down to the 20th century. See the Wikipedia article given below.

It was this very idea of Permanence and Secrecy that Prince Siddhartha rejected as useless after following their doctrines for six long years.

Pix on right shows a young prince, aged (29+6). Even at age 35, the young prince was looking like an old man because of extreme yogic practice involving fasting. He lost consciousness finally, but luckily regained consciousness.

Realizing that such practices recommended by Atta believers would only bring on only death, he rejected their views, took some rice-in-milk gruel and began all over again. At this his five companion rishis left him as a failure. In the popular lore, it was a Brahma {brah~ma} [note the sp. diff. of first syllable from ] who came to remind him by tuning his harp strings: too lack - the sound was horrible, and too tight - the strings broke. 

The painting was probably done by a Bur-Myan artist. The tell-tale signs are the head dresses of the companion-rishis.

Only after rejecting the Atta axiom totally could he launch upon his quest for a truth or natural law that is beyond the confines of Time-Space continuum. His quest for Atta being fruitless, he arrived at his conclusion of 'negation' of Atta, or Anatta. He arrived at a natural law that "Every sentient being is not free from mental suffering" - the Principle of Dukkha (Suffering) - the First Law of Buddhism. Only after realizing the First Law, followed by two laws could he find the meaning of Nibbana - the Principle of Cessation of Suffering. Being a pragmatist, he further gave eight modes of living this physical life to realize Nibbana. Only then could he claim that he had realized the ultimate knowledge and had become a Buddha.

As a personal note I must add that on one occasion in about 1998, during a visit to my old home in 35 Thantadalan, Sanchaung, Yangon, I had fasted (no food - not even fruit juice or glucose solution: I was drinking only water) continually for 72 hours. During that period, I reflected on the attributes of Buddhist Dhamma - one being "akali kau" which I understood as "beyond the restraints of Time".

UKT 170824: The second fasting was in 2016 when my cook refused to cook for my recently adopted great-granddaughter. She was only 9 1/2 years old very young for my cook who was more 45 to become envious. I was 83 old enough to be a genetic great-grandfather. I fasted for 150 hours - with periods of Tha'ma'hta concentration in between. At 140th, I started passing on black tarry stools, and my own daughter was alarmed. My personal doctor was also alarmed, but I told them not to worry. I waited for my goal of 150 hours, and on completion of 150 hours, I started my own medication: very thin fructose solution - a sip of about 1 ml at a time. As the fructose solution came to the spot in my small intestine which was bleeding, I noticed the effect: a windy sound in the area. A second sip, a third - then I passed wind. The first spot was healed. There were other spots to be healed, and I healed all the three except the 4th deep down in the alimentary track, which I took to be minor. The whole healing process took more than 45 minutes. I broke my fast with boiled rice with salt. It dawned on me that Envy raised in another person can cause bodily suffering in you. Even Gautama Buddha had to suffer because of the Envy raised in others such as Devadatta. As for my little adoptee, I have to give her up, and sent her back to her parents who were too poor to provide her with a good education.

As a material scientist, I hold that a scientific law, such as the "Principle of Conservation of Matter-Energy" is beyond the restraint of Time. I then started to analyze the Four Noble Truths as scientific laws without bringing in the Pali language which I knew only as a second-hand or maybe more hands-me-down translations and elaborations. Then I realized that the Four Noble Truths are scientific laws. Then I looked into the question of Atta again as a physical reality. I then realized that Atta itself is nothing but an axiom, and I had no choice but accept the Doctrine of Anatta as a scientific concept.

Back in Canada, I tried my approach on my Canadian friends: hard-nose scientists and engineers from many lands. They were nominal Christians (Anglicans, Baptists, Seventh-Day Adventists, and Mormons), Hindus, Buddhists, and even a Wicca-nist (so-called "Witch" by Christians). None would reject my views, but none would call herself or himself a Buddhist!

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Upanishads 140110

The Upanishads उपनिषद् upaniṣad [Pali: Pal: {U.pa.ni.a}] are a collection of Vedic texts [1] which contain the earliest emergence of some of the central religious concepts of Hinduism, Buddhism [Mahayana?] and Jainism. [1] [note 1] [note 2] They are also known as Vedanta ("the end of the Veda"). [UKT ]

UKT 140110: Contrary to what is written here, the Vedantas are more useful to the modern man than the Rig Veda. The Rig Veda is nothing but a collection of hymns directed to Devas and Asuras who were just figment imagination of the common peoples of the ancient days. And how could one gauge the importance the innumerable deities.

One method would be to count the number of hymns directed to each one. Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rigvedic_deities 140110, gives:
Number of hymns: Indra - 289, Agni - 218, Soma - 123
Brhaspati (Mahabrahma ?) - 8, Vishnu - 6, Savitr (Sun or Siva?) - 11 / Rudra (Siva?) - 5

It came as a surprise to me to find that Indra (the King), Agni (the Messenger who could report lies about you), and Soma (restful sleep and tranquility) were the most important, and those that are now treated as the Hindu Trinity - the Mahabrahma, Vishnu and Siva - were just minor gods. The Asuras had not been demonized and were also worshipped. As such the Rig Veda (or the knowledge of the hymns) had probably been not manipulated too much. The Upanishads, on the other hand been the works of new and newer authors who were trying to portray their deities as more important than the ancient Vedic ones. 

The Upanishads are considered by Hindus to contain revealed truths (Sruti) concerning the nature of ultimate reality (brahman) and describing the character and form of human salvation (moksha). The Upanishads are found mostly in the concluding part of the Brahmanas and Aranyakas [3] and have been passed down in oral tradition.

More than 200 Upanishads are known, of which the first dozen or so are the oldest and most important and are referred to as the principal or main (mukhya) Upanishads. The mukhya Upanishads all predate the Common Era, possibly from the Pre-Buddhist period (6th century BCE) [4] [5] down to the Maurya period. [5] The remainder of the Muktika canon was mostly composed during medieval Hinduism, and new Upanishads continued being composed in the early modern and modern era, [6] down to at least the 20th century.

With the Bhagavad Gita and the Brahmasutra (known collectively as the Prasthanatrayi), [7] the mukhya Upanishads provide a foundation for the several later schools of Vedanta, among them, two influential monistic schools of Hinduism. [note 3] [note 4] [note 5]

With the translation of the Upanishads in the early 19th century they also started to attract attention from a western audience. Schopenhauer praised the Upanishads. The 19th century transcendentalists, like Emerson and Thoreau, noted similarities between the doctrine of Upanishads and those of Plato and Kant. [11] [12]

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