Update: 2016-12-12 04:40 PM -0500


A Practical Sanskrit Dictionary


by A. A. Macdonell, 1893,
http://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/scans/MDScan/index.php?sfx=jpg 1929.
Nataraj ed., 1st in 2006, 2012

Edited, with additions from Pali sources, by U Kyaw Tun (UKT) (M.S., I.P.S.T., USA) and staff of Tun Institute of Learning (TIL) . Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone. Prepared for students and staff of TIL  Computing and Language Center, Yangon, MYANMAR :  http://www.tuninst.net , www.romabama.blogspot.com

MC-indx.htm | Top

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Remember the proper spelling is with vowel-letter {U.} उ in both Skt and Pali.
short vowel, 1 blnk, उ u = {u.} / {U.}
long vowel, 2 blnk,  ऊ ū = {u} / {U}-Bur , {U}-Mon

{oat~pRa.}/ {OAt~pRa.} <-- {oat~p~ra.}/  {OAt~p~ra.}
{oat~p~la.}/  {OAt~p~la.}
{oat~hpa.}/ {OAt~hpa.}
{oat~a.}/ {OAt~a.} 

{u.da.}/ {U.da.} : treat {U.da.} & {OAd} as prefixes
  {u.da.ka.}/ {U.da.ka.} 
  {u.da.ga.}/ {U.da.ga.}
  {u.da.nga.}/ {U.da.nga.} : kinsi

  {u.da.za.}/ {U.da.za.} 
  {u.da.a.}/ {U.da.a.} : be careful of the look-alikes

  {u.da.Da.}/ {U.da.Da.}
  {u.da.na.}/ {U.da.na.}

  {u.da.pa.}/ {U.da.pa.}
  {u.da.ba.}/ {U.da.ba.}
  {u.da.ma.}/ {U.da.ma.}

  {u.da.ya.}/ {U.da.ya.}
  {u.da.ra.}/ {U.da.ra.}
  {a.da.wa.}/ {U.da.wa.}
  {u.da.sha.}/ {U.da.sha.}
  {u.da.ha.}/ {U.da.ha.}

{u.da}/ {U.da}


उदात्तालंकार udattalankara [ udtta‿alamkra ]
= उ द ा त ् त ा ल ं क ा र
- m. the rhetorical figure called  "sublime", "supermundane"

UKT notes :


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{oat~pRa.}/ {OAt~pRa.}
{oat~p~ra.}/  {OAt~p~ra.}

UKT 131226, 161209: Because of possible confusion in Mon-Myan, I have to use the derived rhotic form similar to the one I have used for Skt-Myan {iRi.} ऋ . And, to transcribe उत्प्रेक्षण {OAt~pR-k~Sa.Na.} = उ त ् प ् र े क ् ष ण , I have to use the viram aka {a.t} together with the vertical conjunct:

showing the hidden viram aka {a.t} : {OAt~pa.} = {OAt~pa.}
making the {pa.} rhotic by using {iRa.} (not present in Skt-Dev): {OAt~pRa.}
I can now write: {OAt~p~r} --> {OAt~pR}

See how I transcribe उत्प्लवन : {OAt~p~la.}



उत्प्रेक्षण [ ut-preksh-ana ]
- n. anticipation; foreboding; figurative expression; -, f. disregard, indifference; simile, figurative expression: -‿kshepa, m. kind of rhetorical figure; -ita‿upam, f. kind of simile.


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{oat~p~la.}/  {OAt~p~la.}


उत्प्लवन [ ut-plavana ]
- n. leaping; overflowing.


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{oat~hpa.}/ {OAt~hpa.}


उत्फाल [ ut-phla ]
- m. leap, bound.



उत्फुल्ल [ ut-phulla ]
- pp. (√phal) blown (flower); wide open, expanded; swollen, inflated.


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{oat~a.}/ {OAt~a.}


उत्स [ t-sa ]
- m. well, fountain; source.



उत्सङ्ग [ ut-saṅg-a ]
- m. lap; flat surface; roof; depression; -ita, pp. admixed; -in, a. deep, deep-seated.



उत्सधि [ utsa-dh ]
- m. basin of a spring.



उत्सर्ग [ ut-sarg ]
- m. emission, discharge; evacuation; throwing away; laying aside; setting free, liberation; donation; abandonment, relinquishment; cessation; restitution; general rule; (sc. khandasm) ceremony on suspension of Vedic study; -sargana, a. () rejecting; n. letting go, dismissal; cessation; ceremony on suspension of Vedic study.



उत्सर्पण [ ut-sarp-ana ]
- n. rising; going out; stepping forward; -in, a. springing up; breaking forth, coming to light; soaring upwards: (n)-, f. ascending cycle.



उत्सव [ ut-sav ]
- m. undertaking; holiday, festival; flowering: -samketa, m. pl. N. of a people.



उत्सवाय [ utsavya ]
- den. . be a feast for.



उत्सादन [ ut-sd-ana ]
- n. cessation; destruction; rubbing, shampooing; -anya, fp. to be destroyed.



  उत्सारण [ ut-sr-ana ]
- n., , f. clearing the streets; -anya, fp. to be driven away; -in, a. extending to, directed towards.



उत्साह [ ut-sha ]
- m. power, energy; effort, resolution, perseverance; inclination for, delight in (--): -yoga, m. display of energy; -vat, a. energetic; -sakti, f. strength of will, force of energy; -shin, a. resolute; powerful.

उत्साह [ ut-sha ]
Skt: उत्साह [ ut-sha ] - m. power, energy; effort, resolution, perseverance; inclination for, delight in (--) - Mac050c1
Pal: {OA~a-ha.} - UHS-PMD0248
  UKT frm UHS: m. diligence, exertion.



उत्सुक [ ut-suka ]
- a. uneasy, agitated; eager; yearning; longing for (lc., prati, or --); *anxious about (in., lc.): -t, f. uneasiness; eagerness, zeal; longing, yearning; -vadana, a. having a yearning face.



उत्सुकय [ utsuka-ya ]
- den. P. fill with yearning or uneasiness.



उत्सूत्र [ ut-stra ]
- a. unstrung (pearls).


उत्सृष्टलोमन् [ ut-srishta-loman ]
- a. ceasing to cut off the hair; -vat, pp. act. shed (tears); -‿agni, a. having let the sacred fire go out.



उत्सृष्टि [ ut-srishti ]
- f. letting out.



उत्सेक [ ut-sek-a ]
- m. redundancy, excess; pride, arrogance; -in, a. proud, haughty.



उत्सेध [ ut-sedha ]
- m. elevation; prominence; height, thickness; superiority.



उत्स्थल [ut-sthala]
= उत्स्थल
- n. N. of an island

UKT 161210: We find Utsthala island in Kādambari  which has the story of Aśokadatta and Vijayadatta - a romantic novel in Sanskrit. It was substantially composed by Bāṇabhaṭṭa in the first half of the 7th century CE, who did not survive to see it through completion. The novel was completed by Banabhatta's son Bhushanabhatta, according to the plan laid out by his late father.
- https://books.google.ca/books?id=JyYYvZbt2g8C&pg=PT65&dq=utsthala... 161210
... "Chapter xxvi:  The next morning, while Śaktideva was dwelling in the monastery in the island of Utasthala, Satyavrata, the king of the fisherman, came to him, and said to him in accordance with the promise which he had made before, ''Brhman, I have thought of a device for accomplishing your wish: there is a fair isle in the middle of the sea named Ratnaka, and in it there is a temple of the adorable Vishṇu founded by the Ocean, and on the twelfth day of the white fortnight of shdha there is a festival there with a procession, and people come there diligently from all the islands to offer worship. It is possible that some one there might know about the Golden City, so come let us go there, for that day is near.'' When Satyavrata made this proposal, Śaktideva consented gladly, and took with him the provisions for the journey furnished by Vishṇudatta. Then he went on board the ship brought by ..."



उत्स्रष्टव्य [ ut-srash-tavya ]
= उ त ् स ् र ष ् ट व ् य
- fp. to be evacuated; to be dismissed; -tu-kma, a. wishing to let go.



उत्स्राविन् [ ut-srvin ]
- a. arising.



- . talk in one's sleep

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{u.da.}/ {U.da.} 


उद् [ . ud ]
- px. (w. vb., n. or a.) up; out.



उद्  [ . ud ] , VII. P. [unat-ti],
- well; wet. moisten: pp. unna , moistened, we. vi , well forth; moisten, sam , pp. wetted . 


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उद् [ud-a]
- water (only - or a. -)


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{u.da.ka.}/ {U.da.ka.} 


उदक् [ d-ak ]
- n. ad. northwards.



उदक [ uda-k ]
- n. water; ablution; libation to the Ma'nes: -m kri, d, or pra-d, present libation of water to the dead (d., g.); -m kri, perform the prescribed ablutions; -m upa-spris, touch various parts of the body with water as prescribed; -karman, n. libation of water to the Ma'nes; -krya, n. id.; ablution; -kriy, f. = udaka-karman; -tarpana, n. libation with water; -dna, n. id.; -dyin, a. offering the funeral libation of water; -prva, a. beginning with a pouring out of water; -maya, a. consisting of water only; ()-vat, a. supplied with water; -vat, f. girl's N.; -sparsana, n. contact with water; ablution.



उदकाञ्जलि [ udaka‿agali ]
- m. handful of water; -‿anta, m. water-boundary: ‿udakntt, till water is reached; -‿arnava, m. receptacle of waters; -‿artha, m. ablution: -m, ad. in order to perform an ablution; -‿arthin, a. seeking water.



उदकुम्भ [ uda-kumbh ]
- m. pitcher of water; N.



उदकोपस्पर्शन [ udaka‿upaspars-ana ]
- n. ablution; -in, a. performing ablutions.



उदक्तस् udak-ts, उदक्तात् [ dak-tt ]
= उ द क ् त स ्
- ad. from above; from the north; -patha, m. (way north), north country.



उदक्य [ udak-ya ]
- a. being in the water; , f. menstruating: -gamana, n. intercourse with a woman in her courses.


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{u.da.ga.}/ {U.da.ga.}


उदगयन [ udag-ayan ]
- n. sun's northern course; half year from winter to summer solstice; -vritti, f. sun's turn to the north; -dasa, a. having the seam turned upward or northward; -dvra, a. having a northern entrance.



उदग्र [ ud-agra ]
- a. (having its top elevated), upraised, high; long; large; lofty, exalted; heightened or increased (by, --); advanced (age); excited, carried away by (--); exceedingly (--); -pluta, a. making high bounds: -tva, n. abst. ɴ.


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{u.da.nga.}/ {U.da.nga.} : kinsi


उदङ्मुख [ udaṅ-mukha ]
- a. facing northwards.


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{u.da.za.}/ {U.da.za.}


उदज [ uda-ga ]
- n. lotus; -gala-ka, m. N. of a cartwright.



[ud-ak ]
- a. ( udik ) upward; northward


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{u.da.a.}/ {U.da.a.}  : be careful of the look-alikes


उदञ्चन [ ud-kana ]
= उ द ञ ् च न
- m. (drawer up), well bucket.



उदञ्जलि [ ud-agali ]
- a. holding up the hollowed hands.


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{u.da.Da.}/ {U.da.Da.}


उदधान [ uda-dhna ]
- n. reservoir; -dh, a. containing water; m. receptacle of water (cloud, lake, river), ocean: -gala-maya, a. consisting of sea-water, -nemi, a. ocean-encircled.



उदधीय [ udadh-ya ]
- den. P. regard as an ocean.


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{u.da.na.}/  {U.da.na.} 


उदन्् [ ud-n ]
- n. wave; water.



उदन्त [ ud-ant ]
- m. tidings, report.



उदन्त्य [ ud-antya ]
- a. dwelling beyond the boundary.



उदन्य [ udan-y ]
- a. surging, watery: , f. desire for water, thirst; -y, a. desirous of water; -vt, a. surging; abounding in water; m. ocean.


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{u.da.pa.}/ {U.da.pa.}


उदपात्र [ uda-ptr ]
- n. pot of water; -pna, m. n. well; -pti, f. place for drinking water.


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उदबिन्दु [ uda-bindu ]
- m. drop of water.


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उदम्भस् [ ud-ambhas ]
= उ द म ् भ स ्
- a. abounding in water.


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{u.da.ya.}/ {U.da.ya.}


उदय [ ud-ay ]
- m. rising; rise (of sun or moon), break (of dawn); gathering (of clouds); N. of the mythical mountain behind which sun and moon are supposed to rise; appearance, arising, production, beginning; consequence, result; success; prosperity; gain; income, revenue; interest; -giri, m. sunrise mountain; -gupta, m. N. of a man; -tata, m. slope of Mount Udaya.

UKT 161211: Mount Udaya is the name of the mountain - the sun-rise mountain - mentioned in the Harṣa-carita by Bāṇabhaṭṭa, a historical prose romance in Sanskrit, describing the events of king Harṣa's (7th century AD) ascension to the throne, his conquests, and his relations with the contemporary monarchs.
-- https://books.google.ca/books?id=e7otu0Yht4sC&pg=PA13&lpg=PA13&dq=Mount+Udaya ... 161211
Mount Udaya is mentioned on Ch01, p011 & p013.
   In Bur-Myan the sun-rise mountain is known as {yu.gn~Dor} - UTM-PDMD263



उदयन [ ud-yana ]
- n. rise; end; m. N. of a king: &isharp;-ya, a. concluding.



उदयराज [ udaya-rga ]
- m. man's N.; -vat, a. risen; -vyayin, a. rising and falling.



उदयाचल [ udaya‿akala ]
- m. sunrise mountain; -‿ditya, m. N. of a man; -‿anta, a. ending with sunrise; -‿vritti, f. turning towards the rise of the sun.



उदयिन् [ uday-in ]
- a. coming forth; flourishing; victorious.



उदयोर्वीभृत् [ udaya‿urvbhrit ]
- m. sunrise mountain.


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{u.da.ra.}/ {U.da.ra.}


उदर [ ud-ra ]
Skt: उदर [ ud-ra ] - n. (-- a. f. , ) belly; crop; womb; abdominal swelling;
  hollow, interior swelling: √ri]. - Mac050c3
Pal: {U.da.ra.} - UHS-PMD0214
  UKT from UHS: n. belly, digestive organ (where fresh food is being digested:
  different from part which temporarily houses the digested food - feces.



उदरंभर [ udaram-bhara ]
- a. voracious.



उदररन्ध्र [ udara-randhra ]
- n. part of a horse's belly; -vydhi, m. disorder of the bowels.



उदरिन् [ udar-in ]
- a. paunch-bellied.



उदर्क [ ud-ark ]
- m. resounding, outstripping; consequence; end; future.



उदर्चिस् [ ud-arkis ]
- a. radiant; m. fire.


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{a.da.wa.}/ {U.da.wa.} 


उदवज्र [ uda-vagra ]
Skt: उदवज्र [ uda-vagra ] - m. water thunderbolt. -- Mac050c3
Skt: उदवज्र udavajra - m. thunder-like crash of water, water-spout - SpkSkt

UKT 131226: Is it something like the water-cannon, the police used on rioters?
See Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Water_cannon 131226



उदवसित [ ud-ava-sita ]
- (pp.) n. dwelling, house.



उदवास [ uda-vs-a ]
- m. remaining in the water; -in, a. staying in the water.


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{u.da.sha.}/ {U.da.sha.} 


Skt: [ud-asra-ya] - P. cause to weep - Mac050c3
Skt: उदश्रयति { उदश्रय } udaśrayati { udaśraya} = उ द श ् र य त ि   - v. shed tears, cause to weep - SpkSkt



उदश्रु [ ud-asru ]
= उ द श ् र ु
- a. weeping.


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{u.da.ha.}/ {U.da.ha.}


उदहार [ uda-hr ]
Skt: उदहार [ uda-hr ] - a. () fetching or about to fetch water. - Mac050c3
Pal: {U.da.ha-ra.ka.} - UHS-PMD0217
  UKT frm UHS: one who carries water, water-carrier


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{u.da}/ {U.da}


उदाचार [ ud-kra ]
- m. promenade.



उदात्त [ ud--tta ]
- pp. (√d) raised; high; distinguished, renowned; magnanimous; munificent; haughty; having the acute accent; m. acute.



उदान udana [ ud-na ] 
Skt: उदान [ud-na] - m. rising air (one of the five airs in the body).-- Mac050c3
Skt: उदान udāna - m. one of the five vital airs of the human body - SpkSkt
Bur: {U.daan:} - n. . utterance handed down from generation to generation.
  . joyful utterance. (Pal: {U.da-na.}) -- MED2006-608

UKT 150521: Instead of the translation "air", I prefer "wind" {l} to imply to 'movement'. See Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mahābhūta 150521 gives "Air (or wind) element (vāyu-dhātu) Air element represents the quality of expansion or repulsive forces. Any matter where repulsive forces are in prominence are called air elements. Internal air elements includes air associated with the pulmonary system (for example, for breathing), the intestinal system ("winds in the belly and ... bowels"), etc." . The word "wind" implies 'movement' whereas "air" can be stationary. The Bur-Myan term {km~ma.za.l} refers to 'movements' within a woman's belly prior to childbirth.
See my note on the Myanmar National Anthem : {U.daan:}



उदायुध [ ud-yudha ]
- a. with raised weapons.



उदार [ . ud-ra ]
- a. rousing; exalted; distinguished, excellent; noble; loud: -m, ad. aloud.



उदार [ . ud-ra ]
- . m. pl. Siva's wife



- m. honorific ep. of a man.



उदारचरित [ udra-karita ]
- a. acting nobly; -ketas, a. high-minded; -t, f., -tva, n. generosity; -dhi, a. of exalted intellect; -bhva, m. magnanimity; -vikrama, m. of eminent prowess; -sattva, a. of noble character.



उदासितृ [ud-sitri ]
Skt: उदासितृ [ud-sitri ] - a. indifferent - Mac050c3
Skt: उदासितृ udāsitṛ - adj. stoical, void of affection or concern, indifferent - SpkSkt



उदासीन [ ud-s-na ]
- pr. pt. uninterested; indifferent (to, lc.); m. indifferent person, neutral: -t, f. indifference.



उदास्थित [ ud--sthita ]
- (pp.) m. monk who has broken his vow.



उदाहरण [ ud-harana ]
- n. speaking; recitation; declaration; example; -vastu, n. pl. matters of speech.



उदाहार [ ud-hra ]
- a. intending to fetch water; n. fetching of water.

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UKT notes

Myanmar National Anthem
- {U.daan:}

- UKT 140122, 161211

The Myanmar National Anthem, {km~Ba ma.ky} has it beginnings as a fighting song during WWII. It was then a clarion call to fight the English (not the British) who were an unjust race. With this song, which as we children sang at the top of our voices, saluted the flag of the newly independent state.

The song began with the lines:

km~Ba ky au l:/
U.daan: ky neing Bw/
ma.a.ma lu-myo: n~ga.lait mya: ko/
seit-na pa t/ ... }.

I hesitate to give the meaning of the words, except {U.daan:} given above. The present National Anthem had all these words replaced.

That independence "granted" by the Japanese after they have drove the British-Burma Lt. Governor General, Sir Dorman Smith (Governor from 6 May 1941 - 31 August 1946), is now "written" as a sham. It is to be recorded that Sir Dorman Smith himself did become disillusioned with the very policies of the British Colonialists that he himself was representing. The following is from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reginald_Dorman-Smith 140122

In October 1943, Dorman-Smith made a speech in London before the East Indian Association. His speech lamented the fact that while the British had talked for years about self-government and reform in Asia, they had delivered very little of it which had had damaged their credibility. He said:

Neither our word nor our intentions are trusted in that part of the globe ... We have fed such countries as Burma on political formulae until they are sick at the very sight and sound of a formula, which has come, as far as my experience shows, to be looked upon as a very British means of avoiding a definite course of action.

Yet we had sang the song, and saluted the flag. Our money was re-changed to the decimal system, as used before the British annexed our mother land and made it into a mere province in the British India Empire. The basic unit being the {kyat} divided into 100 {hsn.} 'cent' as shown on the postage stamps.

My mother's cousins were in the BIA (Burma Independence Army), a motley crew of undisciplined soldiers, most of whom had not handled a fire arm, not even a shot-gun, before. Ill-shod and ill-equipped many had died - fighting for the Mother Land.

the BIA (Burma Independence Army),

We as children aspired to join the fight - to death if necessary - to fight what are now touted as {ma.ha-mait} 'Allies'. They - Americans, British, French - were allied among themselves, and they had fought to liberate Europe from the Germans and Italians. But they had schemed to keep the colonies intact as before: Burma to remain a British Colony again after they have conquered the Japanese.

The British fought back, not in the regular fashion, as always with the wars in Burma. The main fighting was carried out guerrilla fashion: by foot-solders hand-to-hand fighting.

With this little note, I salute those who had died to liberate our Mother Land, and the common men whom we were taught to hate -- those who had died to uphold the policies mentioned by Sir Dorman Smith.

Go back Myan-Anthem-note-b

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