Update: 2016-12-09 03:47 AM -0500


A Practical Sanskrit Dictionary


by A. A. Macdonell, 1893,
http://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/scans/MDScan/index.php?sfx=jpg 1929.
Nataraj ed., 1st in 2006, 2012

Edited, with additions from Pali sources, by U Kyaw Tun (UKT) (M.S., I.P.S.T., USA) and staff of Tun Institute of Learning (TIL) . Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone. Prepared for students and staff of TIL  Computing and Language Center, Yangon, MYANMAR :  http://www.tuninst.net , www.romabama.blogspot.com

MC-indx.htm | Top

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Remember the proper spelling is with vowel-letter {U.} उ in both Skt and Pali.
short vowel, 1 blnk, उ u = {u.} / {U.}
long vowel, 2 blnk,  ऊ ū = {u} / {U}-Bur , {U}-Mon

{oat~ka.}/ {OAt~ka.}  - cont
{oat~kSa.} : Pseudo-Kha
{oat~hka.} : Regular-Kha

{oat~ta.}/ {OAt~ta.} : treat {OAt~ta.} as a prefix
  {oat~ta.ra.}/ {OAt~ta.ra.}
  {oat~ta.ra}/ {OAt~ta.ra}
  {oat~ta.ri.}/ {OAt~ta.ri.}
  {oat~ta.r}/ {OAt~ta.r}

{oat~ta}/ {OAt~ta}
  {oat~ta-ra.}/ {OAt~ta-ra.}

{oat~hta.}/ {OAt~hta.}
{oat~pa.}/ {OAt~pa.}
{oat~pa}/  {OAt~pa}

उत्तोरण uttorana [ ut-torana ]
- a. adorned with erected arches: -patka, a. adorned with erected arches and flying flags.


UKT notes :
Buddhist Sasana Flag
Ratha Saptami रथसप्तमी : 7th day following the Suns northerly movement (Uttarayana) of vernal equinox starting from Capricorn (Makara).

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{oat~ka.}/ {OAt~ka.} - cont



उत्कलिका [ ut-kalik ]
- f. longing; love-sick yearning; bud; wave.



उत्कषण [ ut-kashana ]
- n. tearing up.



उत्किर [ ut-kira ]
- a. throwing or whirling up (--).



उत्कीलित [ ut-klita ]
- pp. opened by withdrawing the plug.



उत्कुल [ ut-kula ]
- a. degenerate.



उत्कूज [ ut-kg-a ]
- m. note or song (of the cuckoo): -ita, pp. n. id.



उत्कूर्दन [ ut-krdana ]
- n. leaping up.



उत्कूल [ ut-kla ]
- a. overflowing the bank: -gmin, a. id.


उत्कृति [ ut-kriti ]
- f. a metre (104 or 80 syllables).



उत्कृष्ट [ ut-krish-ta ]
- pp. superior: -tva, n. abst. ɴ.; -vedana, n. marrying a man of higher caste; -‿updhi, a. whose condition or associate is exalted: -t, f. abst. ɴ. (ph.).



उत्कोच [ ut-koka ]
- m. bribe: -ka, a. taking bribes.



उत्कोटि [ ut-koti ]
- a. running to a point.



उत्कोरकय [ ut-koraka-ya ]
- den. P. furnish with sprouting buds.



उत्क्रम [ ut-kram ]
- m. rising; going out; departure; -krmana, n., -krnti, f. id.



उत्क्रोश [ ut-krosa ]
- m. osprey.

UKT 131223: the fish-eating hawk, Pandion haliaetus , having plumage that is dark on the back and white below. -- AHTD


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{oat~kSa.} : Pseudo-Kha

Compare with Pali-Myan {oat~kha.}/ {OAt~hka.}


उत्क्षिप्ति [ ut-kshipti ]
= उ त ् क्ष ि प ् त ि
- f. raising; -kshepa, m. tossing up, raising; spreading out: -na, n. id., -ka, m. purloiner of clothes.

UKT 161208: Derived from the word purloin 'to steal, often in a violation of trust' (AHTD), may mean impersonator who pretends to be an official of higher rank by wearing uniform and badges of the higher rank. (Need to check my info.) I remember, during the WWII, my father who was a leutinent in medical corp had to exchange badges with his captain who had ordered him the change because the captain could not speak proper English and they had to attend a meeting with British officers.


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{oat~hka.} : Regular-Kha


उत्खात [ ut-kht-a ]
- n. undermining; extirpation; uneven ground; -in, a. uneven (ground).

extirpate  v. tr. extirpated extirpating extirpates 1. To pull up by the roots. 2. To destroy totally; exterminate. See note at abolish . 3. To remove by surgery. [Latin exstirpāre exstirpāt- ex- ex- stirps root] - AHTD


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{oat~ta.} उत्त / {OAt~ta.}

UKT 150521: The two words / {oat~ta.} उत्त & / {oad~da.} उद्द (p051.htm) have very similar pronunciations. I am comparing the pair of them with {t~ta.} अत्त (p008.htm) & {d~Da.} अद्ध (p009.htm) . The reason for my interest is because / {u.} उ (close-back vowel) and {a.} अ (open-front vowel) have very different (opposing) pronunciations. I became interested in this topic after hearing Mora Sutta Paritta in which the "rising Sun" is referred to by / {u.} उ (close-back vowel), and the "setting Sun" by {a.} अ (open-front vowel).


उत्तंस [ ut-tams-a ]
= उ त ् त ं स
- m. wreath, crest; ornament.



उत्तंसय [ uttamsa-ya ]
- den. P. deck with a wreath: pp. ita, worn as a wreath.



- m. N. of a Rishi



उत्तट [ ut-tata ]
= उ त ् त ट
- a. having overflowed its banks.



उत्तब्ध [ t-tabdha ]
- pp. √stabh; -tabh-ita, id.



उत्तम [ ut-tam ]
- spv. highest, supreme; most excellent, best, chief (among, --); superior to, higher or better than (ab.); last: -m, --, ad.; m. (last = our) first person (gr.).


उत्तमगन्धाढ्य [ uttama-gandha‿dhya ]
- a. rich in delicious fragrance; -gana, m. pl. superior people; -tegas, a. supremely brilliant or mighty; -purusha, m. supreme spirit; (last = our) first person (gr.).



उत्तमर्ण [ uttama‿rina ]
- m. creditor; i-ka, m. id.



उत्तमवर्ण [ uttama-varna ]
- a. most beautifully coloured; -shasa, n. highest fine.



उत्तमाङ्ग [ uttama‿aṅga ]
- n. head.



- m. N. of a man

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{oat~ta.ra.}/ {OAt~ta.ra.}


उत्तर [ t-tara ]
- cpv. upper; higher, better; later (than, ab.); left; northern; north of (ab.); posterior; following; latter, subsequent, future; superior; mightier; victorious; winning (a suit); m. N. of a mtn.; n. surface, cover (--, a.); north; latter part of a compound; answer, discussion; legal defence; contradiction (-m d, contradict); superiority; surplus (--, a. = increased by, plus); main part (--, a. having asits chief object, consisting chiefly of; ad. overwhelmed by); consequence (--, a. followed by); later period (-- = later); kind of song.


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उत्तरकाय [ uttara-kya ]
- m. upper part of the body; -kla, m. subsequent period, future; a. future; -kosala, m. pl. northern Kosalas; -khanda, m. n. designation of last section in various works.



उत्तरंग [ . ut-taraṅga ]
- den. . break forth like waves.



उत्तरंग [ . uttaraṅga ]
- m. high wave; a. having high waves.



उत्तरच्छद [ uttara-kkhada ]
- m. cover, coverlet; -ga, a. born of the last mentioned marriage.



उत्तरण [ ut-trana ]
- a. crossing; n. crossing, passing over (--).



उत्तरतस् [ uttara-ts ]
- ad. northwards; to the north, to the left of (g.): -paskt, to the north-west; -dyaka, a. answering, contradicting, impertinent; -paksha, m. northern or left wing; answer to an opponent's objection (ph.); -pada, n. latter part of a compound; -paskima, a. north-westerly.



उत्तरम् [ uttarm ]
- ad. further; forward; afterwards, thereupon.



उत्तरल [ ut-tarala ]
- a. trembling, quivering.



उत्तरलाय [ uttaral-ya ]
- den. . shudder, quiver.



उत्तरलोमन् [ ttara-loman ]
- a. having the hairy side uppermost; -vdin, a. answering; making the later claims (leg.).


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{oat~ta.ra}/ {OAt~ta.ra}


उत्तरा [ . uttar ]
- f. (sc. dis) north.



उत्तरा [ . uttar ]
- (in.) ad. northwards; north of (ab., g.).



उत्तरात् [ uttart ]
- (ab.) ad. from the north or left.



उत्तराधर [ uttara‿adhar ]
- a. being above and below; n. upper and lower lip; lips: -vivara, n. mouth.



उत्तरापथ [ uttar-patha ]
- m. (way to the north), north country.



उत्तराम्् [ uttarm ]
- ad. further away.


उत्तरायण [ uttara‿ayana ]
- n. northward course (of the sun); half-year in which the sun moves northwards; commencement of the sun's northward course = winter solstice (in the month Pausha); -‿aran, f. the upper fire-stick; -‿artha, a. being for the sake of what follows; -‿ardh, n. upper part of the body; -vat, a. superior; -‿s, f. northern quarter; -‿asman, a. having lofty crags; -‿saṅga, m. upper or outer garment; covering.



उत्तराहि [ uttarhi ]
- ad. northwards.


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{oat~ta.ri.}/ {OAt~ta.ri.}


उत्तरीय [ uttar-ya ]
- n. upper or outer garment, covering; coverlet: -ka, n. id.


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{oat~ta.r}/ {OAt~ta.r}


उत्तरेण [ ttarena ]
- (in.) ad. to the north or left of (ac., ab., g., --).



उत्तरेद्युस् [ uttare-dys ]
- ad. on the following day.



उत्तरोत्तर [ uttara‿uttara ]
- a. ever increasing; following in succession: -m, ad. higher and higher; more and more; in constant succession; n. reply to answer, rejoinder; discussion: -bhva, a. in which one is always above the other, -‿ukta, pp. subsequently stated in each case.



उत्तरोष्ठ, ˚रौष्ठ [ uttara‿oshtha ]
- m. upper lip.


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{oat~ta}/ {OAt~ta}


उत्तान [ ut-tn ]
- a. outspread; extended; face upwards; upturned; shallow, superficial; wide open; ready to hand; i-ta, cs. pp. opened wide; -kri, open wide; -bh, be spread out.



उत्ताप [ ut-tpa ]
- m. great heat; ardour, passion.


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{oat~ta-ra.}/ {OAt~ta-ra.}


उत्तार [ ut-tr-a ]
- m. crossing (--); rescue; -ana, a. saving; n. deliverance; -ayitri, a. about to cross (ac.); -ya, fp. to be vomited.


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उत्ताल [ ut-tla ]
- a. violent; luxuriant; terrible, gruesome; excellent.



उत्तितीर्षु [ ut-titr-shu ]
- des. a. wishing to come out of (ab.); desirous of crossing (ac.).



उत्तुङ्ग [ ut-tuṅg-a ]
= उ त ् त ु ङ ् ग
- a. prominent, high; -ita, pp. raised aloft; --kri, raise aloft.



उत्तेजना [ ut-tegan ]
= उ त ् त े ज न ा
- f. whetting.



उत्तोरण [ ut-torana ]
- a. adorned with erected arches: -patka, a. adorned with erected arches and flying flags.

See my note on Buddhist Sasana Flag


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{oat~hta.}/ {OAt~hta.}


उत्थ [ ut-tha ]
- a. arising; springing up; proceeding from, originating in (--); -th-tavya, fp. n. one should rise; one should be up and doing; -thna, m. originator; n. rising; rise (of heavenly bodies); resurrection; insurrection, tumult; exertion, activity; origin: -vat, a. strenuous, -vra, m. man of action; -thpana, n. raising; awakening; -thya, gd. having arisen; -thy-in, a. rising; appearing; active, strenuous: -i-tva, n. abst. ɴ.; -thita, pp. √sth.


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{oat~pa.}/  {OAt~pa.}


उत्पक्ष्मन् [ ut-paksh-man ]
- a. having raised eyelashes; -mala, a. id.



उत्पतन [ ut-patana ]
- a. () flying up; n. leaping up.



उत्पताक [ ut-patka ]
- a. with flags flying; , f. a flying flag: -dhvaga, a. having flying flags and banners.



उत्पतितव्य [ ut-pat-itavya ]
- fp. n. one must fly up; -ishnu, a. flying up; about to spring.



उत्पत्तव्य [ ut-pattavya ]
- fp. n. to appear: anena‿utpattavyam, he will be born again.



उत्पत्ति [ ut-patti ]
- f. coming into being, birth; origin; mine; new birth, regeneration; produce; productiveness; occurrence, esp. of or in a Vedic passage: -dhman, n. birthplace; -mat, a. produced, born.



उत्पथ [ ut-patha ]
- m. wrong way; evil course.



उत्पन्न [ ut-panna ]
- pp. (√pad) arisen: -buddhi, a. prudent, wise.



उत्पल [ ut-pala ]
- n. (blue) lotus at a later stage called kamala; m. N.: -ka, m. id.; -pura, n. N. of a town built by Utpala; -vana, n. bed of lotuses; -ska, n. N. of a plant; -‿aksha, m. N. of a king; -‿pda, m. N. of a king.



उत्पलिन् [ utpal-in ]
- a. abounding in lotuses: -, f. bed of lotuses.



उत्पवन [ ut-pvana ]
- n. purification; implement of purification; -pavitr, m. purifier.

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{oat~pa}/ {OAt~pa}


उत्पाटन [ ut-pt-ana ]
- n. tearing out; expulsion; dethronement; -in, a. pulling or plucking out (--).



उत्पात [ ut-pta ]
- m. flying up; rise; leap; sudden appearance; portent, omen.



उत्पाद [ utpd-a ]
- m. issuing forth, production, birth; -aka, a. (ik) producing, productive; m. producer, shedder; father; -ana, a. () producing; n. begetting, bearing; effecting; procuring; -ayitr, f. producer; -in, a. produced or born; producing, causing (--).



उत्पिञ्ज [ ut-piga ]
- m. tumult; -pitsu, des. a. wishing to rise; -pda, m. pressure; torrent (of tears): -na, n. pressing; -prabandha, a. uninterrupted; -pravla, a. having sprouting foliage; -prsa, m., -na, n. derision, mockery.

UKT: p049c3-b22 moved to next file

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UKT notes

Buddhist Sasana Flag

UKT 131223:
(with this little note of mine, I salute in the Buddhist way my father U Tun Pe, and his mentor Arakanese U Kyaw Dun)

उत्तोरण uttorana [ ut-torana ]
- a. adorned with erected arches: -patka, a. adorned with erected arches and flying flags.

The idea of nation-states was a Western invention. In the East, the flags were not national-flags: they were not like the Union Jack. The flags were just colored streamers made of silk or cotton, on which something may be written.
   It is therefore not surprising that it was a Westerner, an American Theosophist, Colonel Henry Steel Olcott, (1832-1907) - http://www.thisismyanmar.com/nibbana/pdf/kelasa/buddflag.pdf (in Bur-Myan) 131224. See also Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_Steel_Olcott 131224 on Col. Olcott, an American military officer, journalist, lawyer and the co-founder and first President of the Theosophical Society. Olcott was the first well-known American of European ancestry to make a formal conversion to Buddhism.

Don't think that the Pali-cum-Burmese words denoting colours on the flag have deeper meanings: they are simply Pal-Myan terms for colours. e.g. {ni-la.} 'blue', {pi-ta.} 'yellow', {lau:hi.ta.} 'red', etc.

These colours were supposed to be "rays" (not necessarily electromagnetic radiations) which issued out "the physical body" (again not necessarily made up of some 90+ chemical elements) of the Gautama Buddha upon his consideration of the basis of thoughts leading to actions: the concluding portion Abidhamma. This concluding portion upon closer examination can be acceptable to a material scientist as a  system of psychology, but to associate "the rays" with electromagnetic radiations, and "the physical body" to some 90+ chemical elements is beyond his or her (and my) comprehension. 

As a personal note I must mention that my own father U Tun Pe, was a member of the Theosophical Society, located before WWII, in 45th St. East Rangoon. It was my father who introduced me to the distinction between Atta and Anatta, and also to an analogy of Atman (the Atta) - the huge central flame from which sparks were given out at times. Each human individual was a spark from that bonfire who on perfection would become a central flame in turn.

In my teen years, I had many fruitful discussions with my father, and many of my present views on Gautama Buddha as a human scientist who discovered the four natural laws, are based on those discussions. My father never failed to mention that it was his mentor Arakanese Saya U Kyaw Dun of the Govt. Tech. Institute, Insein, who introduced him to Buddhism and Buddhist meditation. U Kyaw Dun had to read from English to arrive at his understanding of Buddhism because he could not get any Burmese Buddhist monks to explain to him the essence of Buddhism without rote learning Pali. I was named after U Kyaw Dun, but later Burmanized to U Kyaw Tun.

The Buddhist Sasana flag was unknown in Myanmarpr until after WWII, and in fact many in Myanmarpr objected to it. The info about Sasana flag is from my own experience. I, at that time, was already a university student. See also Sasana Flag  http://www.thisismyanmar.com/nibbana/flag.htm 131223

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Ratha Saptami

- UKT 131226

Peoples of Myanmarpr are steeped in old beliefs, some probably dating back to years long before Gautama Buddha was born. These beliefs are not Hindu, but purely those of Tibeto-Burmans, among which is the Astronomy to forecast the changing of the seasons for agriculture and travel on rivers of high tides. From these were derived Astrology. Celebrating the Sun's course from north to south and back again to the north is closely observed and tied to lunar months.

The ancient peoples, not only of Myanmarpr but all throughout the world recognized 4 events: the Winter solstice, the Spring equinox, the Summer solstice, and the Autumnal equinox.

One of the observations in India is the Ratha Saptami,  रथसप्तमी : 7th day following the Suns northerly movement (Uttarayana) of vernal equinox starting from Capricorn (Makara). .

From Wikipedia: - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ratha_Saptami 131226

Ratha Saptami or Rathasapthami (Skt: रथसप्तमी or Magha Saptami) is a Hindu festival that falls on the seventh day (Saptami) in the bright half (Shukla Paksha) of the Hindu month Maagha. [2] [UKT]

UKT 131226: Because Ratha Saptami depends the Lunar months, it falls on different dates of the solar year: e.g. 2012, Jan 30, 2013 Feb 17 - from Wikipedia.

It marks the seventh day following the Suns northerly movement ( Uttarayana) of vernal equinox starting from Capricorn (Makara). It is symbolically represented in the form of the Sun God Surya turning his Ratha (Chariot) drawn by seven horses (representing seven colours) towards the northern hemisphere, in a north-easterly direction. It also marks the birth of Surya and hence celebrated as Surya Jayanti (the Sun-gods birthday).

Ratha Saptami is symbolic of the change of season to spring and the start of the harvesting season. For most Indian farmers, it is an auspicious beginning of the New Year. The festival is observed by all Hindus in their houses and in innumerable temples dedicated to Surya, across India. [3] [4] [5]

UKT: More in the Wiki article.

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