Update: 2016-12-07 04:31 AM -0500


A Practical Sanskrit Dictionary


by A. A. Macdonell, 1893,
http://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/scans/MDScan/index.php?sfx=jpg 1929.
Nataraj ed., 1st in 2006, 2012

Edited, with additions from Pali sources, by U Kyaw Tun (UKT) (M.S., I.P.S.T., USA) and staff of Tun Institute of Learning (TIL) . Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone. Prepared for students and staff of TIL  Computing and Language Center, Yangon, MYANMAR :  http://www.tuninst.net , www.romabama.blogspot.com

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Remember the proper spelling is with vowel-letter {U.} इ in both Skt and Pali.
Don't get mixed up with a look-alike Nya'l: {a.}.

{u.}/ {U.} उ
{u.ka.}/  {U.ka.} 
/ {oak}
/ {oak~ta.}
{u.kSa.} : Pseudo-Kha


UKT notes :
The length of foot problem
UKT 150526: Because of its opposite position to open-front vowel /a/, the close-back vowel /u/, has many interesting properties common to both. How both are checked by coda-consonants is of interest.

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{u.}/ {U.} उ

The short-vowel of 1 blnk duration is {u.} / {U.}
The long-vowel of 2 blnk duration is {u} / {U}-Bur / {U}-Mon



उ [ . u ]
Skt: [ . u ] - ij. (not liable to Sandhi) of anger or command -- Mac047c1
Pal: {U.} - UHS-PMD0197

  UKT from UHS:  prefix. ascend, placed high, dictate, freedom, should-be, underlying meaning, capability, given as example



उ [ . u ], ऊ [ ]
- encl. pcl. and, also; but, whereas; now, just; forthwith: u-u, both-and; it is used after pronouns, relatives, interr., some pcls., and the inf. in -tavai; in C. it occurs only in atha‿u, na‿u, and kim-u .



उ [ . u ]
- the suffix -u (gr.).



उ [ 4. u ]
-  v.p. u-no-ti , call, cry

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उक [ uka ]
- the suffix -uka (gr.).



उकार [ u-kra ]
- m. the sound or letter u (gr.).

उकुण ukuṇa
Skt: उकुण ukuṇa - m. bug - SpkSkt
Pal: {U.ku.Na.}
- - UHS-PMD0197
  UKT from UHS: m. bed-bug.

UKT 140205: Direct translation from Bur-Myan gives 'floor-bug'. However, these human-blood suckers usually stay in a bed on a bed-stead, and if there is a bed-curtain or a mosquito-net, they also occupy the highest place, and the first thing you notice when you lie down to rest at night they would come down to suck your blood. There are also their brethren in the mattress under you! Don't think bed-bug infestation is only in our part of the world (which the Americans love to dub "THE Third World"), it is quite prevalent even in U.S.
-- http://www.pestworld.org/all-things-bed-bugs/history-of-bed-bugs/bed-bug-facts-statistics/ 140205.
Personal note: Whenever I write or say something about the Americans, I remember my classmates, Karl Kraskie and Bob Jones both from Maine in particular, whom others in the Inst. of Paper Chemistry, Appleton, Wis., had dubbed "the drunkard Kress House Boys" of 1957-58. Many are now history, but in my heart they still live with fondness. I am still carrying on the bull sessions and we are still together!

उक्क्ट्ठ {OAk~kaT~Hta.}
= उ क ् क ् ट ् ठ
Pal: {OAk~kaT~Hta.}
- - UHS-PMD0198

UKT from UHS: mfn. exalted, highly praised, excellent


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/ {oak}

/ {oak~ta.}


उक्त [ uk-t ]
= उ क ् त
- pp. (√vak) spoken, uttered; addressed; n. word, expression: -tva, n. statement; -prva, a. said before; -pratyukt, n. address and reply, conversation; -mtra, a. merely uttered: lc. no sooner said than --; -rpa, a. of the form or kind mentioned; -vat, pp. act. √vak; -vkya, a. hvg. spoken.


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उक्ति [ uk-ti ]
- f. declaration; express statement; speech, saying; word, expression; song: -m kri, raise the voice; -posha, m. pleonasm; -pratyuktik, f. speech and reply.

pleonasm n. . a. The use of more words than are required to express an idea; redundancy. b. An instance of pleonasm. . A superfluous word or phrase. -- AHTD



उक्त्वा [ uk-tv&asharp; ]
- gd. of √vak.


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उक्थ uktha [uk-th] 
= उ क ् थ
Skt: उक्थ [uk-th]- n. praise, hymn of praise; invocation; recitation (later called Sastra) of the Hotri. -- Mac047c2
Skt: उक्थ uktha - m. form of god of fire. n. saying, kind of certain recited verses forming a subdivision of the zastras , sentence, verse, eulogy, praise -- SpkSkt

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उक्थिन् [ ukth-n ]
- a. praising; -y, a. praiseworthy.


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{u.kSa.} : Pseudo-Kha


उक्ष्  [ . uksh ],
-- sprinkle; . drip: pp. -it , besprinkled, wetted. abhi , besprinkled, bedrip. anu-pari , sprinkle around. pra , besprinkle; hallow (for sacrifice); sacrifice. sam-pra , besprinkle; . besprinkle oneself  




उक्ष्  [ . uksha ] i.p. ksha ,
-- grow up, wax strong



उक्षण [ uksh-ana ]
- n. besprinkling, consecration: -ga, a. arising from consecration.



उक्षण्य [ ukshan-y ]
- den. P. desire bulls or cattle.


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UKT notes

The length of foot problem

- UKT 150517

There are several look-alike graphemes (glyphs) representing different phonemes in Bur-Myan. Unless you are familiar with them you can get into trouble in interlanguage-transcription between Burmese and English in particular and between languages of BEPS in general. These look-alikes are:

{U.} with the sound of {u.} - vowel of 1 blk duration commonly described as "short"
{U}-Bur & {U}-Mon with the sound of {u} - vowel of 2 blk duration commonly described as "long"
{a.} - identified as occupant of r2c5 cell of Bur-Myan akshara matrix. It is a Palatal consonant.
{a.} - identified as the occupant of r2c5 cell of Pal-Myan akshara matrix. It is Palatal plosive-stop consonant with a nasal sound represented by IPA as /ɲ/
  {~} - special form of {a.} as the upper member of vertical conjunct.
The above glyphs have "foots" of different lengths.

Traditionally Nya'gyi {a.} - identified as the occupant of r2c5 cell of Bur-Myan akshara matrix, and as a horizontal conjunct of two Nya'l {a.}.

Pal-Myan {a.} = {} + {a.} , e.g. Pyin'nya {pi~a} 'education' .

Under Virama {a.t} the Pali-conjunct {a.} is split. However Bur-Myan basic consonant {a.} remains un-split. The resulting {} does not have a nasal sound, e.g. Py {pr} 'land or country'.

On the strength of the ending sound in Py {pr} 'land or country', {a.} cannot be a nasal. It is the Palatal approximant semi-consonant adjacent to Velar approximant {ya.} <y> /j/. In Bur-Myan matrix, r1c5 cell is occupied by {nga.} /ŋ/. However, this cell is occupied by {ng} in Mon-Myan. Both Bur-Myan & Mon-Myan glyphs are comparable to the glyphs in Asokan-akshara.

The problem of representing /ŋ/ is also found in the English words <sign> /saɪn/ and <sing> /sɪŋ/.

{a.} is the Palatal approximant-consonant next to the Velar approximant-consonant <y> /j/. 

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