Update: 2016-12-07 03:08 AM -0500


A Practical Sanskrit Dictionary


by A. A. Macdonell, 1893,
http://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/scans/MDScan/index.php?sfx=jpg 1929.
Nataraj ed., 1st in 2006, 2012

Edited, with additions from Pali sources, by U Kyaw Tun (UKT) (M.S., I.P.S.T., USA) and staff of Tun Institute of Learning (TIL) . Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone. Prepared for students and staff of TIL  Computing and Language Center, Yangon, MYANMAR :  http://www.tuninst.net , www.romabama.blogspot.com

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On this page, you will meet words such as: ईक्ष् , ईङ् , ईञ् , ईड् , ईर् , ईश् , ईष् , ईह् . Note the hook that looks like the {a.t} aka virama, on both ( {i} / {I}) the Myanmar-pair and, (इ (short vowel)/ ई (long vowel)) Devanagari-pair. However, it is not {a.t} or virama. It is an integral part of the glyph.

However, there is virama ् on the second akshara. Its presence means that the second akshara is a killed-akshara. It is this killed-akshara that is checking the long vowel /iː/ (note IPA triangular colon). It gives a monophthongal pronunciation.

In Bur-Myan, it is mostly the short vowel /ɪ/ that is checked. In common English, it amounts to inserting a "magic E" at the end of the syllable, e.g. mat --> mate . IPA does not use magic E. This is based on the fact that most European languages, do not use "magic E". Romabama is following the IPA and most of the European usage.

{i-za.} / {I-za.}

member the proper spelling is with vowel-letter {I.} ई in both Skt and Pali in Bur-Myan. However, Pali in Mon-Myan it is written as

{i} / {I} - the long-vowel of 2 blnk duration: the short-vowel of 1 blnk duration is {i.} / {I.} 
{i-kSa.} : Pseudo-Kha
{i-nga.} : Kinsi

{i-za.}/ {I-za.}
{i-a.}/ {I-} 
{i-ta.}/ {I-ta.}
{i-da.}/ {I-da.}
{i-dRi.}/ {I-dRi.}

{i-pa.}/ {I-pa.}
{i-ma.}/ {I-ma.}

{i-ya.}/ {I-ya.}
{i-ra.} --> repha
{i-wa.}/ {I-wa.}

{i-sha.}/ {I-sha.}
{i-Sa.}/ {I-Sa.}
{i-ha.}/ {I-ha.}


UKT notes :
Checking the long vowels
The problem of short-long vowel duration


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{i} / {I}

{I} - the long-vowel of 2 blnk duration
{I.} - the short-vowel of 1 blnk duration



{i-kSa.} : Pseudo-Kha


ईक्ष [ ksh]
= ई क ् ष --> ईक्ष् 
- I. . (P.) see, look; look at, behold (ac., lc.); perceive; contemplate, regard; expect; *prophesy to (d); cs. kshays, cause to look at (ac); expect, wait for; fear; pay regard to, mind; require, presuppose: w. na, not bear to see. vi‿apa, pay regard to, mind, abhi, look at. ava, look at; observe; mark, reflect on consider; experience; expect, hope for. anu‿ava, meditate; consider, reflect on. nir-ava, consider, prati‿ava, inspect, examine; enquire after. sam-ava, look at; behold; reflect on; scrutinize; trouble about ud, look up at, look at; behold; wait; expect. abhind. look towards sam-ud, look up, look towards or at; observe, regard. upa, look at; descry ; wait for, avail oneself of; overlook, disregard, neglect; convivial, suffer; not insist on (ac). sam-upa, diseregard, neglect. nis, look about; look at; behold; perceive; consider. peri, look round; examine; perceive; cs. cause to be examined. pra, look at perceive; quietly suffer, say nothing. abhi-pra, look at; behold; perceive. ut-pra, look up to (listening); look out towards; look back on with longing; expect; use or call figuratively; transfer to (lc); erroneously consider (2 ac); wrongly suppose, imagine; impute to (Ic). vi-pra, look hither and thither; contemplate. sam-pra, look at, behold, perceive; conslder. prati, look on; behold, perceive; expect, wait for (gd. pratikahya-quite gradually); bear with, endure sa-prati, wait: gd waiting = long. vi, gaze; look at; perceive; consider; ascertain; discriminate; ps appear. anu-vi, lookround; look towards; behold, perceive; examine. sam-anmabhi-vi, perceive. ud-vi, look up; look towards or upon; perceive, become aware of sam-ud-vi, look at, perceive. sam-vi, become aware of. abhi-sam-vi, stare at. sam, look at, see, perceive; ascertain; consider. pra-sam. look at, see, perceive; consider.

ईक्ष् iks
= ई क ् ष ्
- see, look; look at, behold (ac., lc.); perceive; contemplate, regard; expect; *prophesy to (d.); cs. kshaya , cause to look at (ac.) ...



ईक्षक [ ksh-aka ]
= ई क ् ष क
- m. beholder, spectator; -ana, n. sight, look; inspection; care; superintendence; eye: -patha, m. horizon; -anika, -anka, m. fortune-teller [UKT: spirit-medium]; -anya, fp. to be seen, forthcoming; -, f. glance, look; sight; -i, the verb ksh (gr.); -ita, (pp.) n. look; -itri, m. n. beholder, witness.

ईक्षक [ ksh-aka ]
Skt: ईक्षक [ ksh-aka ] - m. beholder, spectator - Mac047c1
Skt: ईक्षक īkṣaka - m. spectator - SpkSkt

ईक्षण [ ksh-ana]
Skt: ईक्षण [ ksh-ana] -  n. sight, look; inspection; care; superintendence; eye - Mac047c1
Skt: ईक्षण īkṣaṇa - n. seeing, look after, eye, aspect, sight, view, caring for, regarding - SpkSkt
Pal: / {aik-hka.Na.} - UHS-PMD0189
  UKT from UHS: n. look, eye

UKT 161205: Note the long-vow associated with hissing in Skt changed into
short-vow (associated with non-hissing) in Pal.
See my note on the problem of short-long vowel duration


ईखति { ईख् } īkhati { īkh }
- v. move - SpkSkt


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{i-nga.} : Kinsi

UKT 131218: Note Macdonell's transliteration ṄKH means {nga.}-killed -- not {::ting} .


ईङ् [ ṅkh]
- move; cs. ...



  ईङ्खन [ ṅkh-ana ]
Skt: ईङ्खन [ ṅkh-ana ] - n. swinging. - Mac047c1
Skt: ईङ्खन īṅkhana - n. swinging - SpkSkt


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{i-za.} / {I-za.}


[ga-ta ]
- move, drive, apa , drive away



ईजान [ g-n ]
- pf. pt. of √yag.


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[t-te ].
- it-te, praise; beseech (ac.) for ) ac., g., d.): pp ltt , praised, pra , parti, sam, praise. 



ईडेन्य [ d-nya ], ईळेन्य [ l-nya ]
Skt: ईडेन्य [ d-nya ] - fp. to be implored, to be praised. - Mac047c2
Pal: {I-a.t} - UHS-PMD0197
  UKT from UHS: being praised

UKT 131217, 161206: Here is one of the few words spelled with {La.} ळ and not with {la.} ल. I have seen somewhere that lateral sounds were common in Vedic, but became changed into {la.} ल and then into {ra.} र in Sanskrit. It is unfortunate that I have forgotten the source of this info. We find in Wikipedia:
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vedic_Sanskrit 161206

"Vedic Sanskrit had a retroflex lateral approximant (/ɭ/) (ळ) as well as its aspirated counterpart /ɭʰ/ (ळ्ह्), which was lost in Classical Sanskrit."
I opine that there is no such thing as Vedic Sanskrit. It is probably a Tib-Burman language, whereas Sanskrit is a IE language. Accordingly, I have struck out the word Sanskrit from "Vedic Sanskrit"

A language with lateral sounds, Chinese, reminds me of the many language jokes in the U.S., where the Chinese eat "flied lice" instead of "fried rice". Now lets extend this into modern languages of our region, where the Hindi speakers are R-speakers (who use phoneme R extensively, Myanmar speakers are R-L speakers (both R phoneme and  L phoneme), and Chinese the L-speakers (L phoneme). It is remarkable that geographically, the areas of these speakers, India-Myanmarpr-China, are roughly in a line. It means that I can hope to view Bur-Myan as a linguistic bridge between India and China.



ईड्य [ &isharp;d-ya ]
= ई ड ् य
- fp. to be praised, praiseworthy.


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{i-ta.} / {I-ta.}


ईति [ -ti ]
Skt: ईति [ -ti ] - f. calamity; plague. - Mac047c2
Pal: {I-ti.} - UHS PMD0197
   UKT from UHS: f. calamity; plague


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{i-da.}/ {I-da.}

{i-dRi.} / {I-dRi.}

UKT 161206: {dRi.} is derived from {da.} द da modified with highly rhotic vowel ऋ / ृ present only in Skt-Dev. It has no counterpart in Bur-Myan. This vowel has no connection to {ra.} र ra..


ईदृक्ता [ drik-t ]
- f. quality.



ईदृक्ष -drksha (â), ईदृश् -drs (f.=m.), ईदृश [ -drsa ]
- a. () of this appearance, such.


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ईप्स [ &isharp;p-sa ]
= ई प ् स
- des. (√p) wish to obtain, desire.



ईप्सा [ p-s ]
- f. desire, wish; -sit, des. pp. desired, wished for, dear; n. wish: -tama, nearest object (gr.); -su, des. a. desirous of (ac., inf., --).


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{i-ma.}/ / {I-ma.}


ईम् [ m ]
- enc. pcl.= ac. of prn. i, used without distinction of number or gender and with or without another ac.; w. rel. = ever; with inter. = pray; w. neg. = at all; often meaningless.


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{i-ya.}/ {I-ya.}


ईयिवस् [ y-i-vas ]
- pf. pt. act. (√i) went.



ईयुषी [ y-ush- ]
- f. pf. pt. (√i) past.


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{i-ra.}/ {I-ra.} --> repha

UKT 131218: Killing the inherent vowel of {ra.} --> {r} would change the pronunciation: {i:.r} / {I:r}


IR, II. (P.) A.
- ir-te, set in motion, stir up; arise, move (int); come forth, resound; cs. iraya, P. A. set in motion, stir; throw; excite; produce; utter; say; proclaim; raise; arise; ps. be called; pp. irita. a, procure; utter; cs. id. nia, appoint as (2 ac). ua, rise; arise; pp. ud-irna, excited, increased; elevated, elated; cs. raise, whirl up; throw, cast; put forth; increase; excite, produce; display; rouse, animate; utter, proclaim. speak; ps. be called, pass for (nm). abhi ud, cs. utter, speak sam-ud, cs. raise; throw; excite; utter. pra, move (int.); arise; cs. drive forward urge; excite; direct (gaze); utter; pass (time). sam-pra, rise together; cs. push forward. sam, put together; cs. id; move (tr), produce, create; utter, speak.



ईर [ r-a ]
- m. wind; -ana, m. id.; n. pressure.



ईरिण [ rina ]
- n. land impregnated with salt; desert.



ईर्म [ r-m ]
- m. arm; fore-quarter (of an animal); m. n. wound.


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ईर्मा rmaN, ईर्म [ rm ]
- (in.) ad. here, hither.



ईर्य [ r-ya ]
- fp. to be urged on.



- envy; be jealous.



ईर्ष्या [ rshy- ]
= ई र ् ष ् य ा
- f. envy; jealousy: -lu, -vat, -, a. envious, jealous; -ita, (pp.) n. jealousy, envy; -in, a. jealous, envious.


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{i-wa.}/ {I-wa.}


ईवत् [ &isharp;-vat ]
- a. so great.


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{i-sha.}/ {I-sha.}

Compare with Pal: {i-a.}


- possess, own, be master of, rule (ac. or g.); belong to, be to (g.); be entitled to (g.); be able to (inf., g., or lc.).



ईश् [s ] ,
- m. lord, ruler; Siva



ईश [ s- ]
- a. able to dispose of, entitled to (g.); capable of (inf.); m. owner, lord, ruler, chief of (g., --); ep. of Siva; , f. ability, power; dominion; -na, n. governing, ruling; -‿akala, m. Himlaya.



ईशान [ &isharp;s-na (or ) ]
- pr. pt. possessing; ruling over (g.); m. ruler; ep. of Siva; N.; -kandra, m. N.; -dev, f. N.



[s-i-tri ]
- m. ruler, lord



ईशिन् [ s-in ]
- a. ruling over (--).



ईश्वर [ s-var ]
= ई श ् व र
- a. able to, capable of (inf., lc.; w. inf. in -tas the nm. sg. m. is used for all genders and numbers); m. owner of (g., lc., --); ruler, lord, prince, king; man of rank, rich man; husband; supreme god; Brahman; Siva: , f. princess; -t, f., -tva, n. rule, sovereignty; -pranidhna, n. submission to the will of the Lord.


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{i-Sa.}/ {I-Sa.} 

UKT 161206: I have come to the conclusion that Skt-Dev speakers who could not pronounce the Bur-Myan & Pal-Myan thibilant /θ/ {a.}/{} invariably change it into hissing (not hushing) sibilant /s/ {Sa.}/{S}. Note the difference between hissing sibilant (hisser) {Sa.}/{S} which is a dental, and palatal {sa.}/{c}.


ईष् [ sh] i. - sha ,
- move away, depart from (ab.); leave (ac.). , rush on. ud , rise up. sam-ud , id.



ईषत् [ sh-t ] [n. pr. pt.]
= ई ष त ्
- ad. slightly, a little, somewhat; easily (often --); -kara, a. easily performed; -krya, fp. easy to (lc.); -pna, a. easy to drink.



ईषा [ sh ]
- f. pole (of a car): du. double (forked) pole.


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{i-ha.}/ {I-ha.} 


ईह् [ h] ha ,
- strive after, aim at (ac.), desire to (inf.); undertake; exert oneself: pp. ...



ईहा [ h- ]
- f. exertion, endeavour; business, labour; desire, wish; -vat, a. assiduous; brave.



ईहित [ h-ita ]
- (pp.) n. exertion; labour; purpose; desire, wish.


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UKT notes

Checking the long vowels

UKT 131218, 161205:

Note in the Skt-Dev word ईड् (= ई ड ् : notice the virama on {a.}), the coda retroflex {a.} ड - not the dental {da.} द - is checking the long vowel {I } ई ī with vowel duration of 2 eye-blinks. We have:

{I~}  ईड् īda 'praise' equivalent to monophthongal {i:.d}

Note my use of "three dots" {wic~sa.} which has been borrowed from Tamil ஃ visarga. I based my transcription (not transliteration) on IPA triangular colon /ː/ which is used for "checking" long vowels.

Go back check-long-vow-note-b

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The problem of short-long vowel duration

- UKT 150517, 161205

The distinction between a so-called "short" vowel, and a "long" vowel is just a matter of judgement. There is no clear cut short-long distinction. Each vowel has its own length. The following are RP (Brit English) vowel lengths in centi-seconds:

from a course in Phonetics offered by Ptur Kntsson, https://notendur.hi.is/peturk/KENNSLA/02/TOP/VowelLength0.html 140622, 161205

There is a basic difference between vowel length in Icelandic and English.

Icelandic vowels can all be either long or short.

Check out the difference in the vowels u in mun (long) and munn (short), or in the words s (long) and sdd (short), or ei in the words eiga (long) and eign (short)

English vowels are also long and short, but they behave differently:

Tense vowels can be long or short, according to whether they are followed by fortis consonants or not (We find that vowels are shortened when they are followed by unvoiced (p t k f s ʃ ʧ ) consonants in RP English. Note: voiced consonants are: (b d g v z ʒ ʤ )
But Lax vowels are always short.

Now from Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vowel_length 120422, 161205

"In linguistics, vowel length is the perceived duration of a vowel sound. Often the chroneme, or the "longness", acts like a consonant, and may have arisen from one etymologically, such as in Australian English. [UKT ]

"While not distinctive in most other dialects of English, vowel length is an important phonemic factor in many other languages, for instance in Finnish, Fijian, Japanese, Old English, and Vietnamese. It plays a phonetic role in the majority of dialects of English English [UKT: the double word indicates the English dialects spoken in England], and is said to be phonemic in a few other dialects, such as Australian English and New Zealand English. It also plays a lesser phonetic role in Cantonese, which is exceptional among the spoken variants of Chinese.

"Many languages do not distinguish vowel length phonemically, and those that do usually distinguish between short vowels and long vowels. There are very few languages that distinguish three phonemic vowel lengths, for instance Luiseo and Mixe. [UKT ]

UKT 161205: Bur-Myan has 3 vowel-lengths, exemplified as

{a.} (1 blnk) , {a} (2 blnk) , {a:} (2 blnk+ emphasis)

If we are to include Mon-Myan the number of registers increases to 4: {a:.} (1/2 blnk)

"However, some languages with two vowel lengths also have words where long vowels appear adjacent to other short or long vowels of the same type, e.g. Japanese hōō  "phoenix", Estonian jr "ice edge", or Ancient Greek ἀάατος [a.ˈː.a.tos] "inviolable". Some languages that do not ordinarily have phonemic vowel length but do permit vowel hiatus may similarly exhibit sequences of identical vowel phonemes that yield phonetically long vowels, such as Georgian გააადვილებ [ɡa.a.ad.vil.eb] "you will facilitate it"."

The ancient and the present phoneticians of the East, such as those of Bur-Myan, Pal-Myan, & Skt-Dev, use their own individual judgment by the time it takes to blink his eye: 1 blnk for "short", and 2 blnk for "long".

Go back short-long-vow-duration-note-b

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End of TIL file