Update: 2016-12-05 03:51 AM -0500


A Practical Sanskrit Dictionary


by A. A. Macdonell, 1893,
http://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/scans/MDScan/index.php?sfx=jpg 1929.
Nataraj ed., 1st in 2006, 2012

Edited, with additions from Pali sources, by U Kyaw Tun (UKT) (M.S., I.P.S.T., USA) and staff of Tun Institute of Learning (TIL) . Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone. Prepared for students and staff of TIL  Computing and Language Center, Yangon, MYANMAR :  http://www.tuninst.net , www.romabama.blogspot.com

MC-indx.htm | Top

Contents of this page

{i.} / {I.} - cont.
Remember the proper spelling is with vowel-letter {I.} इ in both Skt and Pali

{ain~} / {ain}
{ain~dra-Ni} / {AIn~dra-Ni}
{ain~dri.} / {AIn~dri.}
{ain~Da.} / {AIn~Da.}
{ain} / {AIn}

{i.Ba.}/ {I.Ba.}
{aiB~ya.}/ {AIB~ya.}

{i.ma.}/ {I.ma.} - note the absence of {a.t}

{i.ya.}/  {I.ya.}
{i.ra.}/ {I.ra.}
{i.la.}/ {I.la.}
{i.wa.}/ {I.wa.}  

{i.Sa.}/ {I.Sa.}
{aiS}/ {AIS}
{aiS~Ta.} / {AIS~Ta.}
{i.Si.}/ {I.Si.}
{i.Su.}/ {I.Su.}  

{i.ha.}/ {I.ha.}


UKT notes :
Grab-God policy of the religionists
Indra-Agni : the Vedic-deity pair comparable
   to the Greek Zeus-Hermes and to Roman Jupiter-Mercury pairs
Pushan पूषन - the pre-Brahmin Poannar {braah~ma.Na. poaN~Na:} Vedic deity :
   identifiable with port city of {pu.aim} (formerly Bassein)


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{ain~} / {ain} - cont


इन्द्र [ ndra ]
- m. Indra, chief of the Vedic gods; --, highest, chief, prince of; -krmuka, n. Indra's bow, rainbow; -giri, m. N. of a mountain; -guru, m. Indra's teacher (Kasyapa); -gopa (or ), a. having Indra as a guardian; m. cochineal [red dye]; -kpa, m. n. rainbow; -gl, n. Indra's net; a mythical weapon of Arjuna's; magic: -purusha, m. human phantom; -glika, m. magician; -glin, m. id.; -git, m. Indra's vanquisher, N. of Rvana's son or father; -gta, pp. urged by Indra.

इन्द्र indra [ ndra ]
= (इ न ् द ् र)  =  इन्द्र  -->   {AIn~dra.} pronounced as <ain> not /ɪn/
Skt: इन्द्र [ ndra ] -- m. Indra, chief of the Vedic gods; --, highest, chief, prince of; -- Mac045c3
Skt: इन्द्र indra -- m. regent of the east quarter, night, prince, pupil of right eye, number fourteen,
  lord of the sky & atmosphere, twenty-sixth division of circle on the ecliptic (Geom.), human soul -- SpkSkt

UKT 131211: The word rhymes with English <aim> /eɪm/ : it is front-close {i.} /ɪ/, or front mid-close {} /e/. The word also rhymes with Bur-Myan {aim} 'home', which is your sanctuary when you were young. It is where you were protected by your father and fed by your mother .

The Vedic-god Indra seems to have a change of character when he becomes a Hindu-dva who is inferior to the Hindu Trinity - Mahabrahma-Vishnu-Siva. Hindu-Indra is a mean god, a drunk and a womanizer who not above having affairs even with the wives of the Rishis. The Buddhist Sakka seems to be more akin to Vedic-Indra. A distinction is made between the Hindu-Indra and Buddhist-Sakka by R.C. Childers in his Dictionary of Pali languages. See p419. See also my note on Grab-God policy of religionists.


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इन्द्रता [ indra-t ]
- f. Indra's power or dignity; -tva, n. id.; sovereignty; -datta, m. N. of a Brhman; -dev, f. N. of a queen: -bhavana, n. N. of a vihra built by her; -dhans, n. Indra's bow, rainbow; -nla, m. sapphire or emerald; -purogama, a. preceded by Indra; -mada, m. certain disease of leeches; -mandira, m. Indra's abode, heaven; -maha-kmuka, m. dog.



इन्द्रय [ indra-ya ]
- den. . long for Indra.



इन्द्रयु [ indra-y ]
- a. longing for Indra.



इन्द्रलोक [ indra-lok ]
- m. Indra's world; -vams, f. a metre; -vagra, n. Indra's thunderbolt: , f. a metre.



इन्द्रवत् [ ndra-vat ]
- a. accompanied by Indra; -vtama, spv. dearest to Indra; -vruna, n. bitter-gourd; -vrata, n. Indra's office or rule.



इन्द्रशत्रु [ indra-satru ]
- m. Indra's foe, Prahlda; -suta, m. pat. of Arguna; -sena, m. N. of various men; -sen, f. Indra's missile; N.; -stuti, f. praise of Indra; -stotra, n. id.



इन्द्राग्नि [ indra‿agn ]
- m. du. Indra and Agni.

See my note on the paired deities Indra-Agni :
identifiable with Greek Zeus-Hermes , and Roman Jupiter-Mercury.

Inset-pix: Zeus/Jupiter - the Greek/Roman king of Gods with his thunderbolts. He is a promiscuous male, who would not even spare a she-goat: the union resulting in Pan - half god and half goat. How different from Buddhist equivalent of Indra - Śakra (Sanskrit: शक्र) or Sakka (Pāli)!

The King of the Dvas of the Hindu Brahmin-Poannars {braah~ma.Na. poaN~Na:} also mated with she-animals. ऩातञ्जरमोगसूत्राणि Pantajali's Yoga Sutras - by Swami Vivekananda tells the story of Indra mating with a sow. See TIL PDF-Library YogaSutra<> (link chk 161202)
Ch 2. Concentration, p070: "There is a story that the king of the gods, Indra, once became a pig, wallowing in mire; he had a she pig, and a lot of baby pigs, and was very happy."


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{ain~dra-Ni} / {AIn~dra-Ni}


इन्द्राणी [ indrn&isharp; ]
- f. Indra's wife.



इन्दानुज [ indra‿anuga ]
- m. Indra's younger brother (Vishnu or Krishna).



इन्द्रापूषन् [ ndr-p&usharp;shan (or indr-pshn) ]
- m. du. Indra and Pshan.

See my note on Pushan पूषन  - the Vedic deity :
identifiable with port-city of {pu.aim}



इन्द्रायुध [ indra‿yudha ]
- n. Indra's weapon, rainbow; m. horse with black spots on the eyes: , f. kind of leech; -maya, a. consisting altogether of rainbow.



इन्द्रावत् [ ndr-vat ]
- a. accompanied by Indra.


इन्द्रावरुण [ ndr-vruna ]
- m. du. Indra and Varuna.

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{ain~dri.} / {AIn~dri.}


इन्द्रिय [ indriy ]
- a. belonging to, like or dear to Indra; m. companion of Indra; n. Indra's might; dominion; mighty deed; vigour, energy; semen virile; organ of sense; -kma, a. desirous of might; -grma, m. totality of the senses; -nigraha, m. restraint of the senses; -sakti, f. power of the senses; -samyam, m. restraint of the senses.



इन्दियार्थ [ indriya‿artha ]
- m. object or stimulant of the senses; -‿asaṅga, m. pl. non-indulgence of the senses.



इन्द्रेषित [ ndra‿ishita ]
- pp. sent or urged by Indra.



इन्द्रोत्सव [ indra‿utsava ]
= इ न ् द ् र ो त ् स व
- m. festival in honour of Indra.

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{ain~Da.} / {AIn~Da.}


इन्ध् [ indh ]
- v. इध् [idh]



इन्ध [ ndh-a ]
= इ न ् ध --> {AIn~Da.}
- a. kindling.



इन्धन [ indh-ana ]
- n. kindling; fuel: -vat, a. supplied with fuel.



[indhani-kri ]
- turn into fuel



इन्धि [ indh-i ]
- the root indh (gr.).


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{ain} / {AIn}


इन् [in] or [inv]
- put in motion, send; further, urge; overcome


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{i.Ba.} / {I.Ba.}


इभ [ bha ]
Skt: इभ [ bha ] - m. n. domestics, household, family; m. elephant. - Mac046c1
Pal: {I.Ba.} - UHS-PMD0195
  UKT from UHS: m. elephant



- f. N. of a plant

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{aiB~ya.}/ {AIB~ya.}


इभ्य [ bh-ya ]
= इ भ ् य --> {aiB~ya.}/ {AIB~ya.}
- a. domestic; rich.


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{i.ma.}/ {I.ma.} - note the absence of {a.t} 


इम [ im ]
Skt: इम [ im ] - prn. st. this.
Pal: {I.mn} - UHS-PMD0195
  UKT from UHS: mfn. {II} - this



इमथा [ im-th ]
- ad. in this manner.


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{i.ya.}/ {I.ya.}


इयक्ष् [ -yak-sh ]
= इ य क ् ष ्
- des. P. implore; long for.



इयक्षु [ iyak-sh ]
- des. a. longing.



इयच्चिरम् [ iyak-kiram ]
- ad. so long; hitherto.



इयत् [ -yat ]
- a. so great, so much; so little: in. in so far; therefore.



इयत्तक [ iyat-ta-k ]
- a. (ik) so little; -t, f. quantity, number, measure; essence.



इयम् [ i-y-m ]
- f. (nm. sg.) this: y‿iyam, who here; s‿iyam, iyam s, she here.


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{i.ra.}/ {I.ra.}


- 3 sg. pr. of √ri.



- 3 sg. pf. of √2. ish.


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इरज्य [ i-rag-y ]
- intv. P. . order; guide.



इरज्यु [ irag-y ]
- a. preparing; m. preparer of the sacrifice.



इरध् [ i-radh ]
- irr. intv. (√rdh) . seek to gain.



इरंमद [ iram-mad ]
- a. delighting in drink; m. ep. of Agni; sheet-lightning.



इरस्य [ iras-y ]
- den. P. grudge; envy (d.).



इरस्या [ ras-y ]
Skt: इरस्या [ ras-y ] - f. ill-will; envy. - Mac046c2
Pal: {AI~a-ya.na} - UHS-PMD0196
  UKT from UHS: n. envy



इरा [ r ]
- f. (= id) potion; recreation, comfort.



इरावत् [ r-vat ]
- a. refreshing, quickening; -, f. N. of a river; N.



इरिण [ r-ina ]
Skt: इरिण [ r-ina ] - n. channel; brook, spring; dice-board;
  barren soil (esp. containing salt). - Mac046c2
Pal: {I-ri.Na.} - UHS PMD0197 : notice the long vowel of Pali becoming short in Skt
  UKT from UHS: saline soil, barren soil on which no vegetation grows

UKT: Salt-affected soils occur in all continents and under almost all climatic conditions. Their distribution, however, is relatively more extensive in the arid and semi-arid regions compared to the humid regions. We find such soils in India and in northern Myanmarpr. Generally there are two types: saline (NaCl), and sodic (Na2CO3) .
See also: http://www.fao.org/docrep/x5871e/x5871e03.htm 161204



इरिन् [ r-in ]
- m. oppressor, tyrant.



इर्य [ r-ya ] : note the repha
- a. active; watchful; strong.


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{i.la.} / {I.la.} 

इल ila / इला ilā

UKT 140814: इला ilā the Hindu goddess changes sex to become इल ila the god. She is mentioned together with Saraswat, and Bhrat, in The Second Ashtaka Sukta 3, Varga XXIII of Rig Veda Sanhita, by H. H. Wilson, London 1854, p. 218, pdf 235/385
"8. May the three goddesses, Saraswat, perfecting our understanding, the divine Il, and all-impressive Bhrat, having come to our dwelling, protect this faultless rite, (offered) for our welfare". 
See TIL PDF-Library, HHWilsonRigVeda2Ashtaka<> (link chk 161203)
Note: there is a misprint of page numbers in the downloaded pdf file. You are advised to go by pdf 233/385.


इल ila or इल ilā
- an androgyne (as woman) in Hindu mythology known for sex change. As a man she is called Sudymna. Ilā is considered the chief progenitor of the Lunar dynasty of Indian kings - also known as the Ailas ("descendants of Ilā")
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ila_Hinduism 161202



इल् [il]
Skt: इल् [il] vi. p. [ila] come: - Mac046c2
Skt: इलति { इल् } ilati {il} - v. come, cast - SpkSkt


इला ilā
-- f. flow - SpkSkt


ईलि Ili
- f. kind of weapon - SpkSkt



- m. man's N.


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इव [ i-va ] (encl.)
- ad. like, as it were; about, almost; somewhat; indeed (with inter.): often merely emphatic = only, just, quite; or rendered by stress.


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{i.Sa.}/ {I.Sa.}
{aiS}/ {AIS} 

Skt: {i.Sa.} (hisser ending) --> Pal: {i.a.}/ {I.a.} (no hissing sound at end)
Skt: {aiS} --> Pali: {ai}


इष् [. ish], vi. isha ;
i. asha (w. anu);
iv. ish-ya; ix. ish-na-ti,
- set in rapid motion, discharge; emit, utter; urge, encourage, animate; advance or strive towards (d., Ic.): pp. ishita; cs. ishaya, P.A. speed; comfort. anu, go after, seek, look for. pra, urge, send forth; call upon another priest to recite or perform a rite (ac.): impv. pra‿ishya, call upon to recite or offer (ac. or g.); cs. preshaya, hurl, throw, send; send away, dismiss: pp. preshita. anu-pra, cs. send after or despatch to. upa-pra, urge; call upon (a priest to recite). sam-pra, cs. send; dismiss; send a message to (g.)



[. ish ], vi. P. (. in V. & E.) it-kha,
- seek, search after; wish something to be (2 ac.), desire, ask for , expect (from, ab., Ic.); intend or be about to (inf.); regard as (2 ac.); choose, have the option of (ac.); recognise, sanction; with na, refuse (to, inf.); ps. ishyate, be desired, - required, -prescribed, -recognised, -sanctioned, -accounted, -considered: pp. ish-ta, q.v. anu, seek, search after, look through; strive after; beg; try; cs. anveshaya, P. search; expect. pari‿anu, search around. abhi, seek after; intend (inf.): pp. abhishta. prati, seek; receive (from, g.); regard, obey.



इष् [ . sh ]
- f. juice, draught, comfort; libation; refreshing waters of heaven; strength; food.


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इष [ . ish-a ]
- a. seeking (--).



इष [ . ish-a ]
- a. juicy; fat.



[ishanaya ]
Skt: - ., p. den. urge on, stimulate - Mac046c3
Skt: इषणयते { इषणय } iṣaṇayate {iṣaṇaya} - v. move, excite - SpkSkt



इषय [ ish-ya ]
- den. P. . be fresh or active; refresh; quicken: inf. ishaydhyai.



इषयु [ isha-y ]
- a. fresh, strong.


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{i.Si.}/ {I.Si.}


इषि [ ish- ]
- f. recreation, comfort.



इषिध् [ ishdh ]
- f. oblation, offering.



इषिर [ ish-ir ]
- a. refreshing; active, strong, swift.



इषीका [ ish&isharp;k ]
- f. reed, rush.


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{i.Su.}/ {I.Su.}

UKT 150515: Pal: {i.u.} - Skt pronounced as Hisser /s/; NOT Husher /ʃ/


इषु [ sh-u ]
Skt: इषु [ sh-u ] - m. f. arrow. - Mac046c3
Pal: {i.u.} - UHS-PMD0196
  UKT from UHS: arrow 



इषुधि [ ishu-dh ]
- m. quiver.



इषुध्या [ ishu-dhy ]
- f. supplication; -dhy, a. supplicating.



इषुमत् [ shu-mat ]
- a. furnished with arrows; -mtra, n. length of an arrow: ()-m, ad. at arrow-shot distance; -varsha, m. shower of arrows.



इषूय [ ishya ]
- den. P. strive.


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इष्कृत [ sh-krita ]
- pp. prepared, equipped; -kriti, f. preparation; cure.

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{aiS~Ta.} / {AIS~Ta.}


इष्ट [ . ish-t ]
- pp. sought, wished for; desirable, agreeable; dear; favourable; approved, accounted (-tama, spv. considered the best); n. wish, desire.

UKT 150515: Compare the pronunciations of Pal: // {AI~a.t} 'wished for' (UHS-PMD0196)
to Skt: इष्ट [ . ish-t ] 'sought, wished for' (Mac046c3) in case of other Tha'gyi pronounced Pal-Myan words.


इष्ट [ . ish-t ]
- pp. (√yag) sacrificed; m. n. sacrifice.



इष्टका [ shta-k ]
- f. brick: -griha, n. brick-house.



इष्टकामदुह् [ ishta-kma-duh ]
- f. (nm. -dhuk) cow of plenty (milking =) granting all desires.



इष्टजन [ ishta - gana ]
- m. beloved person, lover; -devat, f. favourite or tutelary deity.



इष्टनि [ ishtni ]
- a. rushing, roaring.



इष्टर्ग [ ishtrga ]
- m. one who fights in front or beside (as a protector).



इष्टलाभ [ ishta-lbha ]
- m. acquisition of a desired object.



इष्टव्रत [ isht-vrata ]
- a. fulfilling wishes; -sampdin, a. procuring what is desired; -sdhana, a. id.



इष्टापूर्त [ isht-prt ]
- n. sg. & du. wish (or sacrifice) and fulfilment = reward of pious works; C. sacrifice and pious works.



इष्टि [ . ish-t ]
- f. incitement, furtherance; helper.



इष्टि [ . ish-t ]
- f. seeking, search; wish, desire.



इष्टि [ . sh-ti ]
- f. (simple) sacrifice (of butter, fruit, &c.).



इष्ट्वा [ ish-tv ]
- gd. of √yag.



[ishnu-k ]
- the suffix ishnu (gr.)



इष्मिन् [ ish-mn ]
- a. driving, stormy.



इष्वसन [ ishu‿asana ]
- n. bow.



इष्वास [ ishu‿s ]
- m. archer; bow.


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{i.ha.}/ {I.ha.}


इह [ i-h ]
- ad. here, hither; here on earth; in this book; in the following; now, in a moment; often = lc. of idam.



इहत्य [ ih-tya ]
- a. belonging to this place.



इहलोक [ iha-loka ]
- m. this, i.e. the present world.



इहस्थ [ iha-stha ]
- a. being or remaining here.



इहामुत्रफलभोगविराग [ iha‿amutra-phala-bhoga-virga ]
- m. indifference to the pleasures of reward in this world and the next.


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UKT notes

Grab-God policy of religionists

-- UKT 120819, 161202

The following just my conjecture and need to be rewritten.

Macdonell states that "Indra [is] the chief of the Vedic gods". Language-wise, it is "highest, chief, prince of".

The Hindu religionists grab a language term describing a deity of the conquered land, and say that it is their god - a minor god. Of course the minor god is just a servant to their main gods such as Vishnu and Shiva.

Indra - the good, the main god of the conquered people is made subservient to their gods. Indra and his messenger  Agni have more hymns directed to them in RigVa - more than hymns to Vishnu and Shiva. The Hindu Brahmin-Poannars {braah~ma.Na. poaN~Na:}, the religionists rewrote the old stories to suit their claims much to the ire of Gaudama Buddha. They also wrote new ones which they claim to be told to them by their chief gods. Indra - the good, was made to look like the Zeus of the Greeks, a promiscuous male, who would not even spare a she-goat: the union resulting in Pan - half god and half goat. How different from Buddhist equivalent of Indra - Śakra (Skt: शक्र) or Sakka (Pāli)!

The Hindu religionists were just like the present-day colonialists, bent upon getting whatever they could - including the gods - of the peoples whom they have subjugated by force of arms. Gaudama Buddha - the pacifier, and Confucius - the philosopher were no match for them.

Whatever their gods did including "cheating" is good in the name of combating evil. The Dvas of the conquerors cheated the Asuras of the indigenous peoples. The story of Samudramathan, which the religionists had brought with them tells the story of cheating. The conquered peoples, Tibeto-Burman speakers of the foot-hills of Himalayas extol the merits of telling the Truth. No wonder the Buddhist idea of Sakka and the Hindu idea of Indra who is now cast in a different light are so different!

The story of Samudramathan, tells the story of Vishnu-dva - in the guise of the beautiful goddess Mohini  मोहिनी mohinī had cheated the Asuras of their fair share of the result of the Churning of the Cosmic Ocean. It seems that whatever they do, if done in the name of "good" is permissible.
See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Samudra_manthan 131212 .

In Myanmarpr and elsewhere the Christian missionaries of the colonialists, tried to equate {naib~baan} to their Paradise - where there is no suffering. They did not point out that when Adam and Eve were created and let live in Paradise, they were naked. Someone jibed with inset pix: "If Adam and Eve had been Chinese, we would still be in Paradise ..."  to which was add "they would be completely naked!

It reminds one of how the British colonialists had portrayed themselves as the liberators of the poor peoples of Myanmarpr from the tyrannies of their King Thibaw and his queen Supayalat.

Go back Grab-God-policy-note-b 

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-- UKT 131211

My interest in English as a language, and my serious study of what I realized to be its foundations such as the Christian Bible (King James and Gideon), Greek and Roman myths (including those of Nordic), histories of Ancient Roman Empire and Ancient Egypt (including those of the British Isles), and Ancient Greece (Greek and Persian wars) just to improve my language skills, are helping me in my self-study of Sanskrit.

I have come to realize that the deities in the Vedic, Greek, and Roman religions are often paired such as Indra-Agni, Zeus-Hermes, and Jupiter-Mercury. They are the mythical creations created by the religionists after the fashion of the human King-Charioteer, or the present-day President-Chauffer/Secretary.

The religionists portray themselves as the human agents of these deities to influence their societies from the rulers down to the subjects. Many of the human conflicts are due not only to greed of the rulers, but to those of religionists. However, we as the common peoples, owe a lot to these religionists  and to their ever-being revised versions of the so-called Ancient Literature which are known as Puranic Literature, in preserving the various languages. Only later, philosophers among the religionists started writing their philosophies purporting them to be derived directly from the deities they have created. Because of the nature of origin of the philosophies all have the foundation of the belief in a Creator - the Supreme One whoever He, She or It may be.

Then came along those who are not satisfied with the myths - the scientists, chief among whom I would include Gautama Buddha and Confucius who based their thinking on what they could observe the human world with human eyes and intelligence, and upset the apple-cart of the religionists.

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rigvedic_deities 131211

In the Rigveda it is stated that there are 33 deities associated with sky (dyu), earth (prithvi) and the middle realm (antariksha), though a larger number of deities are mentioned in the text. [1] There are 1028 hymns in the Rigveda, most of them dedicated to specific deities.

Indra, a heroic god, slayer of Vrtra and destroyer of the Vala, liberator of the cows and the rivers; Agni the sacrificial fire and messenger of the gods; and Soma the ritual drink dedicated to Indra are the most prominent deities.

Invoked in groups are the Vishvedevas (the "all-gods"), the Maruts, violent storm gods in Indra's train and the Ashvins, the twin horsemen.

There are two major groups of gods, the Dvas and the Asuras. Unlike in later Vedic texts and in Hinduism, the Asuras are not yet demonized, Mitra and Varuna being their most prominent members. Aditi is the mother both of Agni and of the Adityas or Asuras, led by Mitra and Varuna, with Aryaman, Bhaga, Ansa and Daksha.

Surya is the personification of the Sun, but Savitr, Vivasvant, the Ashvins and the Rbhus, semi-divine craftsmen, also have aspects of solar deities. Other natural phenomena deified include Vayu, (the wind), Dyaus and Prithivi (Heaven and Earth), Dyaus continuing Dyeus, the chief god of the Proto-Indo-European religion, and Ushas (the dawn), the most prominent goddess of the Rigveda, and Apas (the waters).

Rivers play an important role, deified as goddesses, most prominently the Sapta Sindhu and the Sarasvati River.

Yama is the first ancestor, also worshipped as a deity, and the god of the underworld and death.

Vishnu and Rudra, the prominent deities of later Hinduism (Rudra being an early form of Shiva) are present as marginal gods.

UKT 131211: I hold the Vedic religion to be that of the Tib-Bur speakers, which had been modified to suit the aspirations of the IE speakers, with the change in languages from Old Magadhi to Sanskrit.

The names of Indra, Mitra, Varuna and the Nasatyas are also attested in a Mitanni treaty, suggesting that the some of the religion of the Mitannis was very close to that of the Rigveda.

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Pushan पूषन  - the Vedic deity

- UKT 131211

I am beginning to identify (my unsubstantiated suggestion) the Vedic people to be the indigenous peoples of India and Myanmarpr who undoubtedly were Tib-Bur speakers. They were brass-age people whose implements of war were made of bronze (alloy of copper and tin, and more harder than brass - the alloy of copper and zinc). When iron-age people pushed into the Indian subcontinent, with their implements of iron and steel (iron hardened with carbon), the Vedic people were easily defeated. The iron-age peoples were speakers of IE and Dravidian languages.

The Tib-Bur speakers of Myanmarpr, presumably the Pyus - the brass-age peoples fared better because the country was well protected by mountain ranges in the west, north, and east, which are still the endemic areas of tertian malaria (quick death), other forms of malaria (slow depilating disease), dysentery (slow debilitating disease), cholera (quick death), and plague (pneumonic and bubonic - quick death). All these diseases are spread by insect vectors. The Pyus had the good sense to live in the wooded plains in small settlements probably to prevent the outbreaks of diseases such as plague. The main areas of Myanmarpr are not suitable for war-chariots and the modern tanks because they get bogged down in marshes. The animals of war were, therefore, elephant and horse, with the warriors relying on short lances used for throwing. Of course, swords of various kinds were used. The country was only suitable for guerrilla warfare.

See: Geography, Geology, Fossils in Section on MYANMAR -- geo-indx.htm

The name of the Vedic god पूषन  {pu.Sa.na.} reminds me of the Myanmar sea-port city of {pu.aim} which was dubbed by the British as Bassein. Another port-city of note was the ancient riverine-port city of {pu.gn}. In our parlance, "river" implies huge water-ways like the Irrawaddy River, which became so wide in late months of the monsoon that you can hardly see across. I am beginning to associate the word {pu.} to "port".

From: Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pushan 131211

Pushan पूषन  Pūṣan, is a Vedic solar deity and one of the Adityas. He is the god of meeting. Pushan was responsible for marriages, journeys, roads, and the feeding of cattle. He was a psychopomp [Greek meaning ""guide of souls"], conducting souls to the other world. He protected travelers from bandits and wild beasts, and protected men from being exploited by other men. He was a supportive guide, a "good" god, leading his adherents towards rich pastures and wealth. He carried a golden lance, a symbol of activity.

Pūṣan is praised in eight hymns in the Rigveda. Some of these hymns appeal to him to guard livestock and find lost livestock. His chariot is pulled by goats. [2] Sometimes he is described as driving the Sun in its course across the sky. He seems to represent the Sun as a guardian of flocks and herds.

According to a narrative found in the Taittiriya Samhita, Rudra was excluded from a certain sacrifice. He, in anger, pierced the sacrifice with an arrow and Pushan broke his teeth as he attempted to eat a part of the oblation. The later versions of this narrative are found in the Ramayana, Mahabharata and the Puranas. In these versions, Rudra or Shiva was angry because his father-in-law, Daksha, the sacrificer, did not invite him. Shiva, in anger, kicked Pushan and knocked out his teeth as he was eating the oblation. [3] In the Puranic versions, Virabhadra, created by Shiva from a lock of his matted hair knocked down Pushan's teeth. [4]

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