Update: 2017-01-26 05:49 PM -0500


A Practical Sanskrit Dictionary


by A. A. Macdonell, 1893,
http://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/scans/MDScan/index.php?sfx=jpg 1929.
Nataraj ed., 1st in 2006, 2012

Edited, with additions from Pali sources, by U Kyaw Tun (UKT) (M.S., I.P.S.T., USA) and staff of Tun Institute of Learning (TIL) . Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone. Prepared for students and staff of TIL  Computing and Language Center, Yangon, MYANMAR :  http://www.tuninst.net , www.romabama.blogspot.com

MC-indx.htm | Top

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{i.} / {I.} - cont.
Remember the proper spelling is with vowel-letter {I.} इ in both Skt and Pali

{i.ka.}/ {aik}
{aik~} from {i.ka.}
  {i.kSa.} : Pseudo-Kha --> {aik}
{an~} from {i.nga.}

{aic} from {i.sa.} : Palatal-plosive stop

{i.ta.} / {ait}
{i.na.} / {ain}
{ain~} / {ain}


इत्यै ityai [ ity-ai ]
= इ त ् य ै
- V. d. inf. of √i.


UKT notes :
   Personal Lament on the beginning of Death
---- of Bur-Myan as a National Language
Ikshavaku dynasty


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{i.} / {I.} - cont



pp. sam-aveta, united, all; inherent. a. ap-(p044-2end-p045begin) proach, come: -again; attain, fall into (a state); accrue to (ac.): pr. pt. -yat, coming, future. anu‿, follow. abhi‿a ,come to, aproach; betake oneself to: w. bhyas, come back again. sam-abhi‿, approach. ud-a go up; come forth; rise (esp.stars). upa‿a, approach; betake oneself to; attain. pari‿a, wander about. prati‿a , return to (ac.). sam-a, come together; assemble; join; meet with (in. + samam); betake oneself to, enter (ac); unite with in marriage (in.): pp. sameta, assembled; united; connected, provided or united with (in. or-) ua. go up; rise (sun. moon); arise; increase; proceed from (ab.); appear; arise to fight against (ac.); pp. udita, risen, appeared or increased. anu‿ud, come out to meet (ac.). apa‿ud, turn aside; depart or withdraw from (ab.). abhi‿ud. rise, appear; rise over (ac.); rise to fight against (ac.): pp. risen; - over (while still asleep, by the sun). pra‿ud, rise; appear. pratti‿ud, rise and go to meet (ac). sam-ud, rise; pp. risen; lofty; united; endowed w. (in. or-). upa, approach; betake oneself to (w. apah, bathe); meet; be apprenticed to (ac.); turn from (ab.) to (ac); approach carnally; obtain, attain, participate in; undergo, enter upon, have recourse to (a state; e.g. daranam, show oneself to. g.); undertake, devote oneself to; solicit; appear; befall; pp. upeta, arrived; having retired to (-) hvg. entered on (studies under a teacher); hvg. attained or betaken oneself  to; suppliant; endowed w., possessed of (-) abhi‿upa, approach; attain betake oneself to; approach carnally; join (ac.); accrue to (ac).; enter on ( a state); choose; assent: pp. come to (griham- = being in); admitted, assented to, promised. sam-a upa, pp. furnished with (-). sam-upa, come together, assemble; meet (hostile); betake oneself to; attain; have sexual intercourse w.; solicit; attain; come upon, befall: pp. endowed or furnished with (in). ni, go or get into. nis, go out, comeforth. para, go or run away; go to (ac.); pass away, depart, die; obtain: pt. pf. pareyivas, pp. pareta, deceased. pari, go round, walk round, surround: pp. parita, surrounded, filled, seized, by (in. or-). vi-pari, turn round; fail: pp. reversed, contrary; acting contrarily; divergent; perverse, adverse. sam-pari, embrace. pala, palayate (P. rare), flee. pra-pala, flee away. vi-pala, flee asunder. pra, go away; proceed, start, depart; die; come forward, advance; go to; gd. pretya, after death, in the next world: pp. preta, deceased. anu-pra, follow. apa-pra, depart from (ab.). abbi-pra, approach; think of, mean: pp. intended, meant; desired; beloved. sam-pra, flow together. prati, go to; return; go to meet, go against; accept; admit; be convinced (that, 2 ac); believe, trust (g.); ps. pratiya-te, be recognised, become apparent, result: pr.pt. -mana, known as (nm.); implicit: pp. pratita, firmly resolved; trusting in (-); satisfied, cheerful; recognised, known; cs. praty-ayayati, prove; convince. vi, traverse; extend; disperse, separate; diverge; be lost, perish: pp. vita, vanished: - = free from -, - less. abhi-vi, resort to (ac.) from all sides. sam, come together, meet (at, ac.), unite (with, in.); penetrate; collide with; enter upon, begin; visit; pp. samita, assembled; united; combined with ( in. or-).


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{i.ka.} / {aik}


इकार [ i-kra ]
- m. the letter ĭ .


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See my personal Lament on the beginning of Death of Burmese as a National Language

The following are two disyllabic words which have the same sound. {aik~ka.} is a made-up word which has no meaning. But {AIk~ka.} is found in Pal-Myan, where in first syllable the vowel-letter {I.} is checked by the killed consonant.

{aik~ka.} / {AIk~ka.}

Pal: {AIk~ka.}
- - UHS-PMD0189
  UKT from UHS: m. ape, bear


{aik~} from {i.ka.}

{i.kSa.} : Pseudo-Kha --> {aik}


इक्षु [ iksh ]
= इ क ् ष ु
Skt: - m. sugar-cane; its stalk; -kn- da, n. sugar-cane stalk; -danda, m. n. id.; -mat, f. N. of a river ; -rasa, m. juice of sugar-cane; -vat, f. N. of a river. - Mac045-c1
Pal: {AIk~hku.} pronounced as {aik~hku.}
- - UHS-PMD0189
  UKT from UHS: m. sugar-cane plant
Note the Skt-Dev Pseudo-Kha ks breaking down into Pal-Myan {k~hka.}


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- adv. with kuṭṭyamānasya , by (the torture of) being crushed like sugar-cane . BHS113c1



- N. of a festival, Sugarcane-twelfth (a day on which presents of sugarcane are made). BHS113c1



इक्ष्वाकु ikṣvāku
BHS: [ikṣvāku] - N. of a legendary king, son of Subandhu and father of Kuśa, named from his birth from a sugar-cane plant. BHS113c1
Skt: इक्ष्वाकु ikṣvāku - m. name of a son of manu vaivasvata,
   f. fruit of a wild species of Calabash (Lagenaria vulgaris) - SpkSkt



इक्ष्वाकु [ ikshvk ]
- m. N. of an ancient king and his descendants: pl. N. of a people: -kula-ga, a. born in the family of Ikshvku.

इक्ष्वाकु [ ikshvk ]
Skt: इक्ष्वाकु [ ikshvk ] - m. N. of an ancient king and his descendants: pl. N. of a people - Mac045c1
Pal: {AIk~hka-ku.} - UHS PMD0189
   UKT from UHS: m. {AIk~hka-ku. mn:} "King Ikṣvāku", f. wild gourd {bu:hka:} (Laganeria vulgaris)

UKT 150511: Ikshvaku dynasty of ancient India, a dynasty of rulers.
  इनकी उत्पत्ति सूर्य वंशियों में से हुई थी।
- The origin of the sun was Vanshion.

  ये प्राचीन कोशल देश के राजा थे और इनकी
- These ancient Kosala were the king of the country and their

  राजधानी अयोध्या थी। रामायण और महाभारत में इन दोनों वंशों के अनेक प्रसिद्ध शासकों का उल्लेख है।
  - These two dynasties mentions several famous rulers.

-- http://translate.google.com.mm/ 150511 from http://hi.wikipedia.org/wiki/ 150511

Suryavansha (Suryavam(n)sham or Solar Dynasty) is a mythological dynasty of ancient India. The term Suryavanshi refers to a person belonging to Suryvansha dynasty.
- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Suryavansha 150511

See my note on Ikshavaku dynasty {AIk~hka-ku. mn:hkak}
Note: {AIk~hka-ku.} is a variation of {OAk~ka.ka.} vide
Handbook of Chinese Buddhism Being Sanskrit-Chinese Dictionary, by Ernest J. Eitel, 1888, p068,

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?iṅkhika or īnkh
- adj., with śirā = sirā , vein , of unknown mg.: BHS113c1



{an~} from {i.nga.}

UKT 150511: {an~ga.} is not easily articulated because of which it is changed into { n~ga.}


- a large number or method of computation: BHS113c1-05 



इङ्ग [iṅg]
Skt: इङ्ग [iṅg] - i. iṅga , stir, move (int.); cs. put in motion, shake. ud , wave, wield - Mac045c2
Skt: इङ्ग iṅga - adj. wonderful, locomotive, moveable, surprising - SpkSkt



इङ्गना [ iṅg-an ]
- f. designation of (g.); -ita, (pp.) n. gesture, sign, hint, look; intention.



-- m., , f. kind of tree; n. its nut

UKT: [iṅguda] is {ba-dn} - Terminalia catappa L.
Sanskrit name source: http://iu.ff.cuni.cz/pandanus/database/  120817
Bur-Myan name: {ba-dn}, Almond, Terminalia catappa , Combretace
-- Botanical Names of Myanmar Plants of Importance, by Agri. Dept (Planning), Govt of Union of Myanmar, 2000, 41-1082: http://www.tuninst.net/MyanMedPlants/Agri-Dept-2000/indx-Agri2000.htm 120817
See: Botanical Names of Myanmar Plants of Importance in Para-Medicine
-- MP-Para-indx.htm > MP-LSR-indx.htm > Agri2000-indx.htm : click on {ba.} (link chk 161201)


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{aic~} from {i.sa.}


इच्छा [ ikkh ]
- f. wish, desire: -or in. according to wish or inclination; at will; -bharana, m. N.; -sakti-mat, a. having the faculty of wishing; -sadrisa, a. conforming to one's wishes; -sampad, f. fulfilment of wishes.



इच्छु [ ikkh-u ]
- a. wishing, desirous of (ac., inf., or --).


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इज्य [ ig-ya ]
- fp. to be honoured; m. teacher.



इज्या [ ig-y ]
- f. sacrifice.


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इट [ ta ]
- m. sedge, rush, reed; mat.



इड् [id]
= इ ड ्
-- f. comfort; oblation, sacrificial prayer


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इड [ id ]
- m. N. of a king; a form of Agni.



इडा dâ, इळा lâ, इला [ il ]
- f. libation; prayer; goddess of devotion; earth; -vat, a. refreshing, quickening.

UKT 161201: The "goddess of devotion" is Parvati.
http://www.goddessgift.com/goddess-myths/hindu-goddess-parvati.htm 120817
See also: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Parvati 161201

In Buddhist legends, the Earth goddess is Wathondara {wa.oan~da.ra} or Wathondare {wa.oan~da.r}. She is invoked to witness meritorious deeds.
-- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phra_Mae_Thorani 161201

{wa.oan~da.ra} aka {wa.oan~da.r} is given as Earth.
- Dictionary of Pali-derived Myanmar words (in Bur-Myan), by U Tun Myint - UTM-PDMD p289. 


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{i.ta.} / {ait}


इत् [it]
-- technical indicatory letter or syllable attached to words or roots (gr.).



इतर [-tara]
-- (n. - ; V. also -m ), other, other than, different from (ab., -); contrary, opposite; common, ordinary: itara-itara , the one - the other; -gan , m.  ordinary person; ...



इतरय [ itara-ya ]
- den. P. alienate; bring over.



इतरेतर [ itara‿itara ]
- n. (only oblique cases of sg.) one another: --, the one & the other; ad. mutually: -‿upakritimat, a. mutually helpful.



इतस् [ i-ts ]
- ad. (= ab. of idam) from this; from here, from this world; from this point; here, - below; hence, therefore: ita rdhvam, hereafter, below (in a book); itas ka‿itas ka, from here and there, hither and thither; itas--itas, here-there; itas tatas, here and there, hither and thither; hence forth (often with aparam, param, or prabhriti).



इतान्त [ ita‿anta ]
- a. having gone across.



इति [ . -ti ]
- ad. so, thus (quoting words or thoughts, generally at the end, sts. at beg. or near the end, serving the purpose of inverted commas, and supplying the place of oratio obliqua; it is also used to conclude an enumeration, with or without ka): iti tath karoti, so saying, he acts accordingly (stage direction); iti kritv, so saying, therefore, considering that --; kimiti = kim, why? (sts. =iti kim). iti‿iti, iti‿iva, iti‿uta, iti‿evam, iti sma, iti ha, iti ha sma=iti (sts. iti is followed pleonastically by a dem. prn.).

-- n. . a. The use of more words than are required to express an idea; redundancy. b. An instance of pleonasm.
 . A superfluous word or phrase. -- AHTD



इति [ . -ti or i-t ]
- f. going.



इतिकर्तव्य [ iti-kartavya ]
- n. (thus it must be done), proper measure: -t, f. abst. n.: -mdha, pp. completely at a loss what to do; -krya, n. (-t, f. abst. n.), -kritya, n. (-t, f. abst. n.) proper measure; incumbency; -krama, m.; in. in such a manner; -th, a. () such and such; -vat, ad. just so, in this very way; -vritta, n. incident, event.



इतिहास [ iti-ha‿sa ]
- m. ("so-it-was"), tradition, legend, story; epic poem.



इतोगत [ ito-gata ]
- pp. turned hither; relating to this; -mukha, a. directed hither: -m, ad. hither.


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इत्थंविध [ ittham-vidha ]
- a. of such a kind; -gata, pp. so conditioned: lc. such being the case.



इत्थम् [ it-thm ]
= इ त ् थ म ्
- ad. so, thus.



इत्थंभूत [ ittham-bhta ]
- pp. being so, of such a nature.



इत्था [ it-th&asharp; ]
- ad. thus; (often only emphatic =) just, quite, even, really; kim te --, what ails thee?



-- m. N.



इत्यर्थ iti‿arth , ˚क [ -ka ]
- a. having the above mentioned meaning.



इत्यर्थम् [ iti‿artham ]
- ad. for this purpose.



इत्यादि [ iti‿di ]
- a. beginning thus = and so on; n. this and the like, and so on, &c.



इत्येतन्नामक [ iti‿etan-nma-ka ]
- a. having the names just mentioned.



-- a. = itydi



इत्यै [ ity-ai ]
- V. d. inf. of √i.



इत्वन् [ i-tvan ]
- a. going (--).



इत्वर [ i-tvar ]
- a. going, moving; , f. faithless wife.


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इद् [ -d ]
- pcl. just, quite, even, only (often to be rendered by stress).



इदंरूप [ idm-rpa ]
- a. having this form.



इदन्तन [ idan-tana ]
- a. present, now living.



इदम् [ i-d-m ]
- n. (nm. ac. sg.: nm. m. ayam, f. iyam) this; the following (sts. refers to what immediately precedes); all this = the whole world (often with srvam, vsvam, sakalam); w. prns. = here; just; ad. here; hither; now; herewith; just; thus.



इदमादि [ idam-di ]
- a. beginning with this.



इदा i-da, इदानीम् [ i-d&asharp;nm ]
- ad. now, this moment, just: w. hnas or hnm, to-day, now-a-days.



इदानीन्तन [ idnn-tana ]
- a. present, now living.



इद्धदीधिति [ iddha-ddhiti ]
- m. fire.


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इध् [idh], इन्ध् [indh], II. .
-- kindle; ps. idhyte , be kindled, flame; pp. iddh , kindled, aflame (also fig.). sam , id.



इध्म [ idh-m ]
- m. fuel; -kiti, f. wood-pile.


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{i.na.} / {ain}


इन् [ . in ]
- the suffix in (gr.).



इन् [ . in ]



इन [ i-n ]
- a. strong, mighty; m. Sun.



इनक्ष् [ i-nak-sh ]
- des. P. (of √nas) naksha, strive to obtain. ud, id.


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{ain~} / {ain}

UKT 150519, 161201: Indra / {ain~da.} and Sakka  {ak~ka.} are not the same. See A Dictionary of the Pali Language (in Pal-Dev) by R.C. Childers 1874, p419.

We should also differentiate Sakka {ak~ka.} 'an axiomatic entity' from Sakya {a.kya.} aka {a.kya. a-ki-wn myo:nw} 'the relatives of Gaudama Buddha' who are human beings.

Indra / {ain~da.} is the King of Heaven in Hinduism, whereas Sakka  {ak~ka.} in Buddhism is just a king in a lower dva world known as Trāyastriṃśa or Tāvatiṃsa "The world "of the Thirty-three (dvas)" is a wide flat space on the top of Mount Sumeru {u.m-ru.} aka {mrn:mor-tan} 'a mythical mountain', filled with the gardens and palaces of the dvas. Mount Sumeru is the highest point of terra firma. Its ruler is Śakra devānām indra, "Śakra, lord of the devas".
See also Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Buddhist_cosmology 150519, 161201.


इन्दिरा [ indir ]
- f. epithet of Lakshm.



इन्दीवर [ indvara ]
- m. n. blue lotus; m. bee; -dala, n. petal of the blue lotus; -prabh, f. N.; -‿aksha, m. N. of a man.



इन्दु [ nd-u ]
- m. drop, juice, esp. of Soma; (drop in the sky), moon; -kalasa, m. man's N.; -kal, f. crescent: -‿avatamsa, m. ep. of Siva; -knta, m. moon-stone; -kesarin, m. N. of a king; -dala, n. crescent; -prabha, m. N.; -bimba, n. orb of the moon; -mani, m. moon-stone; -mat, f. N. of various women; -mukha, a. () moon-faced; -yasas, f. N. of a princess; -rga, m. man's N.; -lekh, f. N. of a queen; -vadana, a. moon-faced; -sekhara, m. ep. of Siva.

UKT: p045c3-b30 moved to next file.
(end of old p045-2.htm)

(end of p045.htm)

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UKT notes

Personal Lament on the beginning of Death of Burmese-Myanmar as a National Language

UKT 120817, 131209, 161121: Personal Lament on the beginning of Death of Bur-Myan as a National Language

I usually check the children as well as adults who came to study computer operations at TIL research centre in Yangon on their knowledge of the Bur-Myan language. Even  those with university degrees, are found to be not knowledgeable of the Bur-Myan script as I have expected. No doubt they speak their mother tongue well. But unless they have been trained in Pal-Myan script, most failed to recognize the akshara {I.}. Most of them think it is "{ka.}-over-{ku.}" and may be ignored.

When I told them that Bur-Myan language is a phonetic language, they were really surprised. Why? They did not know the elements of {ing-poan:kri:} which is the basis of Myanmar akshara (used by many indigenous ethnics of Myanmarpr). In 1930s when I started to go to school in Kungyangon-mro., we were taught {ing-poan:kri:}. Then starting in late 1930's, thanks to U Pe Maung Tin's work, {ing-poan:kri:} was phased out.

{ing-poan:kri:} was the back-bone of the monastic education for centuries before the British colonialists and their Christian missionaries came into Myanmarpr. And now, the native people do not even know their akshara table. In particular asked what {I.} stands for! They did not know it was a vowel and has the same sound as {i.}. Ask them to write out the row#3 consonants. Most of them do not know. Ask them the difference between the vowel {U.} and consonant r2c5 {a.}. They would say - there's no difference!

It was a deliberate attempt by colonialists like Baron Lord Macaulay to systematically wiped out the languages and religions of Myanmarpr Burma and India, and to turn them into English-language speaking peoples who despised their religions, and looked up to England as their Mother country - in other words turn them into what has been derogatorily termed 'Macaulay's children".

But mind you, I do admire (and my father U Tun Pe, before me) Lord Macaulay. My father had studied Macaulay's "Critical and Historical Essays" on his own. He could do so because of his knowledge of {ing-poan:kri:} which is the basis of Myanmar akshara (used by many indigenous ethnics of Myanmarpr). He would not have been able to do so, if he had the basis of English grammar only. Remember Alphabet-Letter system is notoriously non-phonetic, whereas Abugida-Akshara system is.

During my first two years at the Rangoon University, when I, out of arrogance, boasted to my father that I have become quite good with my English, he simply went to his collection of books - almost all of them in English, and threw his personal copy of the "Critical and Historical Essays" in my face. In almost all the sentences of the first page, there were words I had never heard of. It cured me of my arrogance. See Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thomas_Babington_Macaulay,_1st_Baron_Macaulay 131208

"... We must at present do our best to form a class who may be interpreters between us and the millions whom we govern, - a class of persons, Indian in blood and colour, but English in taste, in opinions, in morals, and in intellect. To that class we may leave it to refine the vernacular dialects of the country, to enrich those dialects with terms of science borrowed from the Western nomenclature, and to render them by degrees fit vehicles for conveying knowledge to the great mass of the population." 
- Cited from "Macaulay's Minute on Indian Education, dated 2nd of February, 1835, in Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Macaulayism#cite_note-Rita_Raley-2 131209, 161121

I am sorry to see the demise of the Mon (Peguan) language, and it seems that my Mon ancestors are pushing me to do something for its revival. Even if Mon as a day-to-day language could not re-emerge, it is comforting to know that Pali-in-Mon written as Mon-Myan would survive for a long time. Similarly, even if Burmese as a national language were to die, I hope it would survive as  Pali-in-Burmese written as Pal-Myan would last.

I doing my best to preserve the Myanmar akshara as Pal-Myan and Skt-Myan. My invention, Romabama {ro:ma.ba.ma} (ASCII-compatible) is to replace IPA (non-ASCII), as a transcription for Bur-Myan akshara. It is to convey the correct Bur-Myan spellings for Proper-names of places and people on the Internet.

Day by day I am getting old - aching fingers, ever-dimming eye-sight, and limited ability to stand and walk: my eighty-third  birthday is approaching fast. For the record I must add, as of today, I could not enlist any Mon speaker to come to my aid. Those whom I had asked for help came back at me "How much are you going to give? What is the salary (money)?" With whatever I am getting as Old-Age-Security from the Canadian government, and with help from my children working outside Myanmarpr is being shipped back, and the bank interest I am getting in Myanmarpr, I have to make do with my research work at the research station at 35 Thantadalan, Sanchaung, Yangon. I now have a bare minimum of staff of 4.

Go back Lament-note-b

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Ikshvaku dynasty

- UKT 150622, 160622 

Pix: from Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pangaea 161130

I remember reading that during the first meeting of Rishi (Prince) Siddhartha Gaudama and King Bimbisara, the former declared himself belonging to the Solar dynasty aka Sūryavaṁśa founded by King Ikshvaku ikṣvāku literally meaning sugar-cane {krn-pn} (Saccharum officinarum). Sugarcane is a large, strong-growing species of grass in the genus Saccharum. It originated in southeast Asia [1] ... The stems vary in colour, being green, pinkish, or purple and can reach 5 m (16 ft) in height.  - based on: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saccharum_officinarum 161129

Here we must note that the land of present-day Myanmarpr had belonged to the Asiatic mainland before the continental shifts. India was part of Africa. It separated from the African mainland, and slowly drifted toward the Asiatic mainland forming a shallow sea which is now the area of Irrawaddy basin. See Geography, Geology, Fossils in MYANMAR
- geo-indx.htm > permian.htm , phy-geo-myan.htm , fossil.htm (link chk 161129)

Based on the above I opine that the sugar-cane is of Myanmarpr and SEAsia origin. And because the major part of Myanmarpr, the Irrawaddy basin, had been part of the ancient ocean extending into the present-day Mediterranean sea, you can find deposits of heavy metals such as gold, silver, copper, lead, thorium, tungsten, bio-chemicals such as natural gas and petroleum, and pockets of hot springs all over today Myanmarpr.

The ancient Indian warriors, such Arjuna - a Pandava, were afraid to come down from the mountain heights to the lowlands below - the country of Naga-dragons - even when invited by ULupi a Naga-princess with whom he was in love with and had a son. Thanks to the northern Himalayan ranges we can enjoy pleasant weather throughout the year. However because of such blessings the population tends to be like the Lotus eaters of Greek mythology - lazy and lethargic. See: - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lotus-eaters 161130

Inset on right from: Civilization, by Armand du Plessis, 2014.
ISBN: 978-1-4918-7900-9 (sc)
ISBN: 978-1-4918-7901-6 (e)

The following is based on Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ikshvaku_dynasty 120817, 150622

The Ikshvaku dynasty, in Puranic literature, was a mythical dynasty [1] founded by Ikshvaku, grandson of Vivasvan or Surya and son of Vaivasvata Manu. This dynasty is also known as Sūryavaṁśa (the Solar dynasty). [UKT ]

Ikshvaku ikṣvāku, literally means "sugar cane". Rama, hero of the Ramayana belonged to this dynasty. Twenty-two out of the twenty-four Jain Tirthankaras [equivalents to Buddhist Buddha] belonged to this dynasty.

The important personalities belonging to this royal house are Harishchandra, Dilīpa, Sagara, Raghu, Rama and Prasenajit. Although, both the Hindu Puranas and the Buddhist texts include Shuddodhana, Siddhartha Gaudama (who later became Gautama Buddha) and Rahula in their accounts of the Ikshvaku dynasty, but according to the Buddhist texts, Mahasammata {ma.ha m~ma.ta. mn:}, an ancestor of Ikshvaku was the founder of this dynasty, who was elected by the people as the first king of the present era. According to the Puranas, supreme preceptor of the Ikshvaku dynasty was sage Vashishta.

The Buddhist text, Mahavamsa (II, 1-24) traces the origin of the Shakyas {a.kya. a-ki-wn myo:nw} to king Okkaka (Pali equivalent to Sanskrit Ikshvaku) and gives their genealogy from Mahasammata {ma.ha m~ma.ta. mn:}, an ancestor of King Okkaka. [UKT ]

UKT 161130: In Burmese Buddhist tradition we find the etymology of the word {a.kya. a-ki-wn myo:nw} or {a.kya.} as the result of inter-sibling marriage to preserve the lineage. It means 'an impossibility'. However in the Handbook of Chinese Buddhism Being Sanskrit-Chinese Dictionary, by Ernest J. Eitel, 1888, p068, we find a different account:

S'kya {a-kya.} 'is it possible ?' - the refusal by sons to obey the father who was also their king.

Note the vowel lengthening in {a.kya.} --> {a-kya.}.

This list comprises the names of a number of prominent kings of the Ikshvaku dynasty, namely, Mandhata and Sagara. The genealogy according to the Mahavamsa is as follows:

01. Okkaka
02. Okkamukha
03. Sivisamjaya
04. Sihassara
05. Jayasena

06. Sihahanu
07. Suddhodana
08. Siddhattha (Gautama Buddha)
09. Rahula

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