Update: 2016-12-06 03:02 AM -0500


A Practical Sanskrit Dictionary


by A. A. Macdonell, 1893,
http://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/scans/MDScan/index.php?sfx=jpg 1929.
Nataraj ed., 1st in 2006, 2012

Edited, with additions from Pali sources, by U Kyaw Tun (UKT) (M.S., I.P.S.T., USA) and staff of Tun Institute of Learning (TIL) . Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone. Prepared for students and staff of TIL  Computing and Language Center, Yangon, MYANMAR :  http://www.tuninst.net , www.romabama.blogspot.com

MC-indx.htm | Top

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{i.}/ {I.} : cf. highly rhotic Skt-Myan {iRi.} ऋ - p056-2.htm.
Remember the proper spelling is with vowel-letter {I.} इ in both Skt and Pali.

p044-2c1-2c2-2c3 : The three columns involved are very short because of which I've put them together. Still the txt does not end on this page and continues into p045.htm.


UKT notes :
Checking nuclear vowel by coda consonant
Three kinds of Close-front vowels /i/ across various language groups


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{i.} / {I.}

UKT 131218, 161205: Close-front vowel /i/ . {i.}/ {I.} इ i . It may be killed with a Virama {a.t}.
However, there is a difference between Burmese as derived from Pali and Hindi as derived from Sanskrit. Burmese shows the  viram of the coda which is dropped in Hindi. The following is an example on the treatment of imported word in India. The Muslim "Ramzan Id" as spelled in Hindi and English in India:

Hindi: रमजान  ईद/ ईद  उल  फितर
English: Ramzan Id/ Eid-ul-Fitar
(Note the English transcription <eid> and also the absence of virama on द da. Hindi is in a mess with killed-akshara as coda because of its insistence that the viram is unnecessary in the coda. Thus "Asoka" in Sanskrit has become "Asok" in Hindi. With this little note, I remember my friend Mr. Hershad Patal of Deep River, On., Canada who used to laugh at me whenever I mention the name of Asoka.)

from http://www.timeanddate.com/holidays/india/eid-ul-fitar 131218
IPA transliteration given in Wikipedia: Eid al-Fitr (Arabic: عيد الفطر ʻĪd al-Fiṭr, IPA: [ʕiːd al fitˤr], "festival of breaking of the fast") -- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eid_al-Fitr 131218


इ [ i ]  {i.}/ {I.}
- . prn. stem of the 3rd prs.




इ [ i ]
- . I, II.p -ti (- .); + I.p ya; IV.P iya, go, come (punar, return); go to, attain, undergo (ac.); accrue to (ac.); ask for (ac., ab.); come from (ab.); go away, pass; undertake; continue (w. pt. pr.) ps. iyn, hasten; entreat (2. ac) akkha, approach (ac). ati, pass; traverse; elapse, allow to pass (time); enter; outstrip; exceed; conquer; avoid; part from (ab.): pp atita, past; disappeared; dead; having crossed; - avoid, - neglected. abhiati, elapse; cross; allow to pass; pp dead. vi ati, elapse; swerve from (ab); pass by traverse: (column break) pp. past. sam-ati, pass; traverse; overcome. adhi, perceive; study, learn (generally A), recite; pp. adhita, learnt; learned (man); cs. P. adhyapaya, tech (2 ac). pra‿adhi, pp. advanced in Vedic study. sam-adhi, study thoroughly. anu, follow: visit; obey; equal (ac.): pp. anvita, following (ac.); accompanied by, united, endowed, provided or filled with ( in. or-); increased by, plus (-); imitated; logically connected. sam-anu, pp. provided or filled w., possessed of (in.,-_ antar, get between; exclude from (ab; sts. g.); remove; pp. excluded; separated; intgervening; distant; being in (a state; - ) hidden or obstructed by (in. or -) spa, go (column break) away, leave; disappear; pp. apeta, escaped, retreated, disappeared; having swerved from, opposed to, devoid of (ab. or -) vi‿apa, part; depart, cease: pp. parted; vanished; diverging form (-); - = less. api, enter, be dissolved in (ac); die. abhi, approach; tread (a path); enter; reach; attain; undergo; accrue to (ac) sam-abhi, approach; follow; accrue. ava, go down to (ac.); regard; mean; understand, perceive; learn, know, that (ac. of abj). with pred. ac. or nm. w. iti). abhi‿ava, descend into (ac.). prati‿ava, transgress. sam-ava, come down together. subside; unite in (ac.); regard as (iva): pp. sam-aveta, united, all; inherent. a. ap(p044-2end-p045begin)proach, come:

एति [ -ti ]
Skt: एति [ -ti ] - go -- Mac044
Skt: एति { इ } eti { i } - verb 2  go near, go towards, go -- SpkSkt
Pal: {-ti.} -- UHS-PMD0258
  UKT from UHS: go, arrive

समवाप्नोति { समव- आप् } samavāpnoti { samava-āp}
Skt: verb U - meet, attain, reach, gain, obtain - SpkSkt


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UKT notes

Checking nuclear-vowel by coda consonant

- UKT 131218, 150512, 161118 

This is the first time we are meeting vowel-letters, e.g. {I.}, and vowel-signs, e.g. . {i.} is {a.} modified by the vow-sign. One fact that usually misses our attention is the checking of the nuclear vowel of the syllable by killed consonant of the coda. Here the nuclear vowel is short vowel /i/. Remember that we can have at least two kinds of this vowel differentiated by the vowel-duration measured in time-duration of eye-blink.

vowel represented by:
  short vowel-sign: --- {i.} (1 blnk) ------ long vowel-sign - {i } (2 blnk)
  short vowel-letter: - {I.} इ (1 blnk) --- long vowel-letter {I } ई (2 blnk)

When we write {I.} & {ka.} together, there is always the possibility that the vowel {I.} is checked by {k} resulting in the vowel /i/ changed to {aik}. Look for the Virama {a.t}-sign in the spelling to get a cue to the pronunciation.

{I.}/ {i.} + {ka.} + viram --> {aik}

Bur-Myan check only short vowels. However in Skt-Dev we find the long vowels are also checke.

-- UKT 131218

Perhaps {i} / {I} was never checked in Bur-Myan, not even in imported words. In fact words with long vowels that has been checked, with the exception of {Daat} -- from long vowel {a}/{aa} -- is never met. The absence of long-vowel checking is one of the main differences between Sanskrit (a typical Indo-European language), and Burmese (the typical Tibeto-Burman). Now that in trying to bring the BEPS languages together, I have no choice but to consider the case of checking of long vowels, as in the following:

ii, , --> {I~} : monophthong --> {i:.d}
  Skt: ईड् [= ई ड ् : notice the virama on {a.}] - ID , f. praise - SpkSkt

Note the akshara that is checking the long vowel: it is {a.} ड (the retroflex) and not {da.} द (the dental). Note my use of "three dots" {wic~sa.} which has been borrowed from Tamil ஃ visarga. I have based my transcription on IPA triangular colon /ː/ which is used for "checking" long vowels.

As a practical situation consider how the Muslim Ramzan Id should be rendered. First we note how it is spelled in Hindi and in English used in India:

The Muslim Ramzan Id as spelled in Hindi and English in India:

Hindi: रमजान  ईद/ ईद  उल  फितर
English: Ramzan Id/ Eid-ul-Fitar
Skt: ईड् id f. praise, extolling - SpkSkt

Note the English transcription <eid> in Eid-ul-Fitr, and also the absence of virama on द da
from http://www.timeanddate.com/holidays/india/eid-ul-fitar 131218

IPA transliteration given in Wikipedia: Eid al-Fitr (Arabic: عيد الفطر ʻĪd al-Fiṭr, IPA: [ʕiːd al fitˤr], "festival of breaking of the fast") -- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eid_al-Fitr 131218
Note the use of triangular colon /ː/ between <i> and <d>.

Checking a vowel by the coda seems to make the pronunciation easier which might be due to the use of less energy. And, as a chemist I am using a parallel from the merging of electronic orbitals.

Animation from Wikipedia:
- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Molecular_orbital 150512

"Electron wavefunctions for the 1s orbital of a lone hydrogen atom (left and right) and the corresponding bonding (bottom) and antibonding (top) molecular orbitals of the H2 molecule. The real part (mathematical) of the wavefunction is the blue curve, and the imaginary part (mathematical) is the red curve. The red dots mark the locations of the nuclei. The electron wavefunction oscillates according to the Schrdinger wave equation, and orbitals are its standing waves. The standing wave frequency is proportional to the orbital's kinetic energy. (This plot is a one-dimensional slice through the three-dimensional system.)"

A better animation would have been that of H2+ molecule-ion with only one orbital electron instead of two of the H2 molecule.

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Three kinds of Close-front vowel /i/

UKT 150529, 161118: Ref to inset pix. In Skt-Dev, the vowel {i.}/ {I.}, of the central plane can become very rhotic by moving further. It is then represented by highly rhotic Skt-Dev ऋ . It is found in IE  languages.

However if you move nearer, we run into the L-coloring, which you will meet in Chinese of the Sino-Tibetan. Bur-Myan belonging to Tibeto-Burman remains in the central plane. Caveat: At present the two language groups have been merged. 

It is not present in Bur-Myan & Pal-Myan, and I have to invent a glyph to represent it: {iRi.} ऋ . It is generally known as "Vocalic R" but since it does not have any relationship to regular English consonant R, I prefer to call it "Rhotic vowel". Notice how I have differentiated it from common {ra.ric} sign. The English transliteration and pronunciation of this vowel as "Ri" in many Skt-Dev words, has broken up their relationships to Pal-Myan words, e.g.,

"Rishi" ऋषि ṛṣi [ rsh-i ] --> {I.i.} - UHS-PMD0195

I base my rendering of words with the vowel ऋ into Skt-Myan by treating it as derived from /i/ represented by {i.} / {I.} .

Go back Three-kinds-of-Close-front-vowel-i-note-b

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End of TIL file