Update: 2018-10-10 12:48 AM -0400

TIL

A Practical Sanskrit Dictionary

p044-1.htm

by A. A. Macdonell, 1893,
http://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/scans/MDScan/index.php?sfx=jpg 1929.
Nataraj ed., 1st in 2006, 2012

Edited, with additions from Pali sources, by U Kyaw Tun (UKT) (M.S., I.P.S.T., USA) and staff of Tun Institute of Learning (TIL) . Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone. Prepared for students and staff of TIL  Computing and Language Center, Yangon, MYANMAR :  http://www.tuninst.net , www.romabama.blogspot.com

MC-indx.htm | Top
MCv1pp-indx.htm

Contents of this page

{a-a.} - cont
  p043c3-b22
  p044-1c1
{a-a}
{a-i.}
{a-u.}
{a-Ri.}
{a-}

{a-Ska.} from Bur-Myan {a.}
  p044-1c2
{a-Sta.} from Bur-Myan {a.}
{a-Shta.} from Bur-Myan {a.}
{a-Spa.} from Bur-Myan {a.}

{a-Sya.} from Bur-Myan {a.}
{a-Sra.} from Bur-Myan {a.}
{a-Swa.} from Bur-Myan {a.}

{a-ha.}
{a-ha}
  p044-1c3
{a-hi.}
{a-hu.}
{a-h}

{a-h~na.} : hanging {na.} - see Mon-Myan medial-conjuncts
{a-h~la.} : hanging {la.} - see Mon-Myan medial-conjuncts
{a-h~wa.} : hanging {la.} - see Mon-Myan medial-conjuncts

UKT 131208, 161116: Native Bur-Myan speakers cannot properly pronounce English words such as <screen> or <skin>, <stem>, <sprout>, <snow>, and <smoke>. They pronounce the first sound as two syllables, e.g., /sə'ka/. This is because of the absence of hissing dental fricative /s/ which I am now representing as {Sa.}/ {S}. Since  introducing a new glyph, would become a hindrance in transcription from English to Burmese, (or from Skt-Dev to Pal-Myan), I have used the regular palatal stop {sa.}/ {c}, changing it into {Sa.}/ {S}, with the change only in Romabama alphabet . In the proposed strident stops and nasals, it is the hissing {Sa.}/ {S}, and not the non-hissing {sa.}/ {c}. You will note that the above are all from the {wag}-group.

However, when {Sa.}/ {S} precedes an {a-wag}-akshara, it must be treated as {a.} forming a disyllabic conjunct {~ya.}, {~ra.}, etc., or if found in Pal-Myan as a monosyllabic medial {ya}, etc.

Please note that this is my position at present which with more study might be changed.

 

UKT notes :
Astika (theist) and Nastika (atheist)
Hissers and Non-Hissers
Rishi Astika
Sapinda 'cousins'

 

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{a-a.} - cont

p043c3-b22/ p040  

आसन्न [ -sanna ]
= आ स न ् न
- pp. near; n. -ness; -kla, m. time just past (gr.); -kara, a. moving near (--); -tara, cpv. nearer: -t, f. greater nearness; -prasav, a. f. on the point of parturition, about to lay (eggs); -vartin, a. being near.
 आसन्न   -sanna near; n. -ness; -kla, m. time just past (gr.); -kara, a. moving near (--); -tara, cpv. nearer: -t, f. greater nearness; -prasav, a. f. on the point of parturition, about to lay (eggs); -vartin, a. being near.

 

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p044-1c1

p044-1c1-b01/ p040 

आसपिण्डक्रियाकर्म [ -sapinda-kriy-karma ]
- ad. before preparing the funeral feast partaken of by the Sapindas.
 आसपिण्डक्रियाकर्म   aN-sapinda-kriy-karma before preparing the funeral feast partaken of by the Sapindas.

UKT 150509: Sapinda
- a person considered in his relation to any of his three or sometimes six nearest lineal male ancestors or descendants. Sanskrit sapiṇḍa, literally, having the same lump, from sa- one and the same (akin to sama same) + piṇḍa lump of rice offered to deceased ancestors; from the fact that the lump is offered to the three nearest ancestors and the crumbs to the next three ... - http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/sapinda 150509
See my note on Sapinda - cousins

 

p044-1c1-b02/ p040 

आसप्तम [ -sapta-ma ]
- a. up to the seventh.
 आसप्तम   -sapta-ma up to the seventh.

 

p044-1c1-b03/ p040 

आसमाप्ति [ -sampti ]
- ad. up to the end, from beginning to end.
 आसमाप्ति   -sampti up to the end, from beginning to end.

 

p044-1c1-b04/ p040 

आसमुद्र [ -samudra ]
- ad. up to the sea (--).
 आसमुद्र   -samudra up to the sea (--).

 

p044-1c1-b05/ p040 

आसव [ -sava ]
- m. distilled spirit alcohol, spirituous alcoholic liquor, rum.
आसव   -sava distilled spirit, spirituous liquor, rum.

UKT 131207: The English word <spirit> used for distilled alcohol refers to the liquid turning easily to vapor and disappearing from sight just a supernatural being would. Refer to the word "Spirit" in Spiritualism.

See Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spiritualism 161116
"Spiritualism is a belief that spirits of the dead have both the ability and the inclination to communicate with the living. The afterlife, or "spirit world", is seen by spiritualists, not as a static place, but as one in which spirits continue to evolve."

As a chemist, I urge you to avoid using the word "spirit" - use the word <alcohol>. However, there is a caveat in using <alcohol>. The only alcohol that is not harmful for human consumption is ethanol, C2H5OH . All other liquid alcohols are poisonous. The one recommended by dentists as a mouth-wash (propanol) is harmful, and must be spitted out almost immediately. I recommend, as a chemist, that you use strong whiskey or rum (and with a chuckle I usually add "of course you don't have to spit it out") - much to the chagrin of my dentist friends!

 

p044-1c1-b06

[st]
- (ab. of 2. sa) ad. near at hand

 

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{a-a}

p044-1c1-b07/ p040 

आसादन [ -sd-ana ]
- n. setting down; obtainment of (--); -ita, cs. pp. √sad: -vigraha, a. used to war; -ya, gd. √sad.
आसादन   -sd-ana setting down; obtainment of (--); -ita, cs. pp. √sad: -vigraha, a. used to war; -ya, gd. √sad.

 

p044-1c1-b08/ p040 

आसायम् [ -syam ]
- ad. till evening.
आसायम्   -syam till evening.

 

p044-1c1-b09/ p040 

आसार [ -sra ]
- m. downpour, heavy shower; a king separated by intervening state (a natural ally); -prasamita, pp. quenched with showers.
 आसार   -sra downpour, heavy shower; a king separated by intervening state (a natural ally); -prasamita, pp. quenched with showers.

 

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{a-i.}

p044-1c1-b10/ p040 

आसिका [ s-ik ]
- f. turn to sit.
आसिका   s-ik turn to sit.

 

p044-1c1-b11/ p040 

आसित [ s-ita ]
- pp. sitting.
 आसित   s-ita sitting.

 

p044-1c1-b12/ p040 

आसिधार [ sidhra ]
- a. connected with the edge of a sword.
 आसिधार   sidhra connected with the edge of a sword.

 

p044-1c1-b13/ p040 

आसिसादयिषु [ -sisd-ayi-shu ]
- des. a. desirous of attacking (ac.).
आसिसादयिषु   -sisd-ayi-shu desirous of attacking (ac.).

 

p044-1c1-b14/ p040 

आसीन [ s-na ]
- pr. pt. (√s) sitting: -prakalyita, n. nodding with sleep while sitting.
 आसीन   aNs-na (√s) sitting: -pra- kalyita, n. nodding with sleep while sitting.

 

p044-1c1-b15/ p040

आसीमान्तम् [ -smntam ]
- ad. up to the boundary.
 आसीमान्तम्   -smntam up to the boundary. 

 

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{a-u.}

p044-1c1-b16/ p040 

आसुर [ sur ]
= आ स ु र / असुरी  --> {a-u.ra.} / {a-u.ri}
- a. (&isharp;) spiritual, divine; belonging to the demons or Asuras, demon-like; m. Asura; &isharp;, f. female Asura.
आसुर   sur () spiritual, divine; belonging to the demons or Asuras, demon-like; m. Asura; , f. female Asura.

 

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{a-Ri.}

p044-1c1-b17/ p040 

आसृक्व [ -srikva ]
- ad. up to the corners of the mouth (--).
 आसृक्व   -srikva up to the corners of the mouth (--).

 

p044-1c1-b18/ p040 

आसृष्टि [ -srishti ]
- ad. from the creation of the world.
 आसृष्टि   -srishti from the creation of the world. 

 

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{a-}

p044-1c1-b19/ p040 

आसेक [ -seka ]
- m. watering, irrigation.
 आसेक   -seka watering, irrigation.
 

p044-1c1-b20/ p040 

आसेचन [ -skana ]
- n. pouring on, infusion; bowl.
आसेचन   -skana pouring on, infusion; bowl.

 

p044-1c1-b21

[-seddhri ]
- m. arrester

 

p044-1c1-b22/ p040 

आसेध [ -sedha ]
- m. arrest, imprisonment.
 आसेध   -sedha arrest, imprisonment.

 

p044-1c1-b23/ p040 

आसेवन [ -sev-ana ]
- n. frequenting; addiction; -, f. continuous application, addiction; -in, a. frequenting; addicted to (--); -ya, fp. to be visited.
 आसेवन   -sev-ana frequenting; addiction; -, f. continuous application, addiction; -in, a. frequenting; addicted to (--); -ya, fp. to be visited.

 

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{a-Ska.} from Bur-Myan {a.}

UKT 150509: Skt-Dev speakers cannot pronounce the non-hissing dental-fricative /θ/. They pronounce this phoneme as hissing dental-fricative /s/. Thus to them the Bur-Myan {a.} becomes /s/. The non-hissing dental-fricative /θ/ is present in English which was represented by the "thorn-character" in Old-English and by the digraph <th> in modern English and is present in common words like <thin> /θɪn/ (DJPD16-535), and <thorn> /θɔːn/ (DJPD16-535). It must be noted that the palatal plosive-stop - the r2c1 akshara - has the /s/ sound (to the Bur-Myan ears) in the onset of the syllables, but /c/ in the coda. We write r2c1 akshara as {sa.} (/s/ in onset - /c/ in coda). Since Bur-Myan does not have hissing dental-fricative /s/, Romabama has to invent one. But to have uniformity in BEPS languages, it uses the same glyph {Sa.} differentiating only in the coda:

Palatal {sa.} / {c}
Dental {Sa.} / {S}

Please note that the "S" in {aa-Ska.} is the Dental hisser.
See my note on Hissers and Non-hissers

 

p044-1c1-b24/ p040 

आस्कन्द [ -skand- ]
- m. leaping up; attack; -ana, n. attack; -in, a. springing upon (--); bestowing.
 आस्कन्द   -skand- leaping up; attack; -ana, n. attack; -in, a. springing upon (--); bestowing.

 

p044-1c1-b25/ p040 

आस्क्र [ skra ]
- a. holding together, united.
 आस्क्र   aNskra holding together, united.

 

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p044-1c2

{a-Sta.} from Bur-Myan {a.}

p044-1c2-b00/ p040 

आस्तर [ -stara ]
- m. straw; couch; carpet.
आस्तर   -stara straw; couch; carpet.

 

p044-1c2-b01

[-strana]
- n. id.

 

p044-1c2-b02/ p040 

आस्तिक [ sti-ka ]
- a. believing, pious.
आस्तिक   sti-ka believing, pious.

 

p044-1c2-b03 / p040

आस्तिक्य [ stik-ya ]
- n. belief in God, piety.
 आस्तिक्य   stik-ya belief in God, piety.

 

p044-1c2-b04/ not online

आस्तीक [ stka ]
- m. N. of an ancient sage.

UKT 131208, 150511: Rishi Astika was a son of Jaratkaru by Manasa - a sister of Naga king Vasuki.
See Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Astika_Hinduism 150511
See my notes on:
- Astika (theist) and Nastika (atheist)
- Rishi Astika

 

p044-1c2-b05

[s-ta]
- 3 sg. pr. of √s , sit.

 

p044-1c2-b06/ p040

आस्था [ -sth ]
- f. desire for, interest in, trouble about, regard for (lc. or --): in. with all one's might, strenuously.
 आस्था   -sth desire for, interest in, trouble about, regard for (lc. or --): in. with all one's might, strenuously.

 

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{a-Shta.} from Bur-Myan {a.}

p044-1c2-b07/ p040 

आस्थान [ -sthna ]
- n. place; assembly; -mandapa, m. n. audience hall.
 आस्थान   -sthaNna place; assembly; -mandapa, m. n. audience hall.

 

p044-1c2-b08/ p040 

आस्थानी [ sthn- ]
- f. place of assembly, audience chamber; -ya, m. chamberlain.
 आस्थानी   sthn- place of assembly, audience chamber; -ya, m. chamberlain. 

 

p044-1c2-b09/ p040 

आस्थित [ -sthita ]
- pp. (√sth) stayed, dwelt.
 आस्थित   -sthita (√sth) stayed, dwelt.

 

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{a-Spa.} from Bur-Myan {a.}

p044-1c2-b10/ p040 

आस्पद [ -spada ]
- n. position, seat, abode, site; place for, object of (g.): -t, f., -tva, n. abst. ɴ.; --bh, become an object of (g.).
आस्पद   -spada position, seat, abode, site; place for, object of (g.): -t, f., -tva, n. abst. n.; --bh, become an object of (g.).

 

p044-1c2-b11/ p040 

आस्फालन [ -sphlana ]
- n. striking, driving; collision.
आस्फालन   -sphlana striking, driving; collision.

 

p044-1c2-b12/ not online

आष्फोट [-spota ]
Skt: आष्फोट [-spota ] - m., -na , n. shaking, swinging - Mac044c2
Skt: आस्फोट āsphoṭa - m. Orchid Tree Bauhinia variegata (Bot.), moving or flapping to and fro, trembling, quivering, shaking - SpkSkt

 

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{a-Sya.} from Bur-Myan {a.}

p044-1c2-b13/ p040 

आस्य [ s-y ]
- n. mouth, jaws; face; organ of speech.
आस्य   s-y mouth, jaws; face; organ of speech.

 

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{a-Sra.} from Bur-Myan {a.} 

p044-1c2-b14/ p040 

आस्राव [ -srv ]
= आ स ् र ा व
Skt: आस्राव [ -srv ] - m. flow, flux; water in the mouth; infirmity: pl. objects of sense. - Mac044c1
 आस्राव   -srv flow, flux; water in the mouth; infirmity: pl. objects of sense.
BPal: {a-a.wa.} - UHS PMD0185
  UKT from UHS:  m. flow, flux, body fluids like pus and drool from the mouth of a sleeper, intoxicants, Āśrava (3 or 4 kinds).

{a-Sra-va.}
"Āsava is a Pali term which in Sanskrit Āśrava, that is used in Buddhist scripture, philosophy, and psychology, meaning "influx, canker." It refers to the mental defilements of sensual pleasures, craving for existence, and ignorance, which perpetuate samsara, the beginningless cycle of rebirth, dukkha, and dying again."
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Asava

 

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{a-Swa.} from Bur-Myan {a.}

p044-1c2-b15

[sva]
- 2 sg. impv. of √s , sit

 

p044-1c2-b16/ p040 

आस्वाद [ -svd-a ]
- m. taste, enjoyment; flavour; -aka, a. tasting, enjoying; -ana, n. = svda; -a-vat, a. tasting well, dainty; -ya, fp. to be tasted; palatable: -toya, a. having palatable water.
आस्वाद   -svd-a taste, enjoyment; flavour; -aka, a. tasting, enjoying; -ana, n. =svda; -a-vat, a. tasting well, dainty; -ya, fp. to be tasted; palatable: -toya, a. having palatable water.

( end of old p044-1.htm)

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{a-ha.}

p044-1c2-b17/ not online

आह [ -ha ]
- 3 sg. pf. of √ah.
 

 

p044-1c2-b18/ p040 

आहत [ -hata ]
- pp. of √han.
आहत   -hata √han.

 

p044-1c2-b19/ p040 

आहति [ -hati ]
- f. blow, knock, stroke.
 आहति   -hati blow, knock, stroke.

 

p044-1c2-b20/ p040 

आहनन [ -hnana ]
- n. striking.
आहनन   -hnana striking.

 

p044-1c2-b21/ p040 

आहनस् [ -han-s ]
- a. swelling, exuberant; wanton.
 आहनस्   -han-s swelling, exuberant; wanton.

 

p044-1c2-b22/ p040 

आहर [ -har-a ]
- a. (--) bringing; m. offering (a sacrifice): -ana, n. fetching; offering (sacrifice): --kri, present, bestow; -tr, m. bringer; taker; causer (ac.); performer.
आहर   -har-a (--) bringing; m. offering (a sacrifice): -ana, n. fetching; offering (sacrifice): --kri, present, bestow; -tr, m. bringer; taker; causer (ac.); performer.

 

p044-1c2-b23/ p040 

आहव [ -hav- ]
- m. challenge, contest, fight, battle; -(hva)-na, n. oblation; -n&isharp;ya, a. meant for the oblation; m. (sc. agni) the eastern sacrificial fire; -bhmi, f. battle-field.
 आहव   -hav- challenge, contest, fight, battle; -(hva)-na, n. oblation; -nya, a. meant for the oblation; m. (sc. agni) the eastern sacrificial fire; -bhmi, f. battle-field.

 

p044-1c2-b24/ p040 

आहस [ -hasa ]
- m. low laughter.
 आहस   -hasa low laughter.

 

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{a-ha}

p044-1c2-b25/ p040 

आहार [ -hra ]
- a. () fetching; m. fetching, taking; food, sustenance (--, a. f. ): -m kri, take food; -dna, n. giving of food; -nirgamasthna, n. anus; -nihsarana-mrga, m. id.; -parityga, m. rejection of food; -bhmi, f. feeding-ground.
 आहार   -hra () fetching; m. fetching, taking; food, sustenance (--, a. f. ): -m kri, take food; -dna, n. giving of food; -nirgamasthna, n. anus; -nihsarana-mrga, m. id.; -parityga, m. rejection of food; -bhmi, f. feeding-ground.

 

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p044-1c3

p044-1c3-b01/ p040 

आहारय [ hra-ya ]
- den. P. feed (int.).
 आहारय   hra-ya P. feed (int.).

 

p044-1c3-b02/ p040 

आहारविरह [ hra-viraha ]
- m. want of food; -vritti, f. subsistence; -‿arthin, a. seeking food.
आहारविरह   hra-viraha want of food; -vritti, f. subsistence; -̮arthin, a. seeking food.

 

p044-1c3-b03/ p040 

आहार्य [ -hry ]
- fp. to be fetched; to be removed; external.
 आहार्य   -hry to be fetched; to be removed; external.

 

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{a-hi.}

p044-1c3-b04/ p040 

आहि [ hi ]
- sx. hi in dakshin-hi &c. (gr.).
आहि   hi hi in dakshin-hi &c. (gr.).

 

p044-1c3-b05

[hindaka]
- -(n) dika, m. N. of a mixed caste (son of a Nishda and a Vaidehi: in Pr. = traveller

 

p044-1c3-b06/ p040 

आहित [ -hita ]
- pp. √dh: -klama, a. exhausted; -‿agni, m. maintainer of sacred fire.
आहित   aN-hita √dh: -klama, a. exhausted; -̮agni, m. maintainer of sacred fire.

 

p044-1c3-b07/ p040

आहितुण्डिक ahitundika [ hitundika ]
Skt: आहितुण्डिक [ hitundika ] - m. snake-charmer. - Mac044c3
 आहितुण्डिक   hitundika snake-charmer. 
Skt: अहितुण्डिक  ahituṇḍika - m. snake catcher, snake-exhibitor, juggler, one with a snake's mouth - SpkSkt

UKT 131208: I have a natural dislike of snakes probably having been born and lived my childhood in Kungyangoan,  Hanthawaddy District, Burma. Snakes such as cobras, kraits, and poisonous water-snakes were plentiful - but vipers were rare. However, in my adult life, in Mandalay, in 1970, standing at the edge of the lawn in front of my house in the evening (when evil things, if you believe in them, were out and about), I had a feeling that something was crawling over my bare foot. On looking down, I saw a snake calmly crossing over my foot. I had the presence of mind not to move, and the snake seemed to be just going about its business. After it had crossed - it could have gone around me - it raised its head and looked into the open doorway of my house, and then it moved away back into the lawn. Since that time I came to have a deep respect for these poisonous entities for they are just like any other living things going about their own business.

 

p044-1c3-b08

[hirbudhna ]
- -dhnya , m. N. of a lunar mansion

अहिर्बुध्न्यदेवता ahirbudhnyadevatā
= अ ह ि र ् ब ु ध ् न ् य द े व त ा
- f. having ahirbudhnya as deity - SpkSkt 

अहिर्बुध्न्यदेवत्य ahirbudhnyadevatya
- n. having ahirbudhnya as deity - SpkSkt 

 

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{a-hu.}

p044-1c3-b09/ p040 

आहुति [ -huti ]
- f. oblation, offering; -bhga, a. whose share is an oblation.
 आहुति   aN-huti oblation, offering; -bhga, a. whose share is an oblation.

 

p044-1c3-b10

[hut-kri ]
-  offer as an oblation; -bh , became an oblation

 

p044-1c3-b11/ p040

आहूतप्रपलायिन् [ hta - prapalyin ]
- m. evader of a judicial summons.
 आहूतप्रपलायिन्   hta - prapalyin evader of a judicial summons.

 

p044-1c3-b12/ p040 

आहूतव्य [ -htavya ]
- fp. to be summoned.
 आहूतव्य   -htavya to be summoned.

 

p044-1c3-b13/ p040 

आहूताध्यायिन् [ hta‿adhyyin ]
- a. waiting with one's studies till summoned.
आहूताध्यायिन्   hta̮adhyyin waiting with one's studies till summoned.

 

p044-1c3-b14/ p040 

आहूति [ -hti ]
- f. invocation.
आहूति   -hti invocation.

 

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{a-h}

p044-1c3-b15/ p040 

आहेय [ heya ]
- a. relating to a snake (ahi),
आहेय   heya relating to a snake (ahi),

 

p044-1c3-b16/ p040 

आहो [ ho ]
- pcl. or; -svid, or perchance.
 आहो   aNho or; -- svid, or perchance.

 

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{a-h~na.} :

UKT 150709: See hanging {na.} or {na.hsw:} in Mon-Myan medial-conjuncts , {na.hsw:}, {ma.hsw:}, {la.hsw:}, & {wa.hsw:} .
See: Mon-Myan Language: Speech and Script
- spk-all-indx.htm > lessons29-32, medials & conjuncts

 

p044-1c3-b17/ p040 

आन्हिक [ hnika ]
- a. occurring by day, daily; n. daily rite; daily task; section, chapter.
 आन्हिक   hnika occurring by day, daily; n. daily rite; daily task; section, chapter.

 

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{a-h~la.} :

Hanging {la.} - see Mon-Myan medial-conjuncts

p044-1c3-b18/ p040 

आल्हाद [ -hld- ]
- m. recreation, joy: -ka, -kara, -krin, a. gladdening, delighting; -na, n. delighting; -nya, fp. fit for refreshing.
 आल्हाद   -hld- recreation, joy: -ka, -kara, -krin, a. gladdening, delighting; -na, n. delighting; -nya, fp. fit for refreshing. .

 

p044-1c3-b19/ p040 

आल्हादिन् [ hld-in ]
- a. refreshing, delighting.
 आल्हादिन्   hld-in refreshing, delighting.

 

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{a-h~wa.} :

Hanging {la.} - see Mon-Myan medial-conjuncts

p044-1c3-b20/ p040 

आह्वय [ -hvaya ]
- m. wager; name.
 आह्वय   -hvaya wager; name.

 

p044-1c3-b21/ p040 

आह्वा [ -hv ]
- f. appellation, name.
 आह्वा   -hv appellation, name.

 

p044-1c3-b22

[-hvtri ]
- m. invoker

 

p044-1c3-b23/ p040 

आह्वान [ -hvna ]
- n. calling upon, invocation; conjuring (a spirit); summons; challenge.
 आह्वान   -hvna calling upon, invocation; conjuring (a spirit); summons; challenge.

 

p044-1c3-b24/ p040 

आह्वानय [ hvna-ya ]
- den. P. summons.
आह्वानय   hvna-ya P. summons.

 

p044-1c3-b25/ p040 

आह्वायक [ -hvya-ka ]
- m. messenger, summoner.
आह्वायक   -hvya-ka messenger, summoner.

 

p044-1c3-b26/ p040

आह्वाययितव्य [ -hvyay-itavya ]
- fp. to be summoned.
 आह्वाययितव्य   -hvyay-itavya to be summoned.

End of entries on {a.} & {a}: the next group will be on {i.} - p044-2-p062c2 - MCv2pp-indx.htm

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UKT notes

Astika (theist) and Nastika (atheist)

- UKT 131208

If I am to take my position on whether Gautama Buddha was a theist or atheist, I would stand on the basis of his experience of following the religious leaders of his time for six years, that he was neither. The very first law that he discovered - the Principle of Suffering 'that every sentient being in not free from mental suffering', is a universal law that is above the restraints of Space-Time continuum. So also is his position on the Unchanging Self (Atta). After defining Atta, he looked for Atta in his physical and mental make up, and being unable to find it anywhere, he maintained that there is no such thing as Atta. His doctrine is Anatta.

Based on my above position, I claim that Gautama Buddha was a true scientist. And that Buddhism is a science and not a philosophy and that it is free from any Axiom. However, in his later sermons, he had to base his arguments on many beliefs (axioms) of his time to pass his message across.

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Astika_and_nastika 131208

Āstika (आस्तिक āstika "it exists"), and Nāstika (नास्तिक nāstika "it doesn't exist") are technical terms in Hinduism used to classify philosophical schools and persons, according to whether they accept the authority of the Vedas as supreme revealed scriptures, or not, respectively. [1] By this definition, Nyāy, Vaiśeṣika, Sāṃkhya, Yoga, Mīmāṃsā and Vedānta are classified as āstika schools; and some schools like Cārvāka, Ājīvika, Jainism and Buddhism are considered nāstika. [2] The distinction is similar to the orthodox/heterodox distinction in the West.

In non-technical usage, the term āstika is sometimes loosely translated as "theist", while nāstika is translated as "atheist". [3] However, this interpretation is distinct from the use of the term in Hindu philosophy. Notably even among the āstika schools, Sāṃkhya is an atheistic philosophy. [4]

The different usages of these terms are explained by Chatterjee and Datta as follows:

In modern Indian languages, "āstika" and "nāstika" generally mean "theist" and "atheist", respectively. But in Sanskrit philosophical literature, "āstika" means "one who believes in the authority of the Vedas" or "one who believes in life after death". ("nāstika" means the opposite of these). The word is used here in the first sense. In the second sense, even the Jaina and Buddha schools are "āstika", as they believe in life after death. The six orthodox schools are "āstika", and the Cārvāka is "nāstika" in both the senses. [5]

UKT: More in the Wikipedia article.

Go back Astika-Nastika-note-b

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Hissers and Non-Hissers
or Hissing sibilant and non-hissing thibilant problem
in Sanskrit and Pali

-- UKT 131208, 140816, 161116:

Stridency is defined as:

Dental-thibilant /θ/ {a.}  --> Dental-sibilant /s/ {Sa.}/ {S} /s/ 

Do not confuse Dental-sibilant /s/ {Sa.}/ {S} /s/  with Palatal-stop /c/ {sa.}/ {c} .

Bur-Myan has only Palatal-stop /c/ {sa.}/ {c}. To handle English pronunciations, I have to introduce /s/ {Sa.}/ {S}  using the same Bur-Myan glyph. Romabama has to differentiate Palatal-stop /c/ {sa.}/ {c} from Dental-sibilant /s/ {Sa.}/ {S} .

There are two Dental-sibilants, {Sa.}/ {S} and {sha.}/ {sh} with very different ending sounds. Since the English word <hiss> ends with the ending sound of {Sa.}/ {S}, the phoneme is called a Hisser, and the word <hush> ends similar to {sha.}/ {sh}, the latter is called a Husher. 
See Introduction to Romabama - RBM-intro-indx.htm (link chk 161116).

Secondly do not confuse the two words: Strident and Sibilant, though they are used interchangeably by many. It is my conjecture that Stridents encompasses both non-rhotic Sibilants and rhotic Sibilants. Thus I would class German to be strident whereas British-English to be sibilant.

Here we are more concerned with strident consonants - a feature related to sibilant consonants. And we narrow down to thibilant {a.} /θ/ (exemplified in English by <thin> /θɪn/ (DJPD16-535) and <thorn> /θɔːn/ (DJPD16-535), to dental-fricative {Sa.}. Thibilant {a.} /θ/ in Pal-Myan is usually changed to sibilant {Sa.} /s/ (and {sha.} /ʃ/) in Sanskrit. 

 Native Bur-Myan speakers cannot properly pronounce English words such as <screen> or <skin>, <stem>, <sprout>, <snow>, and <smoke>. They pronounce the first sound as two syllables, e.g., /sə'ka/.

This is because of the absence of hissing dental fricative /s/ {Sa.}/ {S}. Since  introducing a new glyph, would be a hindrance in transcription from English to Burmese, (or from Skt-Dev to Pal-Myan), I have used the regular palatal stop /c/ {sa.}/ {c}.

In the proposed strident stops and nasals, it is the hissing {Sa.}/ {S}, and not the non-hissing {sa.}/ {c} . You will note that the above are all from the {wag}-group.

However, we must note that {Sa.} precedes {a.} /θ/ in the  subgroup in {a-wag}-akshara. So when we see for example a disyllabic conjunct {~ya.}, we must make sure that it will not appear in strident form similar to {S~ka.}. There is a possibility that it can be found as a monsyllabic medial {ya}.

My position on Sibilant-Thibilant controversy is based on my position on English having the palatal-C or not. I maintain that the English does have the palatal-C in words like <success> /sək'ses/ (DJPD16-515) : the /k/ is actually palatal-C. See my forum discussion: http://www.antimoon.com/forum/t9649.htm 131208.

I still have to go over the following Wikipedia article taking note of the affricates.

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Strident_consonant 131208
UKT note: I have edited to conform to TIL usage of brackets and italics.

Sibilance is a manner of articulation [MOA} of fricative and affricate consonants, made by directing a stream of air with the tongue towards the sharp edge of the teeth, which are held close together; a consonant that uses sibilance may be called a sibilant. [UKT ]

Examples of sibilants are the consonants at the beginning of the English words <sip>, <zip>, <ship>, <chip>, and <Jeep>, and the second consonant in <vision>. The symbols in the International Phonetic Alphabet used to denote the sibilant sounds in these words are, respectively, [s] [z] [ʃ] [tʃ] [dʒ] [ʒ]. (The sounds [tʃ] [dʒ], as in <chip> and <Jeep>, are affricates; the rest are fricatives.) Sibilants have a characteristically intense sound, which accounts for their non-linguistic use in getting one's attention (e.g. calling someone using "psst!" or quieting someone using "shhhh!").

UKT 140816: When I pronounce the above English words, I use a different MOA which is not the same as used by my American friends. I start articulating from the interior of the mouth and follow the air stream to the lips, whereas they tend to start the articulation from the front of the mouth to the back. I do not have any affricates in my pronunciation. I still have to observe more to confirm this observation.

In the alveolar hissing sibilants [s] and [z], the back of the tongue forms a narrow channel (is grooved) to focus the stream of air more intensely, resulting in a high pitch. With the hushing sibilants (occasionally termed shibilants), such as English [ʃ], [tʃ], [ʒ], and [dʒ], the tongue is flatter, and the resulting pitch lower.

Because all sibilants are also stridents, the terms are sometimes used interchangeably. However, the terms do not mean the same thing. The English stridents are /f, v/, /s, z/, /ʃ, ʒ/, /tʃ, dʒ/. The English sibilants are a more high pitched subset of the stridents. The English sibilants are /s, z/, /ʃ, ʒ/, /tʃ, dʒ/. /f/ and /v/ are stridents, but not sibilants, because they are lower in pitch.

"Stridency" refers to the perceptual intensity of the sound of a sibilant consonant, or obstacle fricatives/affricates, which refers to the critical role of the teeth in producing the sound as an obstacle to the airstream. Non-sibilant fricatives and affricates produce their characteristic sound directly with the tongue or lips etc. and the place of contact in the mouth, without secondary involvement of the teeth.

The characteristic intensity of sibilants means that small variations in tongue shape and position are perceivable, with the result that there are a large number of sibilant types that contrast in various languages.

UKT: More in the Wikipedia article.

Go back Hissers-Non-hissers-note-b

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Rishi Astika

- UKT 131208, 161116:

- The Sanskrit-Devanagari word rishi ऋषि ṛṣi =  ऋ ष ि , the Pali-Myan word {I.i.}, and Bur-Myan word {ra..} have the same meaning.

Their origin pronunciation-wise is same which I conjecture to be Old Magadhi. You must make the following sound changes in going from Magadhi (Tib-Bur: non-rhotic) to Sanskrit (IE: rhotic):

vowel {I.} /i/ --> rhotic {iRi.} ऋ
consonant thibilant {a.} /θ/ --> sibilant-hisser {Sa.} ष /s/

Note also that the vowels {I.} & {i.} /i/ and {} /e/ in languages such as Pali-Myan and Bur-Myan of the same linguistic group - Tib-Bur - are easily mixed up.

Inset pix: Sarpa Satra or Snake sacrifice was a yagna performed by Emperor Janamejaya of the Kuru empire At that time, a learned sage named Astika, a boy in age (dressed in red), came and intervened to stop the yagna.

A rishi is person dedicated to the study of a particular subject which is more useful for humanity (such as astronomy-astrology and botany-medicine) than any religious study. A rishi can be a Buddhist, a Hindu, or an Ancient Vedic person. A rishi can be a man or woman. The person can be celibate or can have a family. The ancient Rishis are supposed to possess knowledge beyond that of ordinary humans, which is interpreted to be mystical powers and are feared by commoners.

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Astika_mythology 131208 - not accessible on 161116
See also http://www.thehinduportal.com/2014/06/astika-rishi-ancient-sage.html 161116

Astika was an ancient Hindu rishi (sage), and he was a son of Jaratkaru by the serpent goddess Manasa - a sister of the great Naga serpent king Vasuki who ruled both Nagas (who are equal to humans and are ardent supporters the Gautama Buddha) and snakes (which are ordinary animals who know only 3 things: to eat, to sleep and to mate). [UKT ]

UKT 140816, 161116: According to Mahayana Buddhism, the Buddha preached the Diamond Sutra to the Nagas first. It is similar to the story in Theravada Buddhism the Buddha preaching the Abhidharma to the Dvas first. In both cases, the humans had been left behind. Also there is a story in Viniya - the rules for Buddhist monks, that a male Naga took on the guise of a human and was ordained as a monk. When the Buddha came to know, he passed a rule forbidding the Nagas to become monks so as not to alarm the humans. In both Buddhism and Hinduism, we find stories of men marrying Naga wives and having children. See also Cult of Naga in Folk Elements in Buddhism, by Maung (Dr.) Htin Aung, Rangoon, BURMA. 1981:
- flk-ele-indx.htm > ch07-cult-naga.htm (link chk 161116)

According to the Mahabharata, he saved the life of a serpent named Takshaka when king Janamejaya made his great sacrifices of serpents. Ultimately, he induced and prevailed upon the king to end his persecution of the serpent race.

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Sapinda

-- UKT 140816:

Cousin marriages are a problem in many cultures. However, Myanmar Buddhists should remember that in Gautama Buddha's ancestry, there had been brothers marrying their own sisters. And so though we do not encourage cousin marriages, there are no legal acts. I have known of brothers marrying their own half-sisters and they are not breaking any law of the land.

From: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sapinda 110814

Sapinda is a term used in context of cousin marriages in Hinduism.

Official/Legal Explanation:

Sapinda relationship with reference to any person extends as far as the third generation (inclusive) in the line of ascent through the mother, and the fifth (inclusive) in the line of ascent through the father, the line being traced upwards in each case from the person concerned, who is to be counted as the first generation.

Two persons are said to be sapindas of each other if one is a lineal ascendant of the other within the limits of "sapinda" relationship, or if they have a common lineal ascendant who is within the limits of "sapinda" relationship with reference to each of them.

For example, if the bride is the offspring of the any person within five generations (inclusive) on the groom's father's side and three generations (inclusive) on the groom's mother's side, or vice-versa, they will be referred to as "sapindas" of each other. In these cases, the Hindu Marriage Act of 1955 bars marriage between two Hindus.

UKT: More in the Wikipedia article.

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End of TIL file