Update: 2018-10-19 09:59 PM -0400


A Practical Sanskrit Dictionary


by A. A. Macdonell, 1893,
http://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/scans/MDScan/index.php?sfx=jpg 1929.
Nataraj ed., 1st in 2006, 2012

Edited, with additions from Pali sources, by U Kyaw Tun (UKT) (M.S., I.P.S.T., USA) and staff of Tun Institute of Learning (TIL) . Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone. Prepared for students and staff of TIL  Computing and Language Center, Yangon, MYANMAR :  http://www.tuninst.net , www.romabama.blogspot.com

MC-indx.htm | Top

Contents of this page

{a-ku.} - cont
{a-kRRi.} : {kRRi.} formed with highly rhotic Skt-Dev vowel
{a-k~ra.} : {k~ra.} written as a {ra.ric}
{a-kSa} : pseudo-Kha
{a-hka.} : regular-Kha
{a-hk~ya.} : do not pronounce as medial {a-hkya.}
{a-nga.} - present as {king:si:}

अहx{093c}ृणान   -hrinna not angry, friendly.


UKT notes :
Rishi Angiras {n~ra-a. ra..}
Theory on formation of conjuncts and medials


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{a-ku.} - cont


p037c1-b01/ p036

आकुलय [ -kulaya ]
- den. P. confuse; fill: pp. ita, disordered, disturbed, perplexed, by (in., -).
 आकुलय   -kulaya P. confuse; fill:


p037c1-b02/ not online

आकुलीकृ [ -kul-kri ]
- confuse, dim; fill; pp. bewildered, disturbed with (in.); -bh , be or become confused; -yamna , pr. pt. ps. bewildered, annoyed


p037c1-b03/ p036

आकूत [ &asharp;-kta ]
- n. intention, wish.
 आकूत   aN-kta intention, wish. 


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UKT 161021: {kRi.} formed with highly rhotic Skt-Dev vowel ऋ

p037c1-b04/ p036

आकृति [ &asharp;-kriti ]
- f. component part; form, appearance; -mat, a. having a form, embodied.
आकृति   aN-kriti component part; form, appearance;


p037c1-b05/ p036

आकृष्टवत्् [ -krishta-vat ]
- pp. act. drawn.
आकृष्टवत््   -krishta-vat drawn.


p037c1-b06/ p036

आकृष्टि [ -krishti ]
- f. attraction; drawing (a bowstring); magic attraction, attractive spell.
 आकृष्टि   -krishti attraction; drawing (a bowstring);


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p037c1-b07/ p036

आके [ k ]
- ad. (lc.) near.
आके   k near. 


p037c1-b08/ p036

आकेकर [ -kekara ]
- a. squinting slightly.
 आकेकर   -kekara squinting slightly.


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p037c1-b09/ p036

आकोप [ -kopa ]
- m. touch of anger; -vat, a. somewhat angry at (lc.).
 आकोप   -kopa touch of anger;


p037c1-b10/ p036

आकौशल [ kausala ]
- n. inexperience, lack of skill.
 आकौशल   kausala inexperience, lack of skill.


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{a-k~ra.} / {kra.}

UKT 150501, 161020: See my Theory on formation of conjuncts and medials in my note below.

p037c1-b11/ not online

आक्रन्द [ -krand- ]
= आ क ् र न ् द
- m. cry, wail, lamentation; natural ally of a belligerent king (neighbour's neighbour); -ana, n. lamentation; -anya, fp. to be called on for help; -ita, (pp.) n. cry; -in, a. calling upon piteously (--).


p037c1-b12/ p036

आक्रम [ -kram- ]
- m. stepping up; attack; -ana, a. striding up; n. id.; attack; extension (towards, lc.).
 आक्रम   -kram- stepping up; attack; 


p037c1-b13/ p036

आक्रान्त [ -krnta ]
- pp. (√kram) beset, overspread; in the power of, dominated by, pervaded with (--).
आक्रान्त   -krnta (√kram) beset, overspread;


p037c1-b14/ p036

आक्रान्ति [ -krnti ]
- f. treading, ascending; rising.
आक्रान्ति   -krnti treading, ascending;


p037c1-b15/ p036

आक्रीड [ -krda ]
- m. n. play-ground, grove, garden; -giri, -parvata, m. pleasure-hill.
 आक्रीड   -krda play-ground, grove, garden;


p037c1-b16/ p036

आक्रोश [ -kros-a ]
- m. reviling; abuse, affront: -ka, a. reviling, abusing; -ita, cs. pp. cursed, reviled; -in, a. abusing.
 आक्रोश   -kros-a reviling; abuse, affront:


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{a-kSa} : pseudo-Kha

p037c1-b17/ p036

आक्षाण [ ksh-n ] = आ क ् ष ा ण
- pf. pt. of √aksh.
 आक्षाण   ksh-n √aksh.


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p037c1-b18/ p036

आक्षिप्तिका [ -kshiptik ]
- f. song sung by a person approaching the stage.
आक्षिप्तिका   -kshiptik song sung by a person approaching the stage.


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p037c1-b19/ p036

आक्षेप [ -kshepa ]
- m. turning up (soil); quivering, convulsion; putting on (salve); throwing off; abandonment; enrapturing (g. or --); reference to (--); hint; challenge; abuse, affront; -na, a. () ravishing, charming; -rpaka, n. kind of simile; -valana, n. swaying (of the arms); -stra, n. thread for stringing pearls; -‿upam, f. kind of simile.
 आक्षेप   -kshepa turning up (soil); quivering, convulsion;



[-ksheptri ]
- m. rejecter


p037c1-b21/ p036

आक्षेप्य [ -kshepya ]
- fp. to be challenged.
 आक्षेप्य   -kshepya to be challenged.


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p037c1-b22/ p036

आखण्डल [ -khandala ]
- m. breaker, destroyer, ep. of Indra: -kakubh, f. east; -kpa, m. n. rainbow; -snu, m. son of Indra = Arguna.
 आखण्डल   -khandala breaker, destroyer,


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p037c1-b23/ p036

आखु [ -kh- ]
- m. mole; mouse [burrower: + √kh]; -va-grma, m. N. of a village.
आखु   -kh- mole; mouse [burrower: + √kh];


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p037c1-b24/ p036

आखेट [ kheta ]
- m. chase: -ka, m. id.; hunter; -bhmi, f. hunting ground; -‿atav, f. game forest.
 आखेट   kheta chase: -ka, m. id.; hunter;


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{a-hk~ya.} / {a-hkya.}

UKT150501, 161021: I have observed among my friends the English-speakers and the Hindi-speakers, that they could pronounce {hk~ya.} only as a disyllable and not as monosyllabic medial {hkya.}. However, they always mix it up the Palatal affricates. Remember, our row #2 Palatal plosive-stops are Palatal affricates to them.

p037c1-b25/ p036

आख्या [ -khy ]
- f. name: in. by name; period: a. named (--); -ta, (pp.) n. finite verb; -tavya, fp. to be told or related; -ti, f. tale, report; appellation; -tri, m. teller, relater; teacher; -na, n. narration; story, tale; legend: -ka, n. short tale: , f. a metre, -pakama, a. having the Purnas as the fifth; -paka, a. announcing, proclaiming; -pana, n. invitation to relate; -yik, f. short tale; -yin, a. relating, reporting (--).
आख्या   -khy name: in. by name; period: a. named (--); -ta, (pp.) n. finite verb; -tavya, fp. to be told or related; -ti, f. tale, report; appellation; -tri, m. teller, relater; teacher; -na, n. narration; story, tale; legend: -ka, n. short tale: , f. a metre, -pakama, a. having the Purnas as the fifth; -paka, a. announcing, proclaiming; -pana, n. invitation to relate; -yik, f. short tale; -yin, a. relating, reporting (--).

आख्यात [ -khyta ]
Skt: आख्यात [ -khyta ] - (pp.) n. finite verb -- Mac037c1
BPal: {a-hkya-ta.} - UHS PMD0157
  UKT from UHS: n. verb such as to speak, to go, to cook

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p037c2-b01/ p036

आख्येय [ -khyeya ]
- fp. to be told, -related, -admitted.
 आख्येय   -khyeya to be told, -- related, -- admitted.


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p037c2-b02/ p036

आगण्ड [ -ganda ]
- ad. up to the cheeks (--).
आगणड   -ganda up to the cheeks (--).


p037c2-b03/ p036

आगत [ -gata ]
- (pp.) m. guest; n. event.
आगत   -gata guest; n. event.

p037c2-b04/ p036

आगति [ &asharp;-gati ]
- f. arrival, return (-tva, n. abst. ɴ.); origin; coming up to, joining.
 आगति   aN-gati arrival, return


p037c2-b05/ p036

आगन्तव्य [ -gan-tavya ]
- fp. that must come; -tu, a. 1. arriving: m. new comer, stranger, guest; 2. adventitious: -ka, id.; a. stray (cattle); having crept in (unauthorised reading); -tr, a. about to come.
 आगन्तव्य   -gan-tavya that must come;


p037c2-b06/ p036

आगम [ &asharp;-gama ]
- a. coming up; m. arrival, occurrence; origin; course (of streams); affluence, revenue, property; acquisition; learning, knowledge; science; precept, tradition; manual, code; augment (gr.); -na, n. coming, arrival; origin; sexual intercourse; -vat, a. having sexual intercourse; -sruti, f. tradition; -‿apyin, a. coming and going.
 आगम   aN-gama coming up; m. arrival, occurrence; origin; course (of streams);


p037c2-b07/ p036

आगमिन्् [ gam-in ]
- a. taking an augment.
 आगमिन््   gam-in taking an augment. 


p037c2-b08/ p036

आगस्् [ &asharp;g-as ] 
- n. offence, crime, fault, sin.
आगस््   aNg-as offence, crime, fault, sin.


p037c2-b09/ p036

आगस्त्य [ gastya ]
- a. referring to Agasti; m. descendant of Agasti.
 आगस्त्य   gastya referring to Agasti;


p037c2-b10/ p036

आगामिन्् [ -gmin ]
- a. coming; future.
आगामिन््   -gmin coming; future.


p037c2-b11/ p036

आगामुक [ -g&asharp;muka ]
- a. wont to come to (ac.).
आगामुक   -gaNmuka wont to come to (ac.). 


p037c2-b12/ p036

आगार [ gra ]
- n. apartment, dwelling, house.
 आगार   gra apartment, dwelling, house.


p037c2-b13/ p036

आगुर्् [ -gur ]
- f. ritual response.
आगुर््   -gur ritual response.


p037c2-b14/ p036

आगुरव [ gurava ]
- a. () produced by aloe wood.
 आगुरव   gurava () produced by aloewood.


p037c2-b15/ p036

आग्नावैष्णव [ gn-vaishnav ]
- a. belonging to Agni-Vishnu.
आग्नावैष्णव   gn-vaishnav belonging to Agni-Vishnu. 


p037c2-b16/ p036

आग्निक [ gnika ]
- a. () relating to fire-service.
आग्निक   gnika () relating to fire-service.


p037c2-b17/ p036

आग्निमारुत [ gni-mrut ]
- n. litany to Agni and the Maruts.
 आग्निमारुत   gni-mrut litany to Agni and the Maruts. 


p037c2-b18/ p036

आग्नीध्र [ &asharp;gni‿idhra ]
- m. fire-kindler (priest); n. fire-altar: &isharp;-ya, m. fire on the fire-altar.
 आग्नीध्र   aNgni̮idhra fire-kindler (priest);


p037c2-b19/ p036

आग्नेय [ gney ]
- a. () relating to fire or Agni; n. the lunar mansion Krittik.
 आग्नेय   gney () relating to fire or Agni; n. the lunar mansion Krittik.


p037c2-b20/ p036

आग्रथन [ -grath-ana ]
- n. putting on (girdle).
 आग्रथन   -grath-ana putting on (girdle). 


p037c2-b21/ p036

आग्रयण [ grayan ]
- m. offering of new grain (a Soma libation); n. offering of first-fruits at the end of the rainy season; , f. (sc. -ishti) sacrifice of first-fruits; (a)-ka, n. id. (--, a.).
आग्रयण   grayan offering of new grain (a Soma libation);


p037c2-b22/ p036

आग्रह [ -graha ]
- m. pertinacity; favour.
 आग्रह   -graha pertinacity; favour.


p037c2-b23/ p036

आग्रहायणी [ grahyan ]
- f. day of full-moon in the month Mrga-srsha; kind of pka yaga.
 आग्रहायणी   grahyan day of full-moon in the month Mrga-srsha;


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p037c2-b24/ p036

आघट््टना [ -ghattan ]
- f. blow, impact.
आघट्््टना   -ghattan blow, impact.


p037c2-b25/ p036

आघर्घरम्् [ -ghar-ghar-am ]
- ad. growling.
 आघर्घरम््   -ghar-ghar-am growling. 


p037c2-b26/ p036

आघर्ष [ -gharsha ]
- m. friction.
 आघर्ष   -gharsha friction.


p037c2-b27/ p036

आघाट [ -ght ]
- m., , f. cymbal, rattle.
  आघाट   -ght cymbal, rattle.


p037c2-b28/ p036

आघात [ -ghta ]
- m. stroke, blow; gust; killing; place of execution; slaughter-house.
 आघात   -ghta stroke, blow; gust; killing;


p037c2-b29/ p036

आघृणि [ &asharp;-ghrini ]
- a. glowing; radiant.
 आघृणि   aN-ghrini glowing; radiant. 


p037c2-b30/ p036

आघोषणा [ -ghoshan ]
- f. public proclamation.
 आघोषणा   -ghoshan public proclamation.


p037c2-b31/ p036

आघ्राण [ -ghrna ]
- n. smelling: -tas, ad. by smelling.
 आघ्राण   -ghrna smelling:


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{a-nga.} - present as {king:si:}

p037c2-b32/ not online

आङ् [-ṅ] = आ
- . (gr.).


p037c2-b33/ p036

आङ्ग [ ṅga ]
- m. prince of Aṅga; -, f. princess of Aṅga.
 आङ्ग   ṅga prince of Aṅga; -, f. princess of Aṅga.

Aṅga was one of the 16 Mahajanapada (c. 600 BCE - c. 300 BCE) of time of Gautama Buddha. "Ancient Buddhist texts like Anguttara Nikaya make frequent reference to sixteen great kingdoms and republics which had evolved and flourished in a belt stretching from Gandhara in the northwest to Anga in the eastern part of the Indian subcontinent and included parts of the trans-Vindhyan region, prior to the rise of Buddhism in India".
See Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mahajanapada 150501


p037c2-b34/ p036

आङ्गारिक [ ṅgrika ]
- m. charcoal burner.
आङ्गारिक   ṅgrika charcoal burner. 

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p037c3-b00/ p036

आङ्गिरस [ ṅgiras ]
- a. () relating to the Aṅgiras; m. pat. descendant of Aṅgiras.
 आङ्गिरस   ṅgiras () relating to the Aṅgiras;

See my note on Angiras  {n~ra-a. ra..}


p037c3-b01/ p036

आङ्गूष [ ṅgsh ]
- m. n. song of praise.
 आङ्गूष   ṅgsh song of praise.

( end of old p037.htm)

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- in adverbs like dakshin- &c. (gr.) 



- m. N. of a man


p037c3-b04/ p036

आचन्द्रतारकम्् [ -kandra-trakam ]
- ad. except moon and stars.
 आचन्द्रतारकम््   -kandra-trakam except moon and stars.


p037c3-b05/ p036

आचमन [ -kamana ]
- n. sipping water; rinsing the mouth; water for rinsing the mouth (also , f.); -ya, n. water for rinsing the mouth.
 आचमन   -kamana sipping water; rinsing the mouth;


p037c3-b06/ p036

आचरण [ -kr-ana ]
- n. arrival; performance; conduct; -anya, fp. to be done or performed; -ita, (pp.) n. arrival; usage; conduct; -itavya, fp. to be done; n. one should act according to usage.
आचरण   -kr-ana arrival; performance; conduct;


p037c3-b07/ p036

आचाम [ -kma ]
- m. sipping water; water or scum of boiled rice.
 आचाम   -kma sipping water;


p037c3-b08/ p036

आचार [ -kra ]
- m. behaviour; good conduct; usage, custom, observance, rule: --, customary: -maya, a. ceremonious, devoted to etiquette; -lg&abrevcirc;, m. f. pl. customary parched grain; -vat, a. well-behaved, virtuous; -vyapeta, pp. diverging from usage; -‿apeta, a. id.; -hna, pp. neglectful of the rules of conduct.
आचार   -kra behaviour; good conduct; usage, custom, observance, rule:


p037c3-b09/ p036

आचार्य [ -kry [fp. to be gone to] ]
- m. teacher, esp. a Brhman; N. of Drona (teacher of the Pndavas); son of an outcast Vaisya; -ka, n. teachership; -t, f., -tva, n. calling of a teacher; -vat, a. having a teacher; -n, f. wife of a teacher; -‿adhna, a. dependent on one's teacher: -tva, n. abst. ɴ.
आचार्य   -kry [fp. to be gone to] teacher, esp. a Brhman;


p037c3-b10/ p036

आचिख्यासु [ -ki-khy-su ]
- des. a. wishing to express; -sa‿upam, f. kind of simile.
 आचिख्यासु   -ki-khy-su wishing to express;


p037c3-b11/ p036

आचित [ -kita ] 
- pp. heaped up; filled, laden, studded, with (in.. or --).
 आचित   -kita heaped up; filled, laden, studded,



- m. N. of a temple built by ka.



- pp. (√khad) covered, clad


p037c3-b14/ p036

आच्छाद [ -kkhd-a ]
- m. garment, clothing: -ka, a. covering, concealing: -tva, n. abst. ɴ.; -na, n. covering, concealing; clothing: -vastra, n. lower garment; -in, (--) a. covering, concealing.
 आच्छाद   -kkhd-a garment, clothing:


p037c3-b15/ p036

आच्छुरित [ -kkhurita ]
- pp. scratched.
 आच्छुरित   -kkhurita scratched. 


p037c3-b16/ p036

आच्य [ ‿ak-ya ]
- gd. having bent.
 आच्य   ̮ak-ya having bent.


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p037c3-b17/ p036

आज [ ga ]
- a. relating to goats; n. N. of a lunar mansion.
 आज   ga relating to goats;


p037c3-b18/ p036

आजगर [ gagara ]
- a. () relating to or behaving like a boa.
 आजगर   gagara () relating to or behaving like a boa.


p037c3-b19/ p036

आजन्म [ -ganma ]
- ad. from birth.
 आजन्म   -ganma from birth.


p037c3-b20/ p036

आजरसम्् [ -garasm ]
- ad. to old age.
 आजरसम््   -garasm to old age.


p037c3-b21/ p036

आजर्जरित [ -gargarita ]
- pp. somewhat bruised or tattered.
आजर्जरित   -gargarita somewhat bruised or tattered.


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p037c3-b22/ p036

आजातशत्रव [ gtasatrav ]
- a. relating to Agtasatru; m. descendant of Agtasatru.
 आजातशत्रव   gtasatrav relating to Agtasatru;

King Ajatasatru aka Kunika (ruled c. 492 BC c. 460 BC) was a king of the Magadha empire in north India. He was the son of King Bimbisara ( 558 BC 491 BC), the great monarch of Magadha. He was contemporary to Mahavira ( 540 BCE468 BCE) and Buddha (563 BCE483 BCE).
See Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ajatashatru 150501, 181019
"According to Buddhist tradition, the Samaaphala Sutta deals with his first meeting with the Buddha, where he realized his mistakes with his association to Devadatta and plan to killing his own father. According to the same text, during this meeting, Ajatashatru took protection of the Buddha, the Dhamma and the Sangha. He was mentioned more than once in several other Sutta as an example of strong devotee to the Buddha, the Dhamma and the Sangha. He erected a vast Stupa on the bones and ashes of the Buddha after the funeral, and Ajatashatru also was present in the first Buddhist council at the Sattapanni (Saptparni) caves Rajgriha. ... Whether Ajatashatru was a Jain or Buddhist, both texts accounted him as a devotee of respective religion."

Read more about King Ajatasatru in Fourth Adhyya, The Upanishads, Part 1 (SBE01), by F. Max Mller, [1879], at sacred-texts.com
- http://www.sacred-texts.com/hin/sbe01/sbe01242.htm 161023
UKT 181019: Most of the books by F. Max Muller have been downloaded and stored in TIL HD-PDF and SD-PDF libraries.


p037c3-b23/ p036

आजाति [ -gti ]
- f. birth.
 आजाति   -gti birth.


p037c3-b24/ p036

आजानुलम्बिन्् [ gnu-lambin ]
- a. reaching to the knees.
 आजानुलम्बिन््   gnu-lambin reaching to the knees.


p037c3-b25/ p036

आजानेय [ gneya ]
- a. () of noble race; m. well-bred horse.
 आजानेय   gneya () of noble race;


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p037c3-b26/ p036

आजि [ g- ]
- m. f. race, contest, fight: -bhmi, f. battle-field; -mukha, n. vanguard.
आजि   g- race, contest, fight: -bhmi, f. battle-field; -mukha, n. vanguard.


p037c3-b27/ p036

आजिह्मित [ -gihmita ]
- pp. somewhat turned aside: -lokanam, ad. with somewhat averted glance.
 आजिह्मित   -gihmita somewhat turned aside:


p037c3-b28/ p036

आजीगर्ति [ &asharp;ggarti ]
- m. pat. descendant of Aggarta.
 आजीगर्ति   aNggarti descendant of Aggarta. 

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UKT notes

Angiras (rishi)

UKT 110813: Akshara-to-akshara of Skt: अंगिरस् gives Myan: {n-gi.r}. The nearest in Pal-Myan:

Pal:   {n~gi-ra.a. ra..}
- - UHS-PMD0013
   UKT from UHS: mfn. 'descendant of {n~gi-ra.a.}' . m. the Planet Jupiter

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Angiras_sage 110813

Angiras (अंगिरस्, pronounced as "əngirəs"; nominative singular Angirā - अंगिरा, pronounced as "əngirα:") is a Vedic rishi (or sage) who, along with sage Atharvan, is credited to have formulated ("heard") most of the fourth Veda called Atharvaveda. He is also mentioned in the other three Vedas. Sometimes he is reckoned as one of the Seven Great Sages, or saptarishis of the first Manvantara, with others being, Marichi, Atri, Pulaha, Kratu, Pulastya, and Vashishtha [1] Bharadwaja maharshis was his descendant. .

His wife is Surūpa and his sons are Utatya, Samvartana and Brihaspati. He is one of the ten Manasaputras (wish-born-son) of Lord Brahma. Other accounts say that he married smrithy, the daughter of Daksha.

The name Angirasas is applied generically to several Puranic individuals and things; a class of Pitris, the ancestors of man according to Hindu Vedic writings, and probably descended from the sage Angiras. In the Rigveda, Agni is sometimes referred to as Angiras or as a descendant of Angiras (RV 1.1). In the Rigveda, Indra drives out cows from where they had been imprisoned by either a demon (Vala) or multiple demons (the Panis) and gifts them to the Angirasas (RV 3.31, 10.108 and a reference in 8.14). Mandala 6 of the Rigveda is attributed to a family of Angirasas.

Lord Buddha is said to be a descendant of Sage Angirasa in many Buddhist texts. [2] Scholars like Dr. Eitel connects it to the Rishi Gautama. [3] There too were Kshatiryas of other clans to whom members descend from Angirasa, to fulfill a childless king's wish. [4]

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Theory on formation of conjuncts and medials

UKT 150501, 161020: This note is intended for Bur-Myan speakers, and may not be totally applicable to British English (RP) nor General American (GA).

When {ka.} and {ra.} are brought near each other *, they can form a disyllabic conjunct, or as in the case of Bur-Myan, a monosyllabic medial which sounds like {kya.} without rhoticity (aka R-colouring **). However, in the case of Rakhine dialect of Bur-Myan, and Pal-Myan, the monosyllable has a distinctly rhotic sound with R-colouring. In every case, the combination of {ka.} and {ra.} is written as {kra.}.

* As a chemist, I draw a parallel between two phonemes such as {ka.} and {ra.} forming a disyllable (presumably more expenditure of energy) and a monosyllable (less energy) to two atoms approaching each other to form a molecule. See Molecular Orbital Theory in Wikipedia:
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Molecular_orbital_theory 161021

** In the case of spoken English, R-colouring is either due to consonant at the beginning of the word, or to the vowel. The R-colouring due to consonant is best explained by pronunciation of words such as "rabbit", "radish", "rainbow", "rat", "red", "ring", "road", "rocket", "rocking horse", "rose", "run", etc. Read R-coloured vowel in Wikipedia: 
  "R-colored vowels are rare, occurring in less than one percent of the languages of the world. [1] However, they occur in two of the most widely spoken languages: North American English and Mandarin Chinese. In North American English, they are found in words such as butter, nurse and, for some speakers, start. "
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/R-colored_vowel 161021

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