Update: 2016-10-03 12:07 AM -0400


A Practical Sanskrit Dictionary


by A. A. Macdonell, 1893,
http://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/scans/MDScan/index.php?sfx=jpg 1929.
Nataraj ed., 1st in 2006, 2012

Edited, with additions from Pali sources, by U Kyaw Tun (UKT) (M.S., I.P.S.T., USA) and staff of Tun Institute of Learning (TIL) . Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone. Prepared for students and staff of TIL  Computing and Language Center, Yangon, MYANMAR :  http://www.tuninst.net , www.romabama.blogspot.com

MC-indx.htm | Top

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{a.wa.Da.} : cont






UKT notes :
Avanti Janapada
Kwanyin Mdaw


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{a.wa.Da.} : cont



अवध्वंस [ ava-dhvams ]
- m. dust; flour.


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अवन [ av-ana ]
- n. favour; protection: -vat, a. favoured, protected.



अवनतकाय [ ava-nata-kya ]
- a. with bent body, crouching.



अवनति [ ava-nati ]
- f. going down, setting; humiliation; -namra, a. bent, bowed.



अवनि [ av-ni ]
- f. current, stream, course; earth; ground, place: -pa, -pati, -pla, -plaka, m. sovereign, king.



अवनिपातम् [ ava-ni-ptam ]
- abs. w. √pat, fall to the ground.



अवनिरुह [ avani-ruha ]
- m. tree.



अवनी [ ava-n ]
- f. earth.



अवनेग्य [ ava-ng-ya ]
- fp. fit for washing.



अवनेजन [ ava-ngana ]
- n. cleansing; , f. id.



अवन्ति [ avanti ]
= अ व न ् त ि --> {a.wn~ti.}
- m. pl. N. of a people; -deva, m. N. of a king; -nagar, f. the city of Uggayin; -pura, n., , f. id.; -mtri, -k, f. pl. the divine mothers of the Avantis; -vat, f. N.; -vardhana, m. N.; -varman, m. N. of a king and of a poet; -sundar, f. N.; -sena, m., , f. N.; -svmin, m. N. of a temple.

See my note on Avanti


अवन्ती [ avant ]
- f. N. of Uggayin; -nagara = avanti-nagar; -‿svara, m. N. of a temple.



अवन्ध्य [ a-vandhya ]
- a. not barren, not fruitless; successful: -t, f. successfulness; -pta, a. unerring (arrow); -prasda, a. whose favour is fruitful; -rpa, a. whose beauty is not in vain: -t, f. abst. ɴ.


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अवपात [ ava-pta ]
- m. fall, falling or flying down, descent; resorting to (--); pitfall: -na, n. felling, throwing down; -pdan, f. injury; -praggana, n. end of a cloth.


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अवबोध [ ava-bodha ]
- m. waking; perception, cognizance, knowledge; -na, n. instruction; -nya, pp. to be recognised by (in.).


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अवभङ्ग [ ava-bhaṅga ]
- m. breaking; -bhagana, n. breaking, tearing off; -bhs-a, m. brightness; appearance, manifestation: -aka, a. illuminating, manifesting, -ana, n. manifestation; illuminating, -in, a. shining, appearing; manifesting; -bhrith, m. ritual ablution.

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अवम [ ava-m ]
- spv. lowest; next; last; youngest; -mantavya, fp. to be despised; -mantri, m. scorner (of, ac.); -manya-ka, a. despising, disdaining; -mard-a, m. distress; N. of an owl, -ana, a. crushing, harassing; n. rubbing; destroying, -in, a. crushing; -marsa, m. contact; reflexion; -mn-a, n. disrespect, contempt; disgrace, -ana, n., , f. contempt; insult, -in, a. disdaining; undervaluing, -ya, fp. to be despised.

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अवयव [ ava-yava ]
- m. member, limb; part: -dharma, m. use of part for whole (rh.), -rpaka, n. kind of simile; -yav-in, a. consisting of parts; n. whole: (-i)-rpaka, n. kind of simile; -bh, become a part.


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अवर [ va-ra ]
- a. lower, inferior; low, mean; following, later, younger; nearer; western; --, at least: -ga, a. low-born; younger; m. Sdra; younger brother, , f. younger sister, -varna, m. low caste: -ga, m. Sdra; -ruddhatva, n. confinement; -ruddhi, f. obtainment; -ruddhik, f. woman of the harem; -rudhik, f. pl. women of the harem.



अवरेण [ varena ]
- (in.) prp. w. ac. under.



अवरोध [ ava-rodha ]
- m. hindrance; disturbance; imprisonment; blockade, siege; harem: pl. women of the harem: -na, n. descending; investment, siege; enclosure, temple; harem: pl. women of the harem; -sikhandin, m. domestic peacock; -rodhin, a. enclosing, covering (--); -roh-a, m. descent; transition to a lower note, -ana, a. () descending; n. alighting; descending scale; transition to a lower note, -in, a. descending.

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अवर्चस् [ a-varks ]
- a. impotent, feeble.



अवर्ण [ a-varna ]
- m. reproach, blame: -bhg, a. blameworthy.



अवर्तमान [ a-varta-mna ]
- pr. pt. not going on, not present.



अवर्ति [ va‿riti ]
- f. (come-down), need, want, hunger.



अवर्धमान [ a-vardha-mna ]
- pr. pt. not increasing.



अवर्ष [ a-varsha ]
- m., -na, n. drought.



अवर्ष्टोस् [ a-varshtos ]
- g. inf. not to rain.


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अवलग्न [ ava-lagna ]
= अ व ल ग ् न
- (pp.) m. n. waist.



अवलम्ब [ ava-lamb-a ]
- a. hanging down; m. attachment to; support, prop; -ana, a. () hanging to, leaning on; n. hanging down; attachment to, resting upon (--); dependence; support; tarrying; -itavya, fp. to be clung to; -in, a. hanging down; reclining or leaning on; attached to; dependent on (--).



अवलिप्त [ ava-lipta ]
- pp. anointed; proud, haughty: -t, f., -tva, n. pride, insolence; -lunthana, n. robbing; -lekhana, n. brushing, combing; -lepa, m. ointment; pride, -na, n. id., -vat, a. proud, haughty; -leha, m., -na, n. licking off.



अवलोक [ ava-lok-a ]
- m. observation; sight, view; -ana, n. look at; glance; sight, inspection; view; appearance; -ayitri, m. observer; -it, f. N.; -ita‿svara, m. N. of a Bodhisattva; -in, a. looking at; -lopana, n. cutting off, destroying, injuring.

अवलोकितेश्वर avalokiteśvara 'Lord who looks down'
Skt: -ita‿svara, m. N. of a Bodhisattva; - Mac030c2
Skt: अवलोकितेश्वर avalokiteśvara - m. most widely revered Bodhisattva of Mahayana Buddhism - SpkSkt

See my note on Kwanyin Mdaw


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अववाद [ ava-vda ]
- m. command.

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अवश [ a-vas ]
- a. not subject to another's will, independent, free; unwilling: -ga, a. not subject to (g.); -vasin, a. unwilling.



अवशिष्ट [ ava-sish-ta ]
- pp. left over: -ka, n. remnant, rest; -sesha, m. residue; leavings: -m, ad. except (--).



अवशेन्द्रियचित्त [ avasa‿indriya - kitta ]
- a. whose senses and mind are uncontrolled.



अवश्य [ a-vas-ya ]
- a. unyielding, uncomplying: -or -m, ad. necessarily; certainly: -ka-t, f. necessity, obligation; -bhva, m. necessity; -bhvin or -m-bhvin, a. that must necessarily be, necessarily taking place.



अवश्या [ ava-sy ]
= अ व श ् य ा
- f. hoar-frost: -ya, m. id.


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अवष्टभ्य [ ava-shtabh-ya ]
- fp. to be stopped; -shtambha, m. recourse to, employment; resoluteness; courage: -na, n. id., -maya, a. indicative of courage.


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अवस् [ 1. v-as ]
- n. help, favour; (also pl.) comfort, joy; desire.



अवस् [ 2. avs ]
- ad. down; prp. down from (in., ab.); below (in.).



अवसक्त [ ava-sakta ]
- pp. (√sag) fixed; -sakthik, f. loin cloth: -m kri, place a cloth round the loins; -sanna, pp. ended, waned; spent; -sara, m. occasion, opportunity; right time; appropriateness, use; turn; -srpana, n. descent; -sarpin, f. descending cycle; -sda, m. sitting down; sinking; exhaustion, lassitude; defeat: -na, n. discouragement; dejection; -s&asharp;na, n. resting-place; cessation; end; death; end of a sentence or verse; pause: -bhmi, f. acme; -sita, pp. (√s) ended: -‿artha, a. satisfied; -siti, f. conclusion, end; -seka, m. sprinkling; bleeding (by leeches); -sekana, n. sprinkling; water for washing; bleeding.

अवसक्थिका avasakthikā - f. sitting on the hams [ 'buttocks' - AHTD] -- SpkSkt


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अवस्कन्द [ ava-skand-a ]
- m. assault, surprise; -in, a. covering; assailing; -skara, m. privy: -mandira, n. id.



अवस्तात् [ avs-tt ]
- ad. below; on this side; prp. below (g.).



अवस्तु [ a-vastu ]
- n. worthless thing; nothing, the unreal: -tva, n. abst. ɴ.



अवस्त्र [ a-vastra ]
= अ व स ् त ् र
- a. unclothed: -t, f. nakedness; -kri, deprive of clothes.



अवस्थ [ ava-sth ]
= अ व स ् थ  --> {a.wa.~hta.}
- m. penis.



अवस्था [ ava-sth&asharp; ]
- f. appearance in court; state, condition; circumstance; -tavya, fp. that must remain; -na, n. appearing; condition, position; dwelling, abiding, stay; stability; -‿antara, n. changed condition; -pana, n. exposing for sale; -yin, a. staying in; -sthita, pp. (√sth) stationed; standing; arrayed; engaged in; -sthiti, f. stay, sojourn, abode.



अवस्फोटन [ ava-sphotana ]
- n. cracking the joints of the fingers.



अवस्यु [ avas-y ]
- a. seeking protection.


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अवहनन [ ava-hanana ]
- n. threshing, unhusking; lung; -hra, m. putting off; -hrya, fp. to be made to pay (ac.); that must be caused to be paid; -hsa, m. jest; derision; -hsya, fp. ridiculous: -t, f. abst. ɴ.; -hita, pp. √dh; -hel, f. contempt: in. with the greatest ease.

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अवाग्गमनवत् [ avg-gamana-vat ]
= अ व ा ग ् ग म न व त ्
- a. moving downward.



अवाङ्मनसगोचर [ a-vṅ-manasa-gokara ]
= अ व ा ङ ् म न स ग ो च र
- a. being beyond the reach of speech or mind.



अवाङ्मुख [ avṅ-mukha ]
- a. () facing downward.



अवाचाल [ a-vkla ]
- a. not talkative; not boastful.



अवाचीन [ avk-&isharp;na ]
- a. turned downwards; being below (ab.).



अवाच्य [ a-vk-ya ]
- fp. not to be addressed; not to be uttered; not directly expressed: -t, f. abuse, invective.



[va‿ak ]
- a. (avki) downward, headlong; lower; southern; avk , n. ad. downwards, headlong



[-vt] ,
- 2 sg. aor. of √vah



अवात [ . -vta ]
- pp. unmolested; secure.



अवात [ . a-vt ]
- a. windless, calm.



अवान [ a-vna ]
- pp. not dried up, fresh; wet.



अवान्तर [ ava‿antar ]
- a. lying between; different, respective: -des, m. intermediate region.



अवाप्तव्य [ ava‿p-tavya ]
- fp. to be obtained; -‿pti, f. acquisition, attainment; -‿pya, fp. to be obtained.



अवारणीय [ a-vranya ]
- fp. irresistible.



- m. son begotten by man with a woman of his own caste who has cohabited with another man.

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अवि avi [ v-i ]
Skt: अवि [ v-i ] - a. favourable; m. sheep; f. ewe: -k, f. ewe. -- Mac030c3
Pal: {a.wi.} -- UHS-PMD0137
  UKT from UHS: m. sheep


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अविकत्थन [ a-vikatth-ana ]
- a. not boastful; -in, a. id.



अविकम्पित [ a-vi-kampita ]
- pp. not trembling, motionless.



अविकल [ a-vikala ]
- a. not defective; unmutilated, entire, complete; correct.

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UKT notes

Avanti Janapada

-- UKT 131101, 140804, 160930

In the following account in Wikipedia, Avanti region was the realm of the Naga. It was taken over by the Haihayas, {h:ha.ya.} हैहय , who obviously were the invaders.
See Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Haihayas 140804, 160930
and, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yadu 140804, 160930 .

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Avanti_India 131101

Avanti  {a.wn-ti.} अवन्ति , was an ancient Indian janapada (realm), roughly corresponded to the present day Malwa region. According to the Buddhist text, the Anguttara Nikaya, Avanti was one of the solasa mahajanapadas (sixteen great realms) of the 6th century BCE. The janapada was divided into two parts by the Vindhyas, the northern part had its capital at Ujjayini and the southern part had its centre at Mahishmati. [1] [2]

UKT 160930: Ujjain उज्जैन = उ ज ् ज ै न [ {Uz~z:na.} : Though Romabama can transliterate from Devanagari, it is difficult for me to transliterate into Myanmar unless I include the Viram sign: {Uz~z:na.} --> {oaz-z:na.} -- I am waiting for input from my peers. ]
 aka Ujain, Ujjayini, Avanti, Avantika, Avantikapuri
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ujjain 160930

UKT 131101: In central part of the Indian subcontinent we find two great rivers, the west-to-east flowing Godavara River, flowing into the Bay of Bengal, and the east-to-west flowing  Narmaada River, emptying into the Arabian Sea. Godavara flows across the Deccan Plateau, and the Narmaada flows between the Vindhya range विन्‍ध्य = व ि न ् ‍ ध ् य  --> {wain-D~ya.} in the north and the higher Satpura range in the south. The Vindhaya range divides the Indian subcontinent, geographically, into northern and southern parts. See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vindhyas 131101

The Avantis, the ancient people belonging to this realm were described as mahavala (very powerful) in the Udyoga Parva (19.24) of the Mahabharata. [3] According to the Vishnu Purana (II.3), the Bhagavata Purana (XII.I.36) and the Brahma Purana (XIX.17), the Avantis were associated with the Malavas, the Saurashtras, the Abhiras, the Suras, the Karushas and the Arbudas and were described as dwelling along the Pariyatra (or Paripatra) mountains [4] [5] (a western branch of the Vindhyas).


The Haihayas kings of the capital Mahishmati

According to the Puranic accounts, the Haihayas were the earliest rulers of Avanti, who captured the region from the Nagas. [UKT ]

Initially, they ruled from Mahishmati. Later the whole janapada was divided into two parts with the capitals at Mahishmati and Ujjayini. The Haihayas were a confederation of five clans, the Vitihotras, the Bhojas, the Avantis, the Tundikeras and the Sharyatas. Later, the Haihayas were better known by their dominant clan - the Vitihotras. Ripunjaya, the last Vitihotra ruler of Ujjayini was overthrown by his amatya (minister) Pulika, who placed his son, Pradyota on the throne. [6] [7]

The Mahagovindasuttanta of the Dighanikaya mentions about an Avanti king Vessabhu (Vishvabhu) and his capital Mahissati (Mahishmati). Probably he was a Vitihotra ruler. [8]

King Pradyota

See also Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pradyota_dynasty 160930

Pradyota was contemporary to Gautama Buddha. He was also known as Chandapradyota Mahasena. Pradyota captured the Vatsa king Udayana but later he married Pradyotas daughter Vasavadatta. The Mahavagga described him as cruel and according to the Majjhima Nikaya, Ajatashatru, the king of Magadha fortified Rajagriha to protect it from an invasion led by Pradyota. He also waged war on Pushkarasarin, king of Takshashila [9] Pradyotas chief queen Gopalamata (mother of prince Gopala) was a disciple of Buddhist monk Mahakatyayana and constructed a stupa in Ujjayini.

King Prodyota had two sons, Gopala and Palaka. He was succeeded by Palaka. According to Jaina accounts Palaka ascended to the throne on the day of passing away of Mahavira [the founder of Jainism}. According to the Kathasaritsagara and the Avashyaka Kathanaka, the kingdom of Vatsa was already a part of Avanti during the reign of King Palaka and a prince of the royal family was the governor of Kaushambi. In the Mricchakatika, Palaka was described as a tyrant who was overthrown by a popular revolt. This revolt placed Aryaka on the throne of Ujjayini. The Puranas place Nadivardhana or Vartivardhana after Aryaka. But these names are probably corruptions of Avantivardhana, the name of the son of Palaka according to the Kathasaritsagara or the son of Gopala according to the Nepali Brihatkatha. He was defeated by Shishunaga, the king of Magadha. [10]

Avanti and Magadha

Avanti was a part of the Magadha empire during the rule of the Shaishunaga and the Nanda dynasties. During the Mauryan dynasty rule, Avanti became the Avantirāṭṭha [11] or the western province of the empire, with its capital at Ujjayini. [12]  The Junagarh Rock inscription of Rudradaman I (150 CE) mentions Pushyagupta as the governor of the western province during the reign of Chandragupta Maurya. [13] During the reign of the next ruler Bindusara, prince Ashoka was the provincial governor. [14] After the fall of the Mauryas, at the time of Pusyamitra Sunga, his son Agnimitra was the Magadhan viceroy at Vidisha, but he ruled independent of Magadha for all practical purposes. [15]

Go back Avanti-note-b

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Kwanyin Mdaw

 - UKT 150704, 160930

Kwanyin Mdaw (Bur-Myan tradition {kwn-yn m-tau}, alt. spelling {kwn-rn m-tau) does not belong to traditional Theravada Buddhism. However many Bur-Myan of Chinese ancestry, such as those from my mother side, revered her as a Mother Goddess. The modern spelling of the name Guānyīn is a translation from the Sanskrit Avalokitasvara, referring to the Mahāyāna bodhisattva of the same name. Another later name for this bodhisattva is Guānzzi (simplified Chinese: 观自在 traditional Chinese: 觀自在; pinyin: Guānzzi).
See Wikipedia:
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Guanyin 150704, 160930 
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Avalokite%C5%9Bvara 150704
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Avalokiteśvara 160930
"Avalokiteśvara has an extraordinarily large number of manifestations in different forms (including wisdom goddesses (vidyaas) directly associated with him in images and texts)." - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Avalokiteśvara 160930

Go back Kwanyin-note-b

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