Update: 2018-10-10 12:12 AM -0400

TIL

A Practical Sanskrit Dictionary

p026.htm

by A. A. Macdonell, 1893,
http://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/scans/MDScan/index.php?sfx=jpg 1929.
Nataraj ed., 1st in 2006, 2012

Edited, with additions from Pali sources, by U Kyaw Tun (UKT) (M.S., I.P.S.T., USA) and staff of Tun Institute of Learning (TIL) . Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone. Prepared for students and staff of TIL  Computing and Language Center, Yangon, MYANMAR :  http://www.tuninst.net , www.romabama.blogspot.com

MC-indx.htm | Top
MCv1pp-indx.htm

Contents of this page

{a.m~ba.} / {m}
  p026c1
{m~bu.}
{a.m~Ba.}
{a.m~la.}

Palatal plosive-stops and Dental fricatives

{a.ya.} : compare with Bur-Myan {} (2 blk) & {}
  p026c2
{a.ya}

{a.yi}
{a.yu.}

{a.y}
{a.yau:}
{a.yau}

Nya'gyi {a.}/ {}

The problem of Anglicising common Bur-Myan words that end in {},
such as NayPyiDaw {n-pr-tau}.

{a.ra.} : pronunciation of {ar}, {al}, {au}, {a}, {ah}
  p026c3
{a.ra}

{a.ri.}

UKT 120117, 131020, 140726, 160808: The problem of {a.} checked by approximants (semi-consonants or semivowels) are studied here. Syllables in which {a.} is checked by {} is common in Bur-Myan. An example, {}, is found in the name of Dawei {hta:w} aka {hta:w-mro.}. See in my note on Dawei aka Tavoy in Myanmarpr. It belongs to the series:

{.}, {}, {:}

When {a.} is checked by other approximants:

{} , {}, {ar}, {al}, {aw} , {ah} ?

I am not certain of the pronunciation except for {} & {},, others are not common in Bur-Myan. I will leave the problem of pronunciation to a future date. I hope to get some ideas from Pali-derived Words by U Tun Myint (in Bur-Myan), Universities Publishing Committee, Rangoon, 1968. Unexpectedly, I am finding that another source is Mon-Myan:
1.  Grammatical notes and Vocabulary of the Peguan Language, to which are added a few pages of phrases, etc., by Haswell, J.M., ABM Press (American Baptist Mission Press), Rangoon, 1874
- MonMyan-Haswell-gramm-notes-vocab<> / bkp<> (link chk 160809)
2. A vocabulary of English and Peguan, to which are added a few pages of geographical names , by Stevens, E.O., ABM Press, Rangoon, 1896
- MonMyan-Stevens-vocab<> / bkp<> (link chk 160809)
3. Notes on the transliteration of Burmese alphabet into Roman characters, and vocal and consonantal sounds of the Peguan or Talaing language, by R. C. Temple, Rangoon 1876,
- Mon-Myan-RCTemple-translit-Bur<> / bkp<> (link chk 160809). 
4. Fundamentals of Mon Speech & Script (in Bur-Myan), by Naing Maung Toe, www.monlibrary.com, Yangon, 2007 (Romabama may be applicable in NMT)
- MonMyan-NMgToe-Mon-Bur<> / bkp<> (link chk 160809)
(frequently need to refer to {nga.hsw:} on p047/pdf051)
5. Speaking Mon-Myan Language (MonSPK) - spk-all-indx.htm (link chk 160809)

Even at this stage of my study of Mon-Myan language, I find that Mon-Myan {ou} has to be included in BEPS Basic vowels:

Orphan:
अरx{093c}ञ्जित   a-ragita dissatisfied.

UKT notes :

Ayanamsa : astronomy {a.ya.na.}
Checking vowels by killed-Approximants
{}, {ar}, {al}, {au}, {a}, {ah} 
Dawei aka Tavoy - {hta:w-mro.} 
Palatal plosive-stops and Dental fricatives
Yeti - {nhing: lu-wn}
Yoni - {yau:ni.} योनि yoni

 

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{a.m~ba.} / {m}

p026c1

p026c1-b00/ p027

अम्बिका [ ambik ]
- f. N. of Prvat [UKT: पार्वती pārvatī ] ; N. of Dhrita-rshtra's mother; -pati, m. Rudra or Siva.
 अम्बिका   ambik Prvat; N. of Dhrita-rshtra's mother; -pati, m. Rudra or Siva.

 

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{m~bu.}

p026c1-b01/ p027

अम्बु [ ambu ]
Skt: अम्बु [ ambu ]
- n. water; -krin, a. living in the water; m. aquatic animal. (Mac026)
 अम्बु   ambu water; -krin, a. living in the water; m. aquatic animal.

 

अम्बु [ ambu ]
Skt: अम्बु [ ambu ] - n. water - Mac026c1
BPal: {m~bu.} - UHS-PMD0121
  UKT from UHS: n. water

 

p026c1-b02/ p027

अम्बुज [ ambu-ga ]
- a. aquatic; m. n. (day) lotus: -bndhava, m. sun; -‿aksha, a. () lotus eyed; -‿san, f. Lakshm (lotus-seated).
अम्बुज   ambu-ga aquatic; m. n. (day) lotus: -bndhava, m. sun; -̮aksha, a. () lotuseyed; -̮san, f. Lakshm (lotus-seated).

 

p026c1-b03/ p027

अम्बुद [ ambu-da ]
- m. cloud: -nsa, m. dispersion of clouds; -dhara, m. cloud; -dhi, m. sea; -nidhi, m. id.; -pakshin, m. water-bird; -pati, m. Varuna; sea; -paddhati, f. current; -muk, m. cloud; -raya, m. current; -rsi, m. sea; -ruha, n. day-flowering lotus; -ruhin, f. lotus; -ll-geha, n. pleasure-house in the water; -vha, m. cloud; -vega, m. current.
अम्बुद   ambu-da cloud: -nsa, m. dispersion of clouds; -dhara, m. cloud; -dhi, m. sea; -nidhi, m. id.; -pakshin, m. water-bird; -pati, m. Varuna; sea; -paddhati, f. current; -muk, m. cloud; -raya, m. current; -rsi, m. sea; -ruha, n. day-flowering lotus; -ruhin, f. lotus; -ll-geha, n. pleasure-house in the water; -vha, m. cloud; -vega, m. current.

 

p026c1-b04/ p027

अम्बूकृत [ amb-krita ]
- pp. accompanied by spitting; n. bellowing with foaming at the mouth.
अम्बूकृत   amb-krita accompanied by spitting; n. bellowing with foaming at the mouth.

 

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{a.m~Ba.}

p026c1-b05/ p027

अम्भस् [ mbhas ]
= अ म ् भ स ्
- n. water; -tas, ad. out of the water.
 अम्भस्   mbhas water; -tas, ad. out of the water.

 

p026c1-b06/ p027

अम्भोज [ ambho-ga ]
- n. (day) lotus; -gin, f. lotus plant: -vana, n. pond covered with lotuses; -da, m. cloud; -dhara, m. id.; -dhi, m. sea; -nidhi, m. id.; -bindu, m. drop of water; -muk, m. cloud; -ruha, n. (day) lotus: -maya, a. full of lotuses.
 अम्भोज   ambho-ga (day) lotus; -gin, f. lotus plant: -vana, n. pond covered with lotuses; -da, m. cloud; -dhara, m. id.; -dhi, m. sea; -nidhi, m. id.; -bindu, m. drop of water; -muk, m. cloud; -ruha, n. (day) lotus: -maya, a. full of lotuses.

 

p026c1-b07/ p027

अम्मय [ am-maya ]
- a. () watery.
अम्मय   am-maya () watery.

 

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{a.m~la.}

p026c1-b08/ p027

अम्ल [ am-la ]
= अ म ् ल
- a. sour.
 अम्ल   am-la sour.

 

p026c1-b09/ p027

अम्लान [ a-ml-na ]
- pp. not withered or withering; fresh; -darsana, a. keen-eyed.
 अम्लान   a-ml-na not withered or withering; fresh; -darsana, a. keen-eyed.

 

p026c1-b10/ p027

अम्लानि [ a-ml-ni ]
- a. not withering; -yin, a. id.
अम्लानि   a-ml-ni not withering; -yin, a. id.

 

p026c1-b11

[aml-bh]
- become sour

(end of old p026-1.htm)

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{a.ya.} : {} (2 blk)

See Checking vowels by killed-Approximants

 

p026c1-b12/ p027

अय  [ y-a ]
Skt: अय  [ y-a ] - m. going; course; good fortune. - Mac026c1
अय   y-a going; course; good fortune. 
BPal: {a.ya.} -- UHS-PMD0122
  UKT from UHS: . n. iron. . m. prosperity, income
  UKT 140726: Meaning . n. <iron> seems to be applicable to {a.ya:.}

 

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{a.ya:.}

UKT 131019, 140726: Note the alternate use of {wic~sa.} or visarga . It is found in Mon-Myan ( {a.ya:.}) and Skt-Dev. It is used differently in Bur-Myan ( {a.ya:})

Vow-duration in eye-blinks (blk): 
{a.ya:.} 1/2 blk;  {a.ya.} 1 blk;  {a.ya} 2 blk; {a.ya:} 2blk+emphasis

I found this usage only after I started to learn Mon-Myan. Romabama represents it by three-dots {:.} which I have borrowed from Tamil-Tamil: ஃ .

 

p026c1-b13

[ayah-kya]
- m. N. of a Daitya.

 

p026c1-b14/ p027

अयःपिण्ड [ ayah-pinda ]
- m. n. lump of iron.
 अयःपिण्ड   ayah-pinda lump of iron.

 

p026c1-b15/ p027

अयक्ष्म [ a-yakshm ]
- a. free from disease, healthy.
अयक्ष्म   a-yakshm free from disease, healthy. 

 

p026c1-b16/ p027

अयज्ञ [ -yaga ]
- m. no sacrifice; non-performance of sacrifice; a. () not sacrificing.
 अयज्ञ   -yaga no sacrifice; non-performance of sacrifice; a. () not sacrificing.

 

p026c1-b17/ p027

अयज्यु -yag-yu, ˚-वन् [ -van ]
- a. impious.
 अयज्यु   -van impious.

 

p026c1-b18/ p027

अयत [ -yata ]
- pp. uncontrolled, unrestrained.
अयत   -yata uncontrolled, unrestrained.

 

p026c1-b19/ p027

अयति ayati [ a-yati ]
Skt अयति [ a-yati ]- m. no ascetic. -- Mac026c1
Skt: अयति ayati - adj. not attempting. n. no ascetic -- SpkSkt
 अयति   a-yati no ascetic.
BPal: {a.ya.ti.} - UHS-PMD0122
  UKT from UHS: to go, to arrive

UKT 131020, 140726, 160809: The English word "Yeti" and यति  yati can easily be confused. In the Skt-Dev the vowel in <y> is front-open, whereas in the English it is front-close. Similarly the English vowels are more close than Burmese. It is found in English rendition of the Bur-Myan {n:sain-mro.}, which in English is "Insein". Lets see what is meant by Yeti in modern English. See my note on Yeti .

 

p026c1-b20/ p027

अयत्न [ a-yatna ]
- m. no effort, ease: --, -tas, in. without trouble; -vla-vyagan-bh, become a fly-fan without trouble.
अयत्न   a-yatna no effort, ease: --, -tas, in. without trouble; -vla-vyagan-bh, become a fly-fan without trouble.

 

p026c1-b21/ p027

अयथातथम् [ a-yath-tatham ]
- ad. not as it should be; -balam, ad. not according to strength; -‿artha, a. untrue, false; -vat, ad. wrongly, falsely; -sthita, pp. disarranged.
 अयथातथम्   a-yath-tatham not as it should be; -balam, ad. not according to strength; -̮artha, a. untrue, false; -vat, ad. wrongly, falsely; -sthita, pp. disarranged.

 

p026c1-b22/ p027

अयथोचित [ ayath‿ukita ]
- pp. unseemly.
 अयथोचित   ayatḫukita unseemly.

 

p026c1-b23/ p027

अयदि [ a-yad-i ]
- lc. when there is no 'yad' (gr.).
 अयदि   a-yad-i when there is no ʻyadʼ (gr.). 

 

p026c1-b24/ p027

अयन ayana [ y-ana ]
Skt: अयन [ y-ana ] -- a. going, coming; n. going; way; course; certain Soma sacrifice lasting a year; sun's course from one solstice to an other; half-year; solstice; resting-place.
 -- Mac026c1
Skt: अयन ayana -- adj. going. n. astro.  advancing, equitorial and solstitial points, soltice,  precession. n. half year , manner, place of refuge, progress, treatise, walking a road, way -- SpkSkt,
 अयन   y-ana going, coming; n. going; way; course; certain Soma sacrifice lasting a year; sun's course from one solstice to another; half-year; solstice; resting-place. 
BPal: {a.ya.na.} -- UHS-PMD0122
  UKT from UHS: n. walk, way. mfn. going

UKT 140726: See my note on Ayanamsa

 

p026c1-b25/ p027

अयन्त्रण [ a-yantrana ]
- a. unrestrained, free.
 अयन्त्रण   a-yantrana unrestrained, free.

 

p026c1-b26/ p027

अयन्त्रित [ a-yantrita ]
- pp. uncurbed, at large; un-self-controlled.
अयन्त्रित   a-yantrita uncurbed, at large; un-self-controlled.

 

p026c1-b27/ p027

अयम् [ ay-m ]
- pn. nm. sg. m. this; often = here; (n. idam, f. iyam.)
 अयम्   ay-m this; often=here; (n. idam, f. iyam.)

 

p026c1-b28/ p027

अयमित [ a-yamita ]
- pp. not kept in order; untrimmed (nails).
अयमित   a-yamita not kept in order; untrimmed (nails).

 

p026c1-b29/ p027

अयवत् [ aya-vat ]
- a. happy, fortunate.
अयवत्   aya-vat happy, fortunate.

 

p026c1-b30/ p027

अयशस् [ a-yasas ]
- n. disgrace, dishonour; insult; -kara, a. () dishonouring, disgracing.
अयशस्   a-yasas disgrace, dishonour; insult; -kara, a. () dishonouring, disgracing.

 

p026c1-b31/ p027

अयस् [ y-as ]
- n. metal, iron; iron instrument, knife, sword; -knta, m. magnet; -mya, a. () of iron.
 अयस्   y-as metal, iron; iron instrument, knife, sword; -knta, m. magnet; -mya, a. () of iron. 

 

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p026c2

{a.ya}

p026c2-b01/ p027

अया [ ay&asharp; ]
- (in.) ad. in this manner, thus.
 अया   ayaN in this manner, thus. 

 

p026c2-b02/ p027

अयाचित [ -yk-i-ta ]
- pp. unasked; given without asking; -tri, a. not soliciting or wooing.
 अयाचित   -yk-i-ta unasked; given without asking; -tri, a. not soliciting or wooing. 

 

p026c2-b03/ p027

अयाज्य [ a-ygy ]
- fp. who may not be sacrificed for; that may not be sacrificed.
 अयाज्य   a-ygy who may not be sacrificed for; that may not be sacrificed.

 

p026c2-b04/ p027

अयातयाम [ -yta-yma ]
- a. not stale, not ineffectual; n. pl. a kind of Yagus texts; ()-t, f. effectualness.
 अयातयाम   -yta-yma not stale, not ineffectual; n. pl. a kind of Yagus texts; ()-t, f. effectualness.

 

p026c2-b05/ p027

अयास् [ a-ys ] 
Skt: अयास् [ a-y&asharp;s ] - a. indefatigable; -ya, a. id.; m. N. of a seer. - Mac026c2
Skt: अयास् ayās - adj. agile, dexterous, nimble - SpkSkt
 अयास्   a-yaNs indefatigable; -ya, a. id.; m. N. of a seer.

अयास्य ayāsya [ a-ysya ]
Skt: अयास्य [ a-ysya ] - a. id.; m. N. of a seer -- Mac026c2
Skt: अयास्य ayāsya - adj. valiant, agile, dexterous -- SpkSkt

UKT 140726: The seer mentioned by Macdonell seems to be Rishi Ayasya - one of the ancient Vedic rishis mentioned in (Rig Veda IX.46.2) , in which he prays
  परिष्कृतास इन्दवो योषेव पित्र्यावती |
  वायुं सोमा असृक्षत ||  
He states that having acquired the knowledge of the Highest the learned people easily unravel the deeply hidden meaning of the most subtle kind. ..."
-- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mauna_silence  160810
in which is stated: "In Hindu philosophy, Mauna (Silence), which has a voice of its own, refers to peace of mind, inner quietude, Samadhi and the Absolute Reality. The Hindu texts insist upon proper understanding of silence by experiencing it through control of speech and practice." : मौनम् mauna or मौनित्व maunitva "silence, taciturnity, silence of the mind" .

 

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{a.yi}

p026c2-b06

अयि [ay]
- ij. (usually with vc.) or intr. pcl.

 

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{a.yu.}

p026c2-b07/ p027

अयुक्छद [ a-yuk-khada ]
- m. (odd-leaved, i.e. seven-leaved) a tree (sapta-parna).
 अयुक्छद   a-yuk-khada (odd-leaved, i. e. seven-leaved) a tree (sapta-parna). 

 

p026c2-b08/ p027

अयुक्त [ a-yukta ]
- pp. unyoked; unconnected; unattached to (lc.); unintent; unsuitable, unseemly; n. unsuitable metaphor; -tva, n. inappropriateness; -rpa, a. unsuitable.
अयुक्त   a-yukta unyoked; unconnected; unattached to (lc.); unintent; unsuitable, unseemly; n. unsuitable metaphor; -tva, n. inappropriateness; -rpa, a. unsuitable. 

अयुक्त [ a-yukta ]
Skt: - pp. unyoked; unconnected; unattached to (lc.);
  unintent; unsuitable, unseemly; n. unsuitable metaphor - Mac026c2
BPal: {a.yoat~ta.} - UHS PMD0122
  UKT from UHS: mfn. unsuitable, inappropriate. n. inappropriateness, unsuitability 

 

p026c2-b09/ p027

अयुक्संख्य [ a-yuk-saṅkhya ]
- a. hvg. an uneven number.
 अयुक्संख्य   a-yuk-saṅkhya hvg. an uneven number.

 

p026c2-b10/ p027

अयुगसप्ति [ a-yuga-sapti ]
= अ य ु ग स प ् त ि
- m. sun.
 अयुगसप्ति   a-yuga-sapti sun.

 

p026c2-b11/ p027

अयुगार्चिस् [ a-yuga‿arkis ]
- m. fire (odd-rayed = seven-rayed).
  अयुगार्चिस्   a-yuga̮arkis fire (odd-rayed =seven-rayed).

 

p026c2-b12/ p027

अयुग्म [ a-yugma ]
- a. uneven, odd.
 अयुग्म   a-yugma uneven, odd. 

 

p026c2-b13/ p027 

अयुग्मच्छद [ ayugma-kkhada ]
= अ य ु ग ् म च ् छ द
- m. = ayuk-kha-da; -lokana, m. Siva (odd- i.e. three-eyed); -sara, m. Kma (odd-=five-arrowed).
  अयुग्मच्छद   ayugma-kkhada three-eyed); -sara, m. Kma (odd-=five-arrowed).

 

p026c2-b14/ p027

अयुङ्ग [ -yuṅga ]
- a. uneven, odd; -yg, a. id.; -yug, a. without an equal; uneven, odd.
 अयुङ्ग   -yuṅga uneven, odd; -yg, a. id.; -yug, a. without an equal; uneven, odd.

 

p026c2-b15/ p027

अयुत [ a-yta ]
- (pp.) n. myriad.
अयुत   a-yta myriad.

 

p026c2-b16/ p027

अयुद्ध [ -yuddha ]
Skt: अयुद्ध [ -yuddha ] - pp. uncombated, irresistible; n. absence of war, peace. - Mac026c2
 अयुद्ध   -yuddha uncombated, irresistible; n. absence of war, peace. 
BPal: {a.yoad~Da.} - UHS-PMD0122
  UKT from UHS: mfn. not for military attack. n. absence of war

 

p026c2-b17/ p027

अयुद्ध्वी [ -yuddhv ]
- abs. without fighting.
 अयुद्ध्वी   -yuddhv without fighting. 

 

p026c2-b18/ p027

अयुवमारिन् [ a-yuva-mrin ]
_ a. in which youths do not die.
 अयुवमारिन्   a-yuva-mrin in which youths do not die.

 

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{a.y}

p026c2-b19/ not online

अये [aye]
- ij. of surprise; often = ayi

 

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{a.yau:}

p026c2-b20/ p027

अयोग [ a-yoga ]
- m. separation; wrong employment; bad quality; inappropriateness; impossibility.
 अयोग   a-yoga separation; wrong employment; bad quality; inappropriateness; impossibility.

 

p026c2-b21/ p027

अयोगुड [ ayo-guda ]
- m. iron ball.
 अयोगुड   ayo-guda iron ball. 

 

p026c2-b22/ not online

अयोगू [ayo-g]
- f. a mixed caste

 

p026c2-b23/ p027

अयोग्य [ a-yogya ]
- fp. unfit, useless; unauthorised; not a match for (lc.); -tva, n. unfitness.
 अयोग्य   a-yogya unfit, useless; unauthorised; not a match for (lc.); -tva, n. unfitness. 

 

p026c2-b24/ p027

अयोघन [ ayo-ghana ]
- m. iron hammer.
अयोघन   ayo-ghana iron hammer.

 

p026c2-b25/ not online

अयोद्धृ  ayoddhṛ
=  अ य ो द ् ध ृ   
Skt: [a-yoddhri ] - a. not fighting -- Mac026c2
Skt: अयोद्धृ ayoddhṛ -- adj. not fighting -- SpkSkt

 

p026c2-b26/ p027

अयोध्य [ a-yodhy ]
- fp. unconquerable; , f. N. of a city (Oude).
 अयोध्य   a-yodhy unconquerable; , f. N. of a city (Oude).

 

p026c2-b27/ p027

अयोनि [ -yoni ]
- m. f. what is not pudendum muliebre ; a. lacking an origin or beginning; -ga, a. not born of the womb: -tva, n. abst. ɴ.; -ganman, a. not born of the womb.
अयोनि   -yoni what is not pudendum muliebre; a. lacking an origin or beginning; -ga, a. not born of the womb: -tva, n. abst. n.; -ganman, a. not born of the womb.

UKT: See my note on yoni
   pudendum muliebre  1. obsolete term for vulva. -- http://www.medilexicon.com/medicaldictionary.php?t=73877 120116
   vulva n. pl. vulvae 1. The external genital organs of the female, including the labia majora, labia minora, clitoris, and vestibule of the vagina. [Latin womb, covering; See wel- 2 in Indo-European Roots.]

 

p026c2-b28/ p027

अयोमय [ ayo-maya ]
- a. () of iron; -mukha, a. iron-pointed; m. arrow; -hata, pp. of hammered iron; -hridaya, a. iron-hearted.
 अयोमय   ayo-maya () of iron; -mukha, a. iron-pointed; m. arrow; -hata, pp. of hammered iron; -hridaya, a. iron-hearted.

 

Contents of this page

{a.yau}

p026c2-b29/ p027

अयौगिक [ a-yaugika ]
- a. inapplicable.
अयौगिक   a-yaugika inapplicable.

UKT: p026c2-b30 on {a.ra.} and its followings moved to next file.

(end of old p026-2.htm)

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Nya'gyi {a.}/ {}

UKT 160821:

The problem of r2c5: Nya'gyi {a.}/ {}, and Nya'l {a.}/ {}.
The problem of Anglicising common Bur-Myan words that end in {}, such as NayPyiDaw {n-pr-tau}.
See: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Naypyidaw 160821

With my placing of Nya'gyi {a.}/ {}, as the Palatal Approximant, the space between {ya.} and {ra.} should be given to the lost Bur-Myan akshara Nya'gyi {a.}/ {}.

 

 

Contents of this page

{a.ra.}

UKT 150301, 160820: I am still uncertain of the pronunciation of
{ar}, {al}, {au}, {a}, {ah}
I need to look further into both Bur-Myan and Mon-Myan.

 

p026c2-b30/ p027 

अर [ ar- ]
- m. spoke of a wheel; -ka, m. id.
अर   ar- spoke of a wheel; -ka, m. id.

UKT 140730, 160820: Even in not-so-ancient times, wheels of carts (for heavy loads) were solid without spokes. I have seen such carts drawn by oxen (not cows) in Pauk {pauk mro.} in the early days of WWII. The wooden spokes were later invention probably with the introduction of iron tires.

The iron tire is a hoop which is heated and then dropped on to the wooden assembly of hub and spokes. On cooling the iron hoop contracts making the spokes firm. Light carts with spokes drawn by a single oxen (neutered bulls) were kept by wealthy families as precursors of the modern family cars. Horse drawn chariots with spokes like those used by the Western armies were not in general use in the days of the Myanmar kings. Combat was generally on elephants which were more suitable for Myanmarpr terrain. The weapon of choice was the javelin or spear which was thrown, and not bow and arrow.

 

p026c2-b31/ p027

अरक्षत् [ a-raksh-at ]
- pr. pt. not protecting; -ita, pp. unguarded; -i-tri, m. no protector; -ya, fp. not deserving protection; -ya-mna, pr. pt. ps. unprotected.
अरक्षत्   a-raksh-at not protecting; -ita, pp. unguarded; -i-tri, m. no protector; -ya, fp. not deserving protection; -ya-mna, pr. pt. ps. unprotected. 

 

p026c2-b32/ p027

अरघट्ट [ ara-ghatta ]
- m. water-wheel; well.
अरघट्ट   ara-ghatta water-wheel; well. 

 

p026c2-b33/ p027

अरजस् [ a-rags ]
- a. dustless, spotless; passionless.
अरजस्   a-rags dustless, spotless; passionless. 

 

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p026c3

p026c3-b00/ p027

अरज्यत् [ a-ragyat ]
- pr. pt. having no pleasure in (lc.).
 अरज्यत्   a-ragyat having no pleasure in (lc.). 

 

p026c3-b01/ not online

अरञ्जित [ a-ragita ]
- pp. dissatisfied.

 

p026c3-b02/ p027

अरण [ r-ana ]
- a. () distant, strange.
 अरण   r-ana () distant, strange.

 

p026c3-b03/ not online

अरणि ar-ni, अरणी [ ar-n ]
- f. tinder-stick (for producing fire by attrition).
अरणि   ar-n tinder-stick (for producing fire by attrition).

 

p026c3-b04/ p027

अरण्य [ ran-ya ]
- n. distance, foreign country; wilderness; forest; -ka, n. forest; -gaga, m. wild elephant; -kara, a. living in a forest; wild; -gva, a. id.; -dharma, m. savage state, wildness; -nripati, m. king of the forest, tiger; -bhava, a. growing in the forest; wild; -mrgra, m. wild cat; -rg, m. (nm. -rt) lion; tiger; -rgya, n. sovereignty of the forest; -rudita, n. crying in the forest=vain lament; -vat, ad. like a wilderness; -vsa, m. forest-abode; -vsin, a. forest-dwelling; m. denizen of the forest; -shashtik, f. kind of celebration.
 अरण्य   ran-ya distance, foreign country; wilderness; forest; -ka, n. forest; -gaga, m. wild elephant; -kara, a. living in a forest; wild; -gva, a. id.; -dharma, m. savage state, wildness; -nripati, m. king of the forest, tiger; -bhava, a. growing in the forest; wild; -mrgra, m. wild cat; -rg, m. (nm. -rt) lion; tiger; -rgya, n. sovereignty of the forest; -rudita, n. crying in the forest=vain lament; -vat, ad. like a wilderness; -vsa, m. forest-abode; -vsin, a. forest-dwelling; m. denizen of the forest; -shashtik, f. kind of celebration.

 

अरण्यधर्म्य [ ran-ya dharma]
Skt: अरण्यधर्म्य [ ran-ya dharma] - m. savage state, wildness - Mac026c3
Skt: अरण्यधर्म्य araṇyadharma - m. forest usuage, wild or savage state - SpkSkt

 

p026c3-b05/ p027

अरण्यानि aranyân, ˚नी [ -n&isharp; ]
- f. wilderness; great forest; genius of the forest.
अरण्यानि   -n wilderness; great forest; genius of the forest. 

 

p026c3-b06/ p027

अरण्यौकस् [ aranya‿okas ]
- m. forest-dweller; hermit.
 अरण्यौकस्   aranya̮okas forest-dweller; hermit.

 

p026c3-b07/ p027

अरति [ 1. ar-at ]
- m. attendant, helper, officiater (at sacrifices).
अरति   1. ar-at attendant, helper, officiater (at sacrifices).

 

p026c3-b08/ p027

अरति [ 2. a-rati ]
- f. discomfort; depression.
अरति   2. a-rati discomfort; depression.

 

p026c3-b09/ p027

अरतिक [ a-rati-ka ]
- a. lacking Rati.
अरतिक   a-rati-ka lacking Rati. 

 

p026c3-b10/ p027

अरत्नालोकसंहार्य [ a-ratna‿loka-samhrya ]
- fp. not to be dispelled by the brilliance of gems.
 अरत्नालोकसंहार्य   a-ratna̮loka-samhrya not to be dispelled by the brilliance of gems.

 

p026c3-b11/ p027

अरत्नि [ ar-atn ]
= अ र त ् न ि
- m. [joint], elbow; -ka, m. id.
अरत्नि   ar-atn [joint], elbow; -ka, m. id. 

 

p026c3-b12/ p027

अरथिन् [ a-rathin ]
- a. roadless.
अरथिन्   a-rathin roadless.

 

p026c3-b13/ p027

अरन्तोस् [ a-rantos ]
- g. inf. to have no pleasure in.
 अरन्तोस्   a-rantos to have no pleasure in.

 

p026c3-b14/ p027

अरप a-rap, ˚स् [ -s ]
- a. unscathed, safe.
 अरप   -s unscathed, safe.

 

p026c3-b15/ p027

अरम् [ r-am ]
- ad. suitably to (d.); sufficiently: -kmya, according to wish. (Cp. √kri & √bh.)
 अरम्   r-am suitably to (d.); sufficiently: -- kmya, according to wish. (Cp. √kri & √bh.)

 

p026c3-b16/ p027

अरमणीय [ a-ramanya ]
- fp. not delightful.
 अरमणीय   a-ramanya not delightful.

 

p026c3-b17/ p027

अरमति [ ar-mati ]
- f. devotion, piety; goddess of devotion; a. indefatigable.
अरमति   ar-mati devotion, piety; goddess of devotion; a. indefatigable.

 

p026c3-b18

[aramudi]
- m. N. of a king of Nepal

 

p026c3-b19/ p027

अरम्य [ a-ramya ]
- fp. unpleasant, unamiable.
अरम्य   a-ramya unpleasant, unamiable. 

 

p026c3-b20/ p027

अररि [ arari ]
- m. fold of a door; , f. id.
अररि   arari fold of a door; , f. id.

 

p026c3-b21/ p027

अरविन्द [ ara-vinda ]
- n. (day) lotus: -t, f., -tva, n. abst. ɴ., -nbhi, m. Krishna; -vindin, f. (day) lotus.
 अरविन्द   ara-vinda (day) lotus: -t, f., -tva, n. abst. n., -nbhi, m. Krishna; -vindin, f. (day) lotus.

 

p026c3-b22/ p027

अरस [ a-ras ]
- a. tasteless, insipid; weak.
 अरस   a-ras tasteless, insipid; weak.

 

p026c3-b23/ p027

अरसिक [ a-rasika ]
- a. unaesthetic.
 अरसिक   a-rasika unaesthetic. 

 

p026c3-b24/ p027

अरहित [ a-rahita ]
- pp. not abandoned, not wanting.
अरहित   a-rahita not abandoned, not wanting.

 

Contents of this page

{a.ra}

p026c3-b25/ p027

अराग [ a-rg-a ]
- a. lacking passion or affections; -in, a. id.
 अराग   a-rg-a lacking passion or affections; -in, a. id. 

 

p026c3-b26/ p027

अराजक [ a-rg-ka ]
- a. kingless; n. anarchy; -t, f. kinglessness; -daivika, a. not caused by the king or by fate; -lakshman, a. lacking royal insignia; -‿anvayin, a. belonging to no royal race.
 अराजक   a-rg-ka kingless; n. anarchy; -t, f. kinglessness; -daivika, a. not caused by the king or by fate; -lakshman, a. lacking royal insignia; -̮anvayin, a. belonging to no royal race.

 

p026c3-b27

[ar-n]
- pt. aor of √ri

 

p026c3-b28/ p027

अराति [ -rti ]
- f. disfavour, enmity; fiend; m. foe.
अराति   -rti disfavour, enmity; fiend; m. foe.

 

p026c3-b29/ p027

अराम [ a-rma ]
- a. lacking Rma.
 अराम   a-rma lacking Rma.

 

p026c3-b30/ p027

अराल [ arla ]
- a. curved, curly; m. kind of resin.
 अराल   arla curved, curly; m. kind of resin.

 

p026c3-b31/ p027

अरावन् [ -r-van ]
- a. (not bestowing), hostile.
 अरावन्   -r-van (not bestowing), hostile.

(end of old p026-3.htm)

Contents of this page

{a.ri.}

p026c3-b32/ p027

अरि [ ar- ]
- a. 1. faithful, pious; 2. (a-r, not giving) hostile; m. enemy: -karshana, m. harasser of foes.
 अरि   ar- 1. faithful, pious; 2. (a-r, not giving) hostile; m. enemy: -karshana, m. harasser of foes.

 

p026c3-b33/ p027

अरिक्त [ a-rikta ]
- pp. not empty.
अरिक्त   a-rikta not empty.

Contents of this page

 

----- online : 180808 : p026.htm - search for अम्बिका

Contents of this page

UKT notes

Ayanamsa

-- UKT 140726, 160808

See also: Ayanamsa Precession of Equinoxes - by Sri Pidaparti Purna Satya Hariprasad: 
http://pidaparthypanchangam.com/?p=34 140726

I became fascinated with Hindu Astrology in 1967 during a crisis in my career. My mother Daw Hla May, a great believer in astrology, went to see a Burmese astrologer, one Daw Nw of Magol Street in Rangoon. What Daw Nw had told my mother was exactly what was happening to me!

However, since very early teens I had been exposed to astrology by U Khin Maung Thein of Syriam,  a trusted astrological advisor of one of my great-granduncles, U Po Yin of Syriam. U Khin Maung Thein's methods had made me disenchanted with astrology, had made me a socialist. Then my career came to a crisis in 1967. Having nothing else to do I turned my attention to Astrology.

I consulted one of my older friends in Rangoon Institute of Technology, Mathematics department, U Ko Gyi who was noted to be a good astrologer. He worked on my chart, but would not give me a prediction but lend me his book The Hindu Predictive Astrology by B. V. Raman. I studied that book for about a month during school holidays.

I became fascinated with Astakavarga method and was able to give a prediction myself. The trouble is, the horoscope which had to be prepared by U Ko Gyi, did not match with the one I already had.

Since casting a horoscope is just mathematics using the positions of celestial bodies at the instant of my birth, the two should be the same. I tried to find out why they had been different. Then U Ko Gyi lent me the Lahari's ephemeris and the table of ascendants. I bought the Myanmar versions prepared by Brahmin-Poannas of Mandalay - Poanna U Hla Maung and another by Poanna U Bo Htw. I checked with Western ephemeris, and then I knew the reason why. It is all due to different numerical values of {a.ya.na.} which is known as Ayanamsa - a compound of two words {a.ya.na.} ayana and {n-a.} amsa.

I bought other books by B. V. Raman, and also books in Bur-Myan such as Brihat Jataka. I then became confident to pass myself off as a professional astrologer - a lucrative means of earning a living if I were ever to lose my job as a university professor of chemistry. Then I came to know that the foreigners with their American dollars, were very willing to consult me.

Go back ayanamsa-note-b

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Checking vowels by killed-Approximants

UKT 150327, 150702, 160820:

UKT 150301, 150703, 160820: Refer to my note on MC-indx.htm
and re-read
Comparison of Devanagari, IPA, and Myanmar free-vowels
(differentiate from checked-vowels). What you are going to read below is on checked-vowels: the checking being done by killed approximants. I am still uncertain of the pronunciation of :

{ar}, {al}, {au}, {a}, {ah}

I need to look further into both Bur-Myan and Mon-Myan. See:
Grammatical notes and Vocabulary of the Peguan Language, to which are added a few pages of phrases, etc., by Haswell, J.M., ABM Press (American Baptist Mission Press), Rangoon, 1874
- MonMyan-Haswell-gramm-notes-vocab<> / bkp<> (link chk 160809)
Fundamentals of Mon Speech & Script (in Bur-Myan), by Naing Maung Toe, www.monlibrary.com, Yangon, 2007 (Romabama may be applicable in NMT)
- MonMyan-NMgToe-Mon-Bur<> / bkp<> (link chk 160809)

This section is important for studying the vowel-checking by approximants,

{}, {ar}, {al}, {au}, {a}.

A problem in transcription (not transliteration) between Bur-Myan and Eng-Lat is in checking of the vowels by killed-Approximants. I am only sure of Bur-Myan {} (2 blk). With others, {ar}, {al}, {aw}, {a}, I am not sure. I have only a few Bur-Myan words to go by. The problem seems to be an old one as shown by the case of मार् (Mac226c2) which is being pronounced as {maar} /man/ (MLC MED2006-359) as if the spelling had been {mn}. The spelling {maan} (MLC MED2006-256) seems to have been avoided to prevent mistranslation.

My present understanding which might be changed with more study is that the vowel is not changed, but only a "coloring" is added, example:

{ar} --> {aʳ} rhotic 
{aw} --> {au}

Since {wa.} can be mixed up with labio-dental fricative {va.} (which is not even an approximant), and further with bilabial {ba.}, we must be careful with this phoneme. There is a possibility that {aw} does not even exist: it means only a rounding up of the lips, because of which I propose a transcription of {au} .

I have noticed that the Western phoneticians have failed to take note of many of our phonemes. They have missed the c2 consonants such as {hka.}, and c4 consonants such as {Ga.}.

From Pal-Myan point of view, they also missed the deep-H sounds of c4 such as {Ga.}. They have also missed the place of Bur-Myan {a.} (and its killed form {}) which I have determined to be the palatal-approximant, which necessitates moving {ya.} /j/ to the velar-approximant position.

 

I have to come up with new glyphs for the Bur-Myan series:

{.} (1/2 blk);  {} (1 blk);  {:} (2 blk + emphasis)
{:.} (1/2 blk)

The Romabama {:.} is derived from Tamil visarga ஃ (U+0B83). I am avoiding the use of Mon-Myan glyph {?}, which seems to be related to {:} because I am not familiar with Mon-Myan phonology.

Go back check-vow-by-approximants

Contents of this page

Dawei aka Tavoy

- UKT 131020, 140726:

To read about Bur-Myan family life in days soon after the infamous take over of the country by the British in the late 19th century, read Burmese Family (1946, 1962), Bloomington, IN, Indiana University Press, 1962 ; http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mi_Mi_Khaing 131020

Bur-Myan: {hta:w}, or if you would like to be more specific, you include the term for 'town' {hta:w-mro.}. Note {hta.} is changed in pronunciation to {Da.} - a common feature in Bur-Myan speech. 

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dawei 120117

Dawei (Bur-Myan: {hta:w}, Mon-Myan: {Da.w:}) ; formerly known as Tavoy), is a city in southeastern Myanmar and is capital of Tanintharyi Region, formerly Tenasserim Division, situated about 614.3 km (381.7 mi) south of Yangon (Rangoon) on the northern bank of the Dawei River. Population (2004 estimate) 139 900. It is situated at 14.09N 98.20E. Dawei is a port at the head of the Dawei River estuary, 30 km (18.6 mi). from the Andaman Sea. As a result the city is prone to flooding during the monsoon season.

Note: In 1900, Burma was a province of British India, and was divided into two subdivisions: southern Myanmarpr (Lower Burma), whose capital was Rangoon, and northern Myanmarpr (Upper Burma), whose capital was Mandalay. Within Lower Burma were four divisions (Arakan, Irrawaddy, Pegu, Tenasserim). Upper Burma had 6 divisions (Meiktila, Minbu, Sagaing, North Federated Shan States and South Federated Shan States). -- http://www.facebook.com/pages/Administrative-divisions-of-Burma/135313103169957 120117
   I was born in 1934 in Kungyangon Town, Hanthawaddy District, Pegu Division before Burma was partitioned from India. Burma was still part of the Indian Empire, reigned by King George V, the Emperor of India and the King of the United Kingdom. -- UKT120117

UKT: More in Wiki article.

Go back Dawei-note-b

Contents of this page

Palatal plosive-stops and Dental fricatives

- UKT 150702

Pronunciation-wise, there are no Palatal plosive-stops in Skt~Dev and Eng~Lat. There are only Affricates. I have tried to give the pronunciations in IPA alphabet. However, because of the non-phonetic nature of Eng-Lat, my repeated trials ended miserably in failure.

Moreover, because the designers of IPA had been mostly Westerners, they failed to incorporate the tenuis voiceless sounds. To the English speaker-listener, Bur-Myan {sa.} sounds like {hsa.} and {kya.} sounds like {hkya.}. Then we have the problem of the absence of hissing and rhotic sounds in Bur-Myan. I have to introduce new glyphs to handle these problems. The following table on Palatals and Fricatives show a part of the problem.

Palatal:
   row#2 ------ c1 ---------- c2 ---------- c3 --------- c4
   Bur-Myan:  {sa.}/ {c}  {hsa.} --- {za.} --- {Za.}
   Skt-Dev: -- च ca ---- छ cha -- ज ja --- झ jha
   Skt-Myan:  {kya.} --- {hkya.}   {gya.}   {g~ya.}

Dental Fricative: --- husher ---------- hisser -------- thibilant
  Bur-Myan: ----- {sha.}/{sh} -- {Sa.}/{S} --- {a.}/{}
  Skt-Dev: -------- श śa ------------ ष ṣa -------- स sa
  Skt-Myan: ----- {sha.}/{sh} ----- {Sa.}/{S} -- {Sa.}/{S}

Still I have to tackle the labio-dental sounds and the highly rhotic sounds of Skt-Dev, and noticeably rhotic sounds of General American. After all, please remember that in BEPS languages we are attempting to bring the Indo-European language group and Tibeto-Burman language group together. In other words, what I am doing is to bring the West and the East together.

Go back Palatals-Dentals-note-b

Contents of this page

Yeti

- UKT 131020: {nhn: lu-wn}

Excerpts from Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yeti 131020
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yeti 160808

The Yeti or Abominable Snowman , Nepali: हिममानव, lit. "mountain man", is an ape-like cryptid taller than an average human that is said to inhabit the Himalayan region of Nepal and Tibet. [2] [3] The names Yeti and Meh-Teh are commonly used by the people indigenous to the region, [4] and are part of their history and mythology. Stories of the Yeti first emerged as a facet of Western popular culture in the 19th century.

The scientific community generally regards the Yeti as a legend, given the lack of conclusive evidence, [5] but it remains one of the most famous creatures of cryptozoology. Analysis of samples associated with claimed yetis found DNA associated with an ancient hybrid of polar bears.

UKT 160808: "Cryptozoology refers to the search for and study of creatures whose existence has not been validated or accepted by scientific consensus. Cryptozoologists refer to the animals they study as cryptids. This includes living examples of creatures that are otherwise considered extinct, such as non-avian dinosaurs; animals whose existence lacks physical evidence but which appear in folklore, such as Bigfoot ..." - From:
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cryptozoology 160808

Those who are interested in such cryptids should read
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Homo_floresiensis 160808
"Homo floresiensis ("Flores Man"; nicknamed "hobbit" [1] ) is an extinct species widely thought to be in the genus Homo. The remains of an individual that would have stood about 3.5 feet (1.1 m) in height were discovered in 2003 at Liang Bua on the island of Flores in Indonesia. Partial skeletons of nine individuals have been recovered, including one complete skull, referred to as "LB1". [2] [3] ..."
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Homo_floresiensis 160808

In 1832, James Prinsep's Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal published trekker B. H. Hodgson's account of his experiences in northern Nepal. His local guides spotted a tall, bipedal creature covered with long dark hair, which seemed to flee in fear. Hodgson concluded it was an orangutan.

Note: James Prinsep was the person who deciphered the Kharosthi and Brahmi scripts the latter of which the Brahmin-Poanna could not do when they were called on by the Emperor in Muslim-India. See Wikipedia on James Prinsep: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/James_Prinsep 131020

Go back Yeti-note-b

Contents of this page

Yoni

- UKT 120116, 160808

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yoni 120116
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yoni 160808

Yoni {yau:ni.} योनि yoni is the Sanskrit word for the vagina. [1] Its counterpart is the lingam as interpreted by some, the phallus.

"The Lingam liṅgaṃ, also linga, ling , ... meaning sign, symbol or phallus [1] [2]) ..."
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lingam 160808
{lan} - meaning given in Bur-Myan: {n~ga-zaat} "literally meaning external sexual organ"
Dictionary of Pali-derived Myanmar words - UTM-PDMD283

UKT 140727: The inset pix's show an empty vagina and a penis inserted into the vagina. The meaning is clearly "sexual intercourse" but there is no vulgarity in it. It shows the natural process of reproduction - how each of the higher organisms - you and me - had been brought into this world. Remember we, as the higher organisms, are creatures produced by "sexual reproduction". There is "asexual reproduction" in case of single cells and lower organisms. The "sexual reproduction" had been made into a religion by the Hindu religionists and there is no reason why we of the other religions should take a negative attitude towards them.

It is also the divine passage, womb or sacred temple (cf. lila). The word covers a range of meanings, including: place of birth, source, origin, spring, fountain, place of rest, repository, receptacle, seat, abode, home, lair, nest, stable.

In Indian religions

Whenever we say "Indian religion" or "Hindu religions", we should note that there are at least two forms, Vaishnavism and Shaivism, who were mortal enemies until Shaivism became the dominant form in recent times.

In Hinduism, the ancient Indian [Vedic] texts contain the word yoni in various contexts. In Hindu philosophy, according to Tantra, yoni is the origin of life. The yoni is also considered to be an abstract representation of Shakti and Devi, the creative force that moves through the entire universe. [2]

In Indian religions according to Vedas and Bhagavad Gita, Yoni is a form of life or a species. There are 84 lakh (84,00,000) yonis total with Manushya Yoni ( Human form/human species) as one of them. A human (manushya yoni) is obtained on the basis of good karma (deeds) before which a human goes through various forms of yonis (for example, insect, fish, deer, monkey, etc.). Bad karmas will lead one to be born in rakshasha yoni (evil form). The births and rebirths (the cycle of life) of a human happens in various yonis. A human who achieves the enlightenment (Mokshya) breaks the cycle of reincarnation and adjoins Brahma.

Linga-yoni

Sexual intercourse, {lan} inserted into {yau:ni.} shown above is from Shaivism.

The yoni is the creative power of nature and represents the goddess Shakti. The linga stone represents Shiva, and is usually placed in the yoni. The lingam is the transcendental source of all that exists. The linga united with the yoni represents the nonduality of immanent reality and transcendental potentiality.

Worship

In Shaktism the yoni is celebrated and worshipped during the Ambubachi Mela, an annual fertility festival held in June, in Assam, India, which celebrates the Earth's menstruation. [UKT ]

During Ambubachi, the annual menstruation course of the goddess Kamakhya is worshipped in the Kamakhya Temple. The temple stays closed for three days and then reopens to receive pilgrims and worshippers. It is one of the most important pilgrimage sites in the world, attracting millions of visitors each year, particularly for Ambubachi Mela which draws upwards of 100,000 pilgrims per day during the 4-day festival.

Darshan at this temple is performed not by sight as in most temples, but by touch. There is a large cleft, a yoni in the bedrock moistened by water flowing upward from an underground spring, generally covered by cloths and ornate chunris, flowers, and red sindoor powder. Devotees and pilgrims offer items for worship directly to the goddess, then touch her and drink water from the spring. They then receive a tilak and prasad by the attending priest. After completing darshan, devotees light lamps and incense outside the temple. Like other temples, worship is not considered complete until the temple is circumambulated clockwise.

In archeology

Lingam-yonis have been recovered from the archeological sites at Harappa and Mohenjo-daro, part of the Indus Valley Civilization. There is strong evidence to support cultural continuation from the Indus Valley Civilization (Harappan; Indus-Sarasvati) to Vedic and modern Hindu practices. [3]

Other uses: Yoga practice

Yoni Mudra is a principle in meditation used to reduce distraction during the beginning of yoga practice.
In the Thai language the sharp corner of the eye closest to the nose is referred to as "Yoni Tha" where "Tha" means the eye.
Yoni is the vulva in texts such as the Kama Sutra.
A child is born from a yoni of stars - constellations that prevailed during the child birth. The Aryans had identified some 50,000 astrological yonis that favour a child's birth.
The Aryans used the term yoni in agriculture. A 'fertile yoni' meant a good harvest of crops.

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