Update: 2019-06-25 11:07 PM -0400


Practical Sanskrit Dictionary for Buddhists and Hindus


A Practical Sanskrikt Dictionary, by A. A. Macdonell, 1893,
http://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/scans/MDScan/index.php?sfx=jpg; 1929.
- Nataraj ed., 1st in 2006, 2012.
- https://dsal.uchicago.edu/dictionaries/macdonell/ 190516
The Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Grammar and Dictionary, BHS, vol.2, by F. Edgerton, pp. 627.
- FEdgerton-BHSD<> / Bkp<> (link chk 180627)
The Student's Pali English dictionary , by U Pe Maung Tin, 1920.
- (ref: UPMT-PEDxxx).  Downloaded copies in TIL HD-PDF and SD-PDF libraries:
- UPMT-PaliDict1920<> / bkp<> (link chk 190113)
  Pali-Myanmar Dictionary (in Pal-Myan), by U Hoke Sein,
- (ref: UHS-PMD). The dictionary in printed form is in TIL Research Library.
Latin-English Vocabulary II, by Hans H rberg, 1998
- HHOrberg-LinguaLatina<> / Bkp<> (link chk 190624)

Edited by U Kyaw Tun (UKT) (M.S., I.P.S.T., USA), Daw Khin Wutyi, Daw Thuzar Myint, Daw Zinthiri Han and staff of Tun Institute of Learning (TIL). Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone. Prepared for students and staff of TIL  Research Station, Yangon, MYANMAR 
 - http://www.tuninst.net , www.romabama.blogspot.com 

MC-indx.htm | Top

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{a.D~ya.}/* : hanging akshara for and pair
{a.D~ra.}/*   : can be misleading in Mon-Myan

{a.na.} / {n} & {n} : often negative prefix

{a.nn} : {king:si:}



59) अद्््मसद्् (p. 15) adma-sd partaker of the feast, guest.
60) अद्््मन्् (p. 15) d-man food.
66) अधश्््चरणावपात (p. 15) adhas-karana̮avapta prostration at the feet of any one.
162) अधो&100;क्षज (p. 15) adhoƶksha-ga born under an axle; m. N. of Vishnu.
163) अधो&100;क्ष (p. 15) adhoƶksh being below, i. e. not reaching up to, the axle.
164) अधो&100;ंशुक (p. 15) adhoƶmsuka under-garment.
209) अधो&100;वेक्षिन् (p. 15) adhoƶvekshin looking down.
226) अध्वन् (p. 15) dhvan road; journey, wandering; distance; -na, m. traveller.
248) अनतिप्रौx{093c}ढ (p. 15) an-ati-praudha not quite developed.


UKT notes :
Ancient (pre-Christian) Roman religion : {ro:ra nt} worship
Cupid's attempt to make Siva fall in love
  See also Ashtaka festivals or Festival of the Man'es - p019-1.htm (link chk 160606)
Pronunciation of Rimes of row #4
Third Eye - pineal gland


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p010c3-b41/ not online

अधोगत [ adho-gata ]
- pp. gone down; bowing low; -gati, f. going down (+to hell); sinking; a. going downwards, going to hell; -gamana, n. going downwards; -drishti, f. downcast gaze; a. looking down; -nayana, n. bringing down; -nilaya, m. hell; -nivta, pp. wearing the sacred cord low; -bhga, m. lower part; lower part of the body; depth; -mukha, a. () downcast; downward.

अधोभाग adhobhāga
Skt: अधोभाग [adho-bhga] - m. lower part; lower part of the body; depth -- Mac010c3
Skt: अधोभाग adhobhāga - m. base, lowest part (of the body), lower part -- SpkSkt
Pal: {a.Dau:Ba-ga.} - UHS-PMD0049
  UKT from  UHS: m. for lower


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p011c1-b01/ p015-210

अधोऽवेक्षिन् [ adhoxvekshin ]
- a. looking down.
210) अधोगत (p. 15) adho-gata gone down; bowing low; -gati, f. going down (+to hell); sinking; a. going downwards, going to hell; -gamana, n. going downwards; -drishti, f. downcast gaze; a. looking down; -nayana, n. bringing down; -nilaya, m. hell; -nivta, pp. wearing the sacred cord low; -bhga, m. lower part; lower part of the body; depth; -mukha, a. () downcast; downward.


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p011c1-b02/ p015-208

अधौत [ a-dhauta ]
--> {a.Dau-ta.}
Skt: अधौत [a-dhauta] - pp. unwashed. -- Mac011c1
208) अधौत (p. 15) a-dhauta unwashed.
*BPal: {a.dau:ta.}
- - UHS-PMD0049
  UKT from UHS: mfn. not washed, unclean


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{a.D~ya.} / {a.Da.ya.}

p011c1-b03/ p015-207

अध्यंस [ adhi‿amsa ]
= अ ध ् य ं स
- a. lying on the shoulder.
207) अध्यंस (p. 15) adhi̮amsa lying on the shoulder.


p011c1-b04/ p015-206

अध्यक्ष [ dhi‿aksha ]
- a. perceptible; m. eye-witness; overseer, inspector; n. perception.
206) अध्यक्ष (p. 15) dhi̮aksha perceptible; m. eye-witness; overseer, inspector; n. perception.


p011c1-b05/ p015-205

अध्यग्नि [ adhi‿agni ]
- ad. before the fire (esp. at weddings).
205) अध्यग्नि (p. 15) adhi̮agni before the fire (esp. at weddings).


p011c1-b06/ p015-204

अध्यधिक्षेप [ adhi‿adhikshepa ]
- m. unseemly fault-finding.
204) अध्यधिक्षेप (p. 15) adhi̮adhikshepa unseemly fault-finding.


p011c1-b07/ p015-203

अध्यधीन [ adhi‿adhna ]
- a. wholly dependent; m. slave.
203) अध्यधीन (p. 15) adhi̮adhna wholly dependent; m. slave.


p011c1-b08/ p015-202

अध्यध्वम् [ adhi‿adhvam ]
- ad. on the way.
202) अध्यध्वम् (p. 15) adhi̮adhvam on the way.


p011c1-b09/ p015-201

अध्यन्तेन [ adhi‿antna ] (in.)
- ad. close up to (d.).
201) अध्यन्तेन (p. 15) adhi̮antna close up to (d.).


p011c1-b10/ p015-200

अध्ययन [ adhi‿ayana ]
- n. [going to a teacher], study, reading (esp. of sacred books); learning from (ab.); -sampradna, n. guidance in study; -‿dna, n. receiving instruction from (ab.).
200) अध्ययन (p. 15) adhi̮ayana [going to a teacher], study, reading (esp. of sacred books); learning from (ab.); -sampradna, n. guidance in study; -̮dna, n. receiving instruction from (ab.).


p011c1-b11/ p015-199

अध्यर्ध [ dhi‿ardha ]
- a. one and a half.
199) अध्यर्ध (p. 15) dhi̮ardha one and a half.



- n., -sya, m. resolution, steady application


p011c1-b13/ p015-198

अध्यवसायित [ adhi‿ava-syita ]
- pp. firmly resolved.
198) अध्यवसायित (p. 15) adhi̮ava-syita firmly resolved.


p011c1-b14/ p015-197

अध्यवसायिन् [ adhi‿avasyin ]
- a. resolved on (--).
197) अध्यवसायिन् (p. 15) adhi̮avasyin resolved on (--).


p011c1-b15/ p015-196

अध्यवसित [ adhi‿ava-sita ]
- pp. √s.
196) अध्यवसित (p. 15) adhi̮ava-sita √s.


p011c1-b16/ p015-195

अध्याकाशम् [ adhi‿ksam ]
- ad. in the air.
195) अध्याकाशम् (p. 15) adhi̮ksam in the air.


p011c1-b17/ p015-194

अध्याचार [ adhi‿kra ]
- m. sphere, province.
194) अध्याचार (p. 15) adhi̮kra sphere, province.



-- f. kind of plant


p011c1-b19/ p015-193

अध्यात्म [ adhi‿tma ]
- a. peculiar to one's person; n. supreme soul; the soul as agent of an action; -vidy, f. science of the universal soul.
193) अध्यात्म (p. 15) adhi̮tma peculiar to one's person; n. supreme soul; the soul as agent of an action; -vidy, f. science of the universal soul.


p011c1-b20/ p015-192

अध्यापक [ adhypaka ]
- m. teacher.
192) अध्यापक (p. 15) adhypaka teacher.


p011c1-b21/ p015-191

अध्यापन [ adhypana ]
- n. instruction.
191) अध्यापन (p. 15) adhypana instruction.


p011c1-b22/ p015-190

अध्यापय [ adhi‿paya ]
- cs. of adhi+√i, teach.
190) अध्यापय (p. 15) adhi̮paya adhi+√i, teach.


p011c1-b23/ p015-189

अध्याप्य [ adhypya ]
- fp. to be instructed.
189) अध्याप्य (p. 15) adhypya to be instructed.


p011c1-b24/ p015-188

अध्याय [ adhi‿ya ]
- m. reading, study (esp. of sacred books); time suitable for study; chapter.
188) अध्याय (p. 15) adhi̮ya reading, study (esp. of sacred books); time suitable for study; chapter.


p011c1-b25/ p015-161

अध्यारोप [ adhi‿ropa ]
- m., णा -n, f. erroneous predication (ph.).
161) अध्यारोप (p. 15) adhi̮ropa erroneous predication (ph.).


p011c1-b26/ p015-160

अध्यावाहनिक [ adhi‿vhanika ]
- n. property brought with her by a woman from the parental house.
160) अध्यावाहनिक (p. 15) adhi̮vhanika property brought with her by a woman from the parental house.


p011c1-b27/ p015-159

अध्यास [ adhi‿sa ]
- m. placing upon; erroneous predication.
159) अध्यास (p. 15) adhi̮sa placing upon; erroneous predication.


p011c1-b28/ p015-158

अध्यासित [ adhi‿s-ita ]
- (pp.) n. the sitting upon.
158) अध्यासित (p. 15) adhi̮s-ita the sitting upon.


p011c1-b29/ p015-239

अध्यासितव्य [ adhi‿s-itavya ]
- fp. to be undertaken.
239) अध्यासितव्य (p. 15) adhi̮s-itavya to be undertaken.


p011c1-b30/ p015-238

अध्यासिन्् [ adhi‿sin ]
- a. sitting upon.
238) अध्यासिन्् (p. 15) adhi̮sin sitting upon.


p011c1-b31/ p015-237

अध्याहार [ adhi‿hra ]
- m. supplying, supplementing.
237) अध्याहार (p. 15) adhi̮hra supplying, supplementing.


p011c1-b32/ p015-236

अध्याहार्य [ adhi‿hrya ]
- fp. to be supplied.
236) अध्याहार्य (p. 15) adhi̮hrya to be supplied.


p011c1-b33/ p015-235

अध्युरस् [ adhi‿uras ]
- ad. on the breast.
235) अध्युरस् (p. 15) adhi̮uras on the breast.


UKT 150127: The following looks like an orphan entry given by Univ.Chicago.

अध्यूढ [ adhi‿dha ]
= अ ध ् य ू ढ
- pp. (√h) placed upon (lc.).
233) अध्यूढ (p. 15) adhi̮dha (√h) placed upon (lc.). 


p011c1-b34/ p015-234

अध्युषित [ adhi‿ushita ]
- pp. √vas.
234) अध्युषित (p. 15) adhi̮ushita √vas.


p011c1-b35/ p015-232

अध्येतव्य [ adhi‿etavya ]
- fp. to be studied, -read.
232) अध्येतव्य (p. 15) adhi̮etavya to be studied, -- read.


p011c1-b36/ p015-231

अध्येषण [ adhi‿eshana ]
- n. request.
231) अध्येषण (p. 15) adhi̮eshana request.


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p011c1-b37/ p015-229

अध्रि [ -dhri ]
= अ ध ् र ि
- a. irresistible; -gu, a. irresistibly advancing; m. N.
229) अध्रि (p. 15) -dhri irresistible; -gu, a. irresistibly advancing; m. N.


p011c1-b38/ p015-228

अध्रुव [ -dhruva ]
- a. unsteady, transient; uncertain.
228) अध्रुव (p. 15) -dhruva unsteady, transient; uncertain.


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p011c2-b00/ p015-227

अध्वखेद [ adhva-kheda ]
= अ ध ् व ख े द
- m. fatigue of travel; -g, a. travelling; m. traveller; -drsin, m. guide.
227) अध्वखेद (p. 15) adhva-kheda fatigue of travel; -g, a. travelling; m. traveller; -drsin, m. guide.


p011c2-b01/ p015-225

अध्वन् [ dhvan ]
- m. road; journey, wandering; distance; -na, m. traveller.
225) अध्वन्य (p. 15) adhvan-ya traveller, wanderer.


p011c2-b02/ not online

अध्वन्य [ adhvan-ya ]
- m. traveller, wanderer.


p011c2-b03/ p015-224

अध्वप [ adhva-pa ]
- m. guardian of roads.
224) अध्वप (p. 15) adhva-pa guardian of roads.


p011c2-b04/ p015-223

अध्वर [ adhvar ]
- m. religious ceremony, sacrifice, Soma sacrifice.
223) अध्वर (p. 15) adhvar religious ceremony, sacrifice, Soma sacrifice.

UKT 121002: Macdonell gives three meanings for अध्वर adhvara. The first two, 'religious ceremony' & 'sacrifice', are obviously literary meanings, whereas the third, 'Soma sacrifice' is the applied meaning when used by Hindu religionists. In comparing to Pali, I will have to take the literary meanings only, and ignore those relating to a particular religion. 


p011c2-b05/ p015-222

अध्वर्यु [ adhvary ]
- m. priest performing the practical work of the sacrifice; priest versed in the Yagur-veda.
222) अध्वर्यु (p. 15) adhvary priest performing the practical work of the sacrifice; priest versed in the Yagur-veda.


p011c2-b06/ p015-221

अध्वश्रम [ adhva-srama ]
- m. fatigue of travel.
221) अध्वश्रम (p. 15) adhva-srama fatigue of travel.


p011c2-b07/ p015-220

अध्वाधिप [ adhva‿adhipa ]
- m. guardian of roads, i.e. of public peace.
220) अध्वाधिप (p. 15) adhva̮adhipa guardian of roads, i. e. of public peace.


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{a.na.} / {n} & {n}

UKT 130825, 150128, 160604:

{n} / {n} 

UKT 130825: {n} entries are in p017-2.htm .

The nasal of the row#4 {wag}-consonant, न {na.}, is the most readily understood in BEPS languages.
See its comprehensive account in my note on Pronunciation of Rimes of row #4 .

Eng-Lat has only 2 nasals n & m. Bur-Myan has 5+1. The shortage of 3+1 nasals in English is a major obstacle in transcription of Bur-Myan into Engl-Latin.

Mnemonic: The Doggie Tale
Little doggie cringe in fear -- ŋ (velar),
  Seeing Ella's flapping ears -- ɲ (palatal)
  And, the Shepard's hanging rear -- ɳ (retroflex).
Doggie so sad he can't get it out
  What's that Kasha क्ष when there's a Kha ख ?
  And when there's Jana ज्ञ what am I to do with Jha झ?
On top of all there're the husher Sha श /ʃ/, and hisser Ssa ष /s/,
  when I am stuck with Theta स /θ/ !" 
Little Doggie don't be sad,
  You are no worse than a Celtic Gnome
  Losing G in his name, he is just a Nome!

Note: In addition to ŋ (velar), ɲ (palatal), ɳ (retroflex), Bur-Myan has {n} - a nasal without a definite POA, because of which I specify the shortage as 3+1.

The pronunciation of a syllable is effected by both n /n/ and m /m/ in either the onset or coda position. When /n/ occurs in the coda, the syllable ends in an open-lip position, in opposition to /m/ in the coda resulting in close-lip position. In the Irrawaddy-valley dialect of Bur-Myan, i.e. in Yangon & Mandalay accents, the open- and close-lip positions are not observed and the coda is given as /ʔ/ (question-mark without a dot) described as "glottal" ending. However in many other Bur-Myan dialects /n/ and /m/ as closing sounds are clearly audible. The spellings of Romabama syllable show the coda as {a.t}, i.e. the consonant whose intrinsic vowel has been killed by an {a.t} or virama (sometimes shortened to "viram") as it is known in Sanskrit.

When {a.} & {na.} (or its derivatives) occur close together at the beginning of a word, it often behaves as a negation, and the word is pronounced as /ʌn/ as in regular English. However, the transcribed English <an> is NOT always a negation.

p011c2-b08/ not online

अन् [ an ] ii. p.
 n-i-ti , breathe. apa , exhale. abi‿apa , breathe upon. pra , breathe; blow. anu-pra , breathe after. abhi-pra , inhale. vi , sam , breathe. anu-sam , breathe after.


p011c2-b09/ p015-219

अन [ 1. an- ]
- m. breath.
219) अन (p. 15) 1. an- breath.

UKT 150129: It is interesting to note that in Bur-Myan, "odour" as recognized by the nose in the incoming "breath" is known as {a.nn.}.


p011c2-b10/ p015-218

अन [ 2. ana ]
- prn. of 3rd prs. this (in anena, anay, anayoh).
218) अन (p. 15) 2. ana 3rd prs. this (in anena, anay, anayoh).


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p011c2-b11/ p015-217

अनंश [an-amsa]
--> {a.nn-sha.}
Skt: अनंश [an-amsa] - a. portionless. -- Mac011c2
Skt: अनंश anaṃśa -- adj. not entitled to a share in an inheritance (portionless) -- SpkSkt
Skt antonym: अंश aṃsa --> {n-sha.}
Skt antonym: - m. part, share; N. of a god: in. partly. -- Mac001c1
217) अनंश (p. 15) an-amsa portionless.

BPal antonym: {n-a.} - UHS-PMD0001
  UKT from UHS: . m. part, portion, dividend, a period of time. . m. shoulder


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p011c2-b12/ p015-216

अनकाममार [ an-akma-mra ]
= (अ न) (क ा) (म) (म ा) (र) --> {a.na.ka-ma.ma-ra.}
- a. slaying not without approval.
216) अनकाममार (p. 15) an-akma-mra slaying not without approval. 



BPal: {a.nak~ka.ma.}
- UHS-PMD0049
  UKT from UHS: m. untrodden


p011c2-b13/ p015-215

अनक्षर [ an-akshara ]
= (अ) ((न क ्)(ष)) (र) --> {a.nak~Sa.ra.}
Skt: अनक्षर [ an-akshara ] - a. mute: -m, ad. without words. - Mac011c2
215) अनक्षर (p. 15) an-akshara mute: -m, ad. without words.

BPal: {a.nak~hka.}
- - UHS-PMD0049
  UKT from UHS: mfn. free of dice-gambling




अनर्घ anargha
Skt: अनर्घ anargha - adj. priceless - SpkSkt
BPal: {na.nag~Ga.}
- - UHS-PMD0049
  UKT from UHS: mfn. priceless, un-appraisable  


p011c2-b14/ p015-214

अनग्न [ -nagna ]
= अ न ग ् न --> {a.nag~na.}
- a. not naked, not uncovered; -t, f. abst. ɴ.
214) अनग्न (p. 15) -nagna not naked, not uncovered; -t, f. abst. n.


p011c2-b15/ p015-213

अनग्नि [ an-agni ]
- a. without fire; maintaining no fire; -ka, a. without fire; not touched by fire; -dagdha, pp. not burnt with fire; m. pl. a class of Manes.
213) अनग्नि (p. 15) an-agni without fire; maintaining no fire; -ka, a. without fire; not touched by fire; -dagdha, pp. not burnt with fire; m. pl. a class of Manes.

अनग्निदग्ध  anagnidagdha
Skt:  pp. not burnt with fire; m. pl. a class of Ma'nes. -- Macdonell
Skt: adj. not burnt on the funeral pile, not burnt with fire -- SpkSkt

UKT 121003: - Ma'nes are Roman gods who may be equated to Bur-Myan tutelary gods, {ro:ra nt}. See my note on Ancient (pre-Christian) Roman religion


p011c2-b16/ p015-212

अनघ [ an-agha ]
Skt: अनघ [an-agha] - a. sinless, blameless; uninjured. -- Mac011c2
Skt: अनघ anagha - adj. sinless, faultless, uninjured, free from blame, handsome, innocent -- SpkSkt
212) अनघ (p. 15) an-agha sinless, blameless; uninjured.


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{a.nn~} : {king:si:}

UKT 150130: Though Bur-Myan & Pal-Myan speakers can pronounce the {king:si:} {a.nn~} as /a.nɪŋ/, Skt-Dev cannot. They pronounce it as {a.nn} /a'nʌn/. The result is Pal-Myan speakers and Skt-Dev speakers pronounce words like Province of Bengal, River Ganges and Shin Angulimala, differently:
  Angulimala: {n~gu.li.ma-la.}
  Bengal: {bn~ga.la:}
  Ganges: {gn~ga}

p011c2-b17/ p015-211

अनङ्कुरित [ an-aṅkurita ]
= अ न ङ ् क ु र ि त --> {a.nn~ku.ri.ta.}
Skt: अनङ्कुरित [an-aṅkurita] - pp. not grown. -- Mac011c2
211) अनङ्कुरित (p. 15) an-aṅkurita not grown. 


p011c2-b18/ p015-269

अनङ्ग [ an-aṅg ]
= अ नङ् ग --> {a.nn~ga.}
- a. bodiless; m. god Kma [UKT: kāma aka kāma-deva is Cupid.] (so called because reduced to ashes by the fire of Siva's eye); -krd, f. dalliance; -tva, n. bodilessness; -pura, n. N. of a town; -magar, f. N.; -rati, f. N.; -lekh, f. love-letter; N.; -vat, f. N.; -sena, m. N.; -‿udaya, m. N.
269) अनङ्ग (p. 15) an-aṅg bodiless; m. god Kma (so called because reduced to ashes by the fire of Siva's eye); -krd, f. dalliance; -tva, n. bodilessness; -pura, n. N. of a town; -magar, f. N.; -rati, f. N.; -lekh, f. love-letter; N.; -vat, f. N.; -sena, m. N.; -̮udaya, m. N.

अनङ्ग ananga --> {a.nn~ga.}
Skt: a. bodiless; m. god  Kma (so called because reduced to ashes by the fire of Siva's eye) -- Mac011c2
BPal: {a.nn~ga.}
- - UHS-PMD0049
  UKT from UHS: m. Deva-god of Sex-love, Maar-deva.

See my notes on Cupid's attempt to make Siva fall in love.

आनन्द सहर anandapura
= आ न न ् द स ह र
-pura, n. N. of a town; -- p011c2-b17 
UKT: The name Anandapur (called as A+nda+Pur) derives from आनन्द सहर (which in Skt-Dev means the "City of bliss/ ecstasy") - a city (21.21N. 86.11E.) in Orissa, India.
-- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anandapur 130218


p011c2-b19/ p015-268

अनङ्गीकृत [ an-aṅg-krita ]
- pp. not assented to; neglected, ignored.
268) अनङ्गीकृत (p. 15) an-aṅg-krita not assented to; neglected, ignored.


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p011c2-b20/ p015-267

अनडुद्द [ anadud-da ]
- a. giving a bull.
267) अनडुद्द (p. 15) anadud-da giving a bull.


p011c2-b21/ p015-265

अनडुह [ anaduha ]
- m. bull; , f. cow (--).
265) अनडुह (p. 15) anaduha bull; , f. cow (--).



- m. (n.m. -dvấn , wk. st. -dh ) [cart drawing] bull, ox; also a form of abuse

अनड्वाही  anaḍvāhī 
= (अ) (न ड ्) (व ा) (ह ी)
- f. cow -- SpkSkt

अनडुह् anaḍuh
- m. bull -- SpkSkt  [UKT: a neutered ox? - from a term of abuse?]


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p011c2-b23/ p015-264

अनणु [ n-anu ]
- a. not minute, coarse.
264) अनणु (p. 15) n-anu not minute, coarse.


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{a.na.ta.} / {a.na.ti.} अनति

अनति anati
Skt: अनति { अन् } anati - v. move, breath, breathe, go, gasp, live -- SpkSkt
BPal: {a.na.ti.}
- - UHS-PMD0050
  UKT: to smell, to draw in vital air.


{a.nt~ta.} aka अनात्मन्  anātman
= (अ न ा त ्) (म न ्)  --> {a.naat~mn}

UKT 130823: Anatta {a.nt~ti.} is the most important concept in Buddhism in all traditions. And therefore this word is important in Pal-Myan. It is this concept that puts Buddhism and Hinduism at the opposite ends of religious beliefs. See Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anatta 130823

Yet many in Myanmarpr of Indian-Hindu descent claim themselves to be Hindu-Buddhists, largely thanks to the Myanmar Hindu religionists (clerics) who are trying to do their best to integrate themselves into the Bur-Myan culture of present-day Myanmarpr. They, without exception, are fully conversant in Bur-Myan speech, and to a large extent in script as well.

अनत्त anatta
= अ न त ् त
Skt: अनात्मन्  anātman - adj. destitute of spirit or mind, unreal,
  not spiritual, corporeal, another, something different from spirit  or soul -- SpkSkt
BPal: {a.nt~ta.} : UHS is not explicit
- UHS-PMD0051
*BPal: {a.nt~ta.ta} - UHS-PMD0050
  UKT from UHS: {a.nt~ta.ta} -- because it is not "self", because it is "uncontrollable"
{a.nt~ta.}: UHS is not explicit.


p011c2-b24/ p015-263

अनतिकृच्छ्रेण [ an-atikrikkhrena ]
- in. ad. without great hardship.
263) अनतिकृच्छ्रेण (p. 15) an-atikrikkhrena without great hardship. 


p011c2-b25/ p015-262

अनतिक्रम [ an-atikrama ]
- m. non-transgression: -na, n. id.
262) अनतिक्रम (p. 15) an-atikrama non-transgression: -na, n. id.


p011c2-b26/ p015-261

अनतिक्रमणीय [ an-ati-kramanya ]
- fp. unavoidable; not to be infringed, not to be neglected, inviolable.
261) अनतिक्रमणीय (p. 15) an-ati-kramanya unavoidable; not to be infringed, not to be neglected, inviolable.


p011c2-b27/ p015-260

अनतिक्रामत् [ an-ati-krmat ]
- pr. pt. not transgressing.
260) अनतिक्रामत् (p. 15) an-ati-krmat not transgressing.


p011c2-b28/ p015-259

अनतिक्रुद्ध [ an-ati-kruddha ]
- pp. not excessively indignant at (g.).
259) अनतिक्रुद्ध (p. 15) an-ati-kruddha not excessively indignant at (g.).


p011c2-b29/ p015-258

अनतिथि [ an-atithi ]
- m. not a guest.
258) अनतिथि (p. 15) an-atithi not a guest.


p011c2-b30/ p015-257

अनतित्रस्नु [ an-ati-trasnu ]
- a. not very timorous.
257) अनतित्रस्नु (p. 15) an-ati-trasnu not very timorous.

timorous adj. . Full of apprehensiveness; timid. See note at timid . -- AHTD


p011c2-b31/ p015-256

अनतिदग्ध [ n-ati-dagdha ]
- pp. not quite burnt up.
256) अनतिदग्ध (p. 15) n-ati-dagdha not quite burnt up.


p011c2-b32/ p015-255

अनतिदर्शन [ an-atidarsana ]
- n. infrequent showing.
255) अनतिदर्शन (p. 15) an-atidarsana infrequent showing.


p011c2-b33/ p015-254

अनतिदूरे [ an-ati-dre ]
- lc. ad. not too far.
254) अनतिदूरे (p. 15) an-ati-dre not too far.


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p011c3-b00/ p015-253

अनतिद्भुत [ n-atidbhuta ]
= अ न त ि द ् भ ु त  
Skt: अनतिद्भुत [n-atidbhuta] - a. unsurpassed
Skt: अनतिद्भुत  anatidbhuta - adj. unsurpassed  -- SpkSkt
253) अनतिद्भुत (p. 15) n-atidbhuta unsurpassed.


p011c3-b01/ p015-252

अनतिपक्व [ an-ati-pakva ]
- a. not very mature.
252) अनतिपक्व (p. 15) an-ati-pakva not very mature.


p011c3-b02/ p015-251

अनतिपात्य anatipātya [an-ati-ptya] 
= (अ न त ि) (प ा त ् य) = (अनति) (पात्य)
--> {a.na.ti. pa-t~ya.} 
Skt: अनतिपात्य [an-ati-ptya] - fp. not to be neglected. -- Mac011c3
Skt antonym: अतिपात्य atipātya - adj. to be neglected, to be passed over -- SpkSkt
251) अनतिपात्य (p. 15) an-ati-ptya not to be neglected.

*BPal antonym: {a.ti.pa-ta.}
- - UHS-PMD0031
  UKT from UHS: m. passed over, jumped over


p011c3-b03/ p015-250

अनतिपीडम् [ an-ati-pdam ]
- ad. with gentle pressure.
250) अनतिपीडम् (p. 15) an-ati-pdam with gentle pressure.


p011c3-b04/ p015-249

अनतिप्रकाशक [ an-ati-praksaka ]
- a. not highly illuminative; -tva, n. abst. ɴ.
249) अनतिप्रकाशक (p. 15) an-ati-praksaka not highly illuminative; -tva, n. abst. n.


p011c3-b05/ not online

अनतिपढ [ an-ati-praudha ]
- pp. not quite developed.


p011c3-b06/ p015-247

अनतिभङ्गुर [ an-ati-bhaṅgura ]
- a. not very curly.
247) अनतिभङ्गुर (p. 15) an-ati-bhaṅgura not very curly.


p011c3-b07/ p015-246

अनतिभोग [ an-atibhoga ]
- m. moderate use.
246) अनतिभोग (p. 15) an-atibhoga moderate use. 


p011c3-b08/ p015-245

अनतिरिक्त [ an-ati-rikta ]
- pp. not excessive
245) अनतिरिक्त (p. 15) an-ati-rikta not excessive. 


p011c3-b09/ p015-244

अनतिलम्बिन् [ an-atilambin ]
- a. not hanging down very far.
244) अनतिलम्बिन् (p. 15) an-atilambin not hanging down very far.


p011c3-b10/ p015-243

अनतिलुलित [ an-ati-lulita ]
- pp. gently touched.
243) अनतिलुलित (p. 15) an-ati-lulita gently touched.


p011c3-b11/ p015-242

अनतिलोलम् [ an-atilolam ]
- ad. not too rapidly.
242) अनतिलोलम् (p. 15) an-atilolam not too rapidly.


p011c3-b12/ p015-241

अनतिवलित [ an-ati-valita ]
- pp. not very rounded (belly).
241) अनतिवलित (p. 15) an-ati-valita not very rounded (belly).


p011c3-b13/ p015-240

अनतिशयनीय [ an-ati-sayanya ]
- fp. unsurpassable.
240) अनतिशयनीय (p. 15) an-ati-sayanya unsurpassable.


p011c3-b14/ p015-296

अनतीत [ an-ati‿ita ]
- pp. not past.
296) अनतीत (p. 15) an-ati̮ita not past.


p011c3-b15/ p015-295

अनत्यार्द्र [ an-ati‿rdra ]
- a. not too wet.
295) अनत्यार्द्र (p. 15) an-ati̮rdra not too wet.


p011c3-b16/ p015-294

अनत्याश [ an-ati‿sa ]
- m. moderation in eating.
294) अनत्याश (p. 15) an-ati̮sa moderation in eating.


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p011c3-b17/ p015-293

अनदत् [ an-ad-at ]
- pr. pt. not eating, not consuming.
293) अनदत् (p. 15) an-ad-at not eating, not consuming.


p011c3-b18/ p015-292

अनद्भुत [ an-adbhuta ]
- a. not wonderful; n. no wonder.
292) अनद्भुत (p. 15) an-adbhuta not wonderful; n. no wonder.


p011c3-b19/ p015-291

अनद्यतन [ an-adya-tana ]
= अ न द ् य त न
- m. not to-day; not the same day; a. not containing to-day.
291) अनद्यतन (p. 15) an-adya-tana not to-day; not the same day; a. not containing to-day. 


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p011c3-b20/ p015-290

अनधिकृत [ an-adhi-krita ]
- pp. not made a subject of discussion; -tva, n. abst. n.
290) अनधिकृत (p. 15) an-adhi-krita not made a subject of discussion; -tva, n. abst. n.


p011c3-b21/ p015-289

अनधिगत [ an-adhi-gata ]
- pp. not reached, unattained; unread.
289) अनधिगत (p. 15) an-adhi-gata not reached, unattained; unread.


p011c3-b22/ p015-288

अनधिगमनीय [ an-adhi-gamanya ]
- fp. not attainable by (g.).
288) अनधिगमनीय (p. 15) an-adhi-gamanya not attainable by (g.). 


p011c3-b23/ p015-287

अनधिष्ठान [ an-adhishthna ]
- n. absence.
287) अनधिष्ठान (p. 15) an-adhishthna absence.


p011c3-b24/ p015-286

अनध्यक्ष [ an-adhyaksha ]
- a. not perceptible.
286) अनध्यक्ष (p. 15) an-adhyaksha not perceptible. 


p011c3-b25/ p015-285

अनध्ययन [ an-adhyayana ]
- n. neglect of study.
285) अनध्ययन (p. 15) an-adhyayana neglect of study.


p011c3-b26/ p015-284

अनध्यात्मविद् [ an-adhytma-vid ]
- a. not knowing the supreme soul.
284) अनध्यात्मविद् (p. 15) an-adhytma-vid not knowing the supreme soul.


p011c3-b27/ p015-283

अनध्याय [ an-adhyya ]
- m. prohibition of study; adjournment of study.
283) अनध्याय (p. 15) an-adhyya prohibition of study; adjournment of study.


p011c3-b28/ p015-282

अनध्यायिन् [ an-adhyyin ]
- a. not studying.
282) अनध्यायिन् (p. 15) an-adhyyin not studying.


p011c3-b29/ p015-281

अनध्वन्य [ an-adhvanya ]
= अ न ध ् व न ् य
- a. not versed in (lc.).
281) अनध्वन्य (p. 15) an-adhvanya not versed in (lc.).


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p011c3-b30/ p015-280

अननुकम्पनीय [ an-anu-kampanya ]
- fp. not to be pitied.
280) अननुकम्पनीय (p. 15) an-anu-kampanya not to be pitied.


p011c3-b31/ p015-279

अननुकूल [ an-anukla ]
- a. unfavourable.
279) अननुकूल (p. 15) an-anukla unfavourable. 


p011c3-b32/ p015-278

अननुज्ञात [ an-anu-gta ]
- pp. unpermitted.
278) अननुज्ञात (p. 15) an-anu-gta unpermitted.


p011c3-b33/ p015-277

अननुतिष्ठत् [ an-anu-tishth-at ]
- pr. pt. not carrying out, not performing.
277) अननुतिष्ठत् (p. 15) an-anu-tishth-at not carrying out, not performing. 


p011c3-b34/ p015-276

अननुध्यायिन् [ n-anudhyyin ]
- a. missing nothing.
276) अननुध्यायिन् (p. 15) n-anudhyyin missing nothing.


p011c3-b35/ p015-275

अननुभावक [ an-anubhvaka ]
- a. unintelligible; -t, f. -ness.
275) अननुभावक (p. 15) an-anubhvaka unintelligible; -t, f. -ness.


p011c3-b36/ p015-274

अननुभूत [ an-anu-bhta ]
- pp. not experienced.
274) अननुभूत (p. 15) an-anu-bhta not experienced.


p011c3-b37/ p015-273

अननुमेय [ an-anu-meya ]
- fp. not to be inferred.
273) अननुमेय (p. 15) an-anu-meya not to be inferred. 


p011c3-b38/ p015-272

अननुरूप [ an-anurpa ]
- a. unsuitable.
272) अननुरूप (p. 15) an-anurpa unsuitable. 


p011c3-b39/ p015-271

अननुवृत्ति [ n-anuvritti ]
- f. disobedience towards (g.).
271) अननुवृत्ति (p. 15) n-anuvritti disobedience towards (g.).


p011c3-b40/ p015-270

अननुव्रत [ n-anuvrata ]
- a. not devoted, disobedient.
270) अननुव्रत (p. 15) n-anuvrata not devoted, disobedient.



- a. not executing; -tva, n. non-performance

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UKT notes

Ancient (pre-Christian) Roman religion

-- UKT 121003, 130219

Religious tolerance was rooted in ancient religions. It is only the Abrahamic religions -- Judaism, Christianity, and Islam -- that are intolerant of the beliefs of others. Because of their self-assurance, in spite of the scientific discoveries in the days of deep space travel, that these "modern" religions are still trying to impose their beliefs on others. Read the story of Hypatia of Alexandria, a female Greek philosopher and mathematician who was lynched by a Christian mob at the instigation of the Church.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hypatia_of_Alexandria 130219 

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Religion_in_ancient_Rome 121003

Religion in ancient Rome encompasses the practices and beliefs the ancient Romans regarded as their own, as well as the many cults imported to Rome or practiced by peoples under Roman rule.

The Romans thought of themselves as highly religious, and attributed their success as a world power to their collective piety (pietas) in maintaining good relations with the gods. [UKT ]

UKT 160605 - From http://global.britannica.com/topic/Pietas 160605
"Pietas ,in Roman religion, personification of a respectful and faithful attachment to gods, country, and relatives, especially parents. Pietas had a temple at Rome, dedicated in 181 bc, and was often represented on coins as a female figure carrying a palm branch and a sceptre or as a matron casting incense upon an altar, sometimes accompanied by a stork, the symbol of filial piety."
   The word, Pieta, may be equated to the Bur-Myan {prait~ta} who have been guardians such as parents who had looked after their progeny in life and even after death as disembodied spirits. As such they expect their progeny to remember them and offered their choice food, such a from a new harvest. However, when the progeny of a particular ancestral guardian failed in their expected duty, the poor {prait~ta} had to starve. Then it started to play havoc on those who have forgotten it. As such it becomes a "Hungry Ghost" of the Chinese legends. They should be fed even by those who are not genetically related to them. Theravada Buddhists of Myanmarpr, look kindly on such hungry ghosts and do meritorious deeds for them to set them free.

UKT 121003, 160605: The word "god" or "God" is best translated in the light of Theravada Buddhism as Deva {d-wa.}. The Bur-Myan word {Bu.ra:} is not applicable to the Eng-Lat <god> or <God>. Even the Hindu-religionist Maha-Brahma {Brah-ma} is a {d-wa.} because he has a wife. Theravada Buddhism prides itself as a philosophy which does not accept the idea of Creation, nor, the idea of a Universal King handing out judgments on humans and forgiving their "Sins" if properly atoned.

According to legendary history, most of Rome's religious institutions could be traced to its founders, particularly Numa Pompilius, the Sabine second king of Rome, who negotiated directly with the gods, {d-va.}. This archaic religion was the foundation of the mos maiorum, "the way of the ancestors" or simply "tradition", viewed as central to Roman identity.

The priesthoods of public religion were held by members of the elite classes. There was no principle analogous to "separation of church and state" in ancient Rome. During the Roman Republic (509 BC27 BC), the same men who were elected public officials served as augurs and pontiffs. [UKT ]

Priests married, raised families, and led politically active lives. Julius Caesar became Pontifex Maximus before he was elected consul. The augurs read the will of the gods and supervised the marking of boundaries as a reflection of universal order, thus sanctioning Roman expansionism as a matter of divine destiny. [UKT ]

UKT 121003: How like the European conquistadors who expanded into the Americas, and the British, the French, the Portuguese, and the Spanish who expanded into our parts of the world -- Asia and Australia. The policy of the Romans were no less worse than those of the Colonialists of the modern days. The Ancient Romans were probably far modern than the present day bigots because of their religious tolerance.

The Roman triumph was at its core a religious procession in which the victorious general displayed his piety and his willingness to serve the public good by dedicating a portion of his spoils to the gods, especially Jupiter, who embodied just rule. As a result of the Punic Wars (264146 BC), when Rome struggled to establish itself as a dominant power, many new temples were built by magistrates in fulfillment of a vow to a deity for assuring their military success.

Roman religion was thus practical and contractual, based on the principle of do ut des, "I give that you might give." Religion depended on knowledge and the correct practice of prayer, ritual, and sacrifice, not on faith or dogma, although Latin literature preserves learned speculation on the nature of the divine [encompassing both God & Devil (Christianity), or Deva & Asura (Hinduism)] and its relation to human affairs. Even the most skeptical among Rome's intellectual elite such as Cicero, who was an augur, saw religion as a source of social order.

For ordinary Romans, religion was a part of daily life. [1] Each home had a household shrine at which prayers and libations to the family's domestic deities were offered. [UKT ]

UKT 121003: Compare with the Hindu sacrifices of offerings of milk, butter, fruits, etc., and the Bur-Myan Buddhist offerings to the house-hold Buddha image and to the Nats.

Neighborhood shrines and sacred places such as springs and groves dotted the city. Apuleius described the everyday quality of religion in observing how people who passed a cult place might make a vow or a fruit offering, or merely sit for a while. [2] [UKT ]

The Roman calendar was structured around religious observances. In the Imperial era, as many as 135 days of the year were devoted to religious festivals and games ( ludi). [3] Women, slaves, and children all participated in a range of religious activities. Some public rituals could be conducted only by women, and women formed what is perhaps Rome's most famous priesthood, the state-supported Vestal Virgins, who tended Rome's sacred hearth for centuries, until disbanded under Christian domination.

UKT 121003: Compare with the Hindu Luni-Solar calendar and the Bur-Myan Buddhist Luni-Solar calendar.

The Romans are known for the great number of deities they honored , a capacity that earned the mockery of early Christian polemicists. [4] The presence of Greeks on the Italian peninsula from the beginning of the historical period influenced Roman culture, introducing some religious practices that became as fundamental as the cult of Apollo. [UKT ]

UKT121003: Compare with the prayers to the Blessed Virgin and the Saints of the Christian Catholics, the prayers to Suriya or Sun-god of Hindus, and the reciting of the Peacock Sutta in the mornings and evenings, which I as a child going to a village-school in Kyaik'htaw village, Hanthawaddy District, Lower Burma, had to do.

It may be said that the Gayatri Mantra in Skt-Dev, the "Hindu equivalent"
- bk-cndl-gayatri<)) (link chk 160605)
of the Hindus and the Peacock Sutta are equivalents.

The Romans looked for common ground between their major gods and those of the Greeks, adapting Greek myths and iconography for Latin literature and Roman art. Etruscan religion was also a major influence, particularly on the practice of augury, since Rome had once been ruled by Etruscan kings.

Imported mystery religions, which offered initiates salvation in the afterlife, were a matter of personal choice for an individual, practiced in addition to carrying on one's family rites and participating in public religion. The mysteries, however, involved exclusive oaths and secrecy, conditions that conservative Romans viewed with suspicion as characteristic of "magic", conspiracy (coniuratio), and subversive activity. Sporadic and sometimes brutal attempts were made to suppress religionists who seemed to threaten traditional morality and unity, as with the [Roman] senate's efforts to restrict the Bacchanals in 186 BC.

UKT 121003. The practices of the Ancient Romans should be compared to those of Folk Elements of Burmese Buddhism in Dr. Htin Aung's excellent work. I have gone over it and had added my own notes based on my own experiences with the Nat worship, {waiz~za} beliefs, and, Alchemy and Casting of the Runes:
See: Cult of Magus in Folk Elements in Buddhism
-- flk-ele-indx.htm > ch05-magus.htm (link chk 140716)

As the Romans extended their dominance throughout the Mediterranean world, their policy in general was to absorb the deities and cults of other peoples rather than try to eradicate them, [5] since they believed that preserving tradition promoted social stability. [6] [UKT ]

One way that Rome incorporated diverse peoples was by supporting their religious heritage, building temples to local deities that framed their theology within the hierarchy of Roman religion. Inscriptions throughout the Empire record the side-by-side worship of local and Roman deities, including dedications made by Romans to local gods. [7] [UKT ]

By the height of the Empire, numerous international deities were cultivated at Rome and had been carried to even the most remote provinces, among them Cybele, Isis, Epona, and gods of solar monism such as Mithras and Sol Invictus, found as far north as Roman Britain. Because Romans had never been obligated to cultivate one god or one cult only, religious tolerance was not an issue in the sense that it is for competing monotheistic systems. [8] [UKT ]

The monotheistic rigor of Judaism posed difficulties for Roman policy that led at times to compromise and the granting of special exemptions, but sometimes to intractable conflict.

UKT 140716: To understand the present state of various Islamic traditions in the world today, all we have to do is to change the phrase "the monotheistic rigor of Judaism" to "... of Islam".

In the wake of the Republic's collapse, state religion had adapted to support the new regime of the emperors. Augustus, the first Roman emperor, justified the novelty of one-man rule with a vast program of religious revivalism and reform. Public vows formerly made for the security of the republic now were directed at the wellbeing of the emperor. So-called "emperor worship" expanded on a grand scale the traditional Roman veneration of the ancestral dead and of the Genius, the divine tutelary {ro:ra nt}, of every individual. [UKT ]

UKT 121003: Tutelary gods, {ro:ra nt}, may be prayed to by ordinary people, or controlled by Left-Hand {waiz~za} adapts with the help of Runes {n:}. Depending on the type of the {ro:ra nt}, they can be told to do Poltergeist attacks or even murders.

Longtime ago, thanks to my childhood-friend Dr. Nyunt Win, who later became a Chemistry professor at Yangon Arts & Science University, I read about the Buddhist Saint Milarepa (c. 1052 c. 1135 CE), a former LeftHand adapt turned Buddhist - who used his {ro:ra nt}'s to kill a whole family of those who had hurt him. See: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Milarepa 140616 

Imperial cult became one of the major ways Rome advertised its presence in the provinces and cultivated shared cultural identity and loyalty throughout the Empire. Rejection of the state religion was tantamount to treason. [UKT ]

UKT 140716: Two geographical neighbours of Myanmarpr with state religions are Bangladesh and Malaysia. The religion is Islam of Sunni tradition. Burma (now Myanmarpr) under Prime minister U Nu administration had declared Buddhism of Theravada tradition to be its state religion in early 1960s. The interactions of State (politicians) and Religion (religionists) in Myanmarpr has effected the personal lives of many to this day. See:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/U_Nu (140716)
"On 29 August 1961, Parliament passed the State Religion Promotion Act of 1961, initiated by U Nu himself. [9] This act made Buddhism the official state religion of the country, one of his election campaign promises as well as instated the Buddhist lunar calendar by official observance of the so-called Buddhist sabbath days, or Uposatha, in lieu of the Christian Sabbath day, Sunday."
http://en.wikipedia..../Religion...Malaysia  (140716)
http://en.wikipedia..../Religion...Bangladesh (140716)

This was the context for Rome's conflict with Christianity, which Romans variously regarded as a form of atheism and novel superstitio.

From the 2nd century onward, the Church Fathers [the Roman Catholics] began to condemn the diverse religions practiced throughout the Empire collectively as "pagan." [9] In the early 4th century, Constantine I became the first emperor to convert to Christianity, launching the era of Christian hegemony. The emperor Julian made a short-lived attempt to revive traditional and Hellenistic religion and to affirm the special status of Judaism, but in 391 under Theodosius I Christianity became the official state religion of Rome, to the exclusion of all others. Pleas for religious tolerance from traditionalists such as the senator Symmachus (d. 402) were rejected, and Christian monotheism became a feature of Imperial domination. Heretics as well as non-Christians were subject to exclusion from public life or persecution, but Rome's original religious hierarchy and many aspects of its ritual influenced Christian forms, [10] and many pre-Christian beliefs and practices survived in Christian festivals and local traditions.

UKT: More in the extensive Wikipedia article.

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Cupid's attempt to make Siva fall in love
(or have sex) to procreate

-- UKT 110725, 130824, 140711, 160604

I have used the name of the Western "God of Love" in place of his Eastern counter-part to show the similarity between two folk cultures. [I look on Christianity and Islam, and later Buddhism particularly the Mahayana to be relatively modern, developed by respective religionists to promote their religion.] Another similarity is the idea of the Third Eye - pineal gland .

Another reason why I've used the name of the Western God of Love (Sex) in place of kāma-deva {ka-ma. d-wa.} is because the word kāma usually got mixed up with the Pal-Myan {km~ma.} (UHS-PMD0294) loosely translated as 'fate' or Bur-Myan {kn} (MED2010-0120).

UKT 110725: Looking at these composite animals should not make you think that there were really such animals. Remember the artist was just showing off his imagination - he wasn't going for reality. This you must remember in looking at figures and images in Myanmar pagodas and temples. -

Another mix-up is due to U Hoke Sein.
Pal: {a.nn~ga.}
- - UHS-PMD0049
  UKT from UHS: m. Deva-god of Sex-love, Maar-deva.

UKT 130305: The inclusion of Maar-deva as meaning for Kma-deva by UHS is interesting.

Maar-deva resides in the highest dva-worlds (Buddhist cosmology) which is above the kingdom of Sakka. He is all for beings staying in the Samsara - the various worlds of Eat-Sleep-Sex. Because Shiva was practicing austerities and leading a sexless-life, it would be in the interest of somebody like Maar to distract him. Maybe, that is the reason why Kma-deva has been equated to Maar by UHS.

Note: Skt-Dev {kn:si:} changes {ning~}/{nn} into {nn~} can be misleading in Romabama. Keeping this mind I looked for a town mentioned above, and have came up with:

आनन्द सहर anandapura
= आ न न ् द स ह र
-pura, n. N. of a town; -- p011c2-b17 
UKT: The name Anandapur (called as A+nda+Pur) derives from आनन्द सहर (which in Sanskrit means the "City of bliss/ ecstasy") - a city (21.21N. 86.11E.) in Orissa, India. -- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anandapur 130218
UKT: aks-to-aks gives {a-nn~da. a.ha.ra.}.

UKT 130824: to be continued after resolving the entry on UTM Pali-derived words dictionary, p241

Excerpt from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rati...Kama...death-and-resurrection 110725
Note: Rati (रति {ra.ti.}) is the female counterpart of Cupid.

The demon Tarakasura [ तारकासुर  or Taraka  तारक = तारक ] had created havoc in the universe, and only the son of Deva-god Shiva could slay him, but Shiva had turned to ascetic ways after the death of his first wife, Sati or Shakti.  [UKT ]

UKT: Read the story of Sati or Shakti - the Mother Goddess. Can it be interpreted as the collision of two cultures: of Southern India, and of North-eastern India (including North-central India and extending into northern Myanmarpr)? If we are to include the culture of North-western India, then it becomes the collision of three cultures. The story and others related to it are told in many websites, such as:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Daksha 110811
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shakti 110811
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kali 110811
http://www.mahashivratri.org/mahashivaratri-legends.html - 110811

My conjecture, just pure conjecture which you may call a day dream, is based on the well-known fact that the Bur-Myanmar culture is feminine (where we place our women on a high footing) compared to that of India (and Europe) where masculinity is supreme.

In Myanmarpr, when we see a wife being controlled, especially financially, by her husband we dub her derogatorily as a {ku.la: ma.ya:} 'the Indian-wife'. In Myanmarpr, you see mostly women in the bazaar where they are engaged in active trading - the men are there mostly to carry heavy loads. This has been noticed by the Europeans when they arrived in Myanmarpr (then spelled Burma) in the 19th century.

We call our country the "Motherland" {a.mi.neing-ngn} -- not the "Fatherland"! The Bur-Myan wife controls her husband by worshipping him as the Lord of the House {ain-U: nt} - and places him in the shrine room! She controls the finances - the kitchen. She decides how to bring the children up - the school they are going to. She expects her husband to go out into the world just to fetch wealth and to protect the household - nothing more.

Ancient people are more prone to be Mother-goddess worshipers. They see a Mother-goddess in many things. The following is an except from Goddesses in Ancient India by P. K. Agrawla, Bennaras Hindu Univ., Abhinav Publications, 1st. ed. 1984, pp.145

(Note: I bought this book from Amazon in Canada on 2013Oct18 - Cd$19.59. A well referenced book, each chapter has its own references. There are 5 chapters, and an example of a reference in the following excerpt which I have marked as (ref 4.606) is from chapter 4 with ref. 606. Looking into the list at the end of chapter 4  shows that it is from Vedic Index, Vol. II, p.157).

UKT 160607: Lately I have come to realized that, it is not only the ancient peoples but modern inhabitants of the India and Myanmarpr are prone to create "Mothers" to worship and pray to in times of stress and danger.


Ashṭakā, Ekāshṭakā Personifications

Besides such personified lunar phases and the asterisms, we also find a tendency to deify similarly an auspiciously held day or some significant occasion. Of them Ashṭakā (or Ekāshṭakā) and Shashṭhī are the prominent ones and often appear as personified goddesses.

In AV III, 10.1-13 a goddess by the name Ashṭakā or Ekāshṭakā has been celebrated. According to the commentators this particular Eighth Day or Ekāshṭakā was the eight day after the full moon of Māgha, and as it marked the end of the year, or the beginning of the new year, the day was held in particular reverence. (ref 4.606) [UKT ]

UKT 140717: Full-Moon of Māgha (Hind-Dev माघ maagh) known as {ta.po.tw: la.pr.} for the year 2014 falls on Feb 14. For the year 2013 it falls on Feb 25.
- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Magha_Puja 140717
It was my birthday - at the exact time of birth at early dawn, the Moon was just a few degrees short of fullness. Because of which I have the full blessing of Goddess Sarasati - the Goddess of Knowledge and was predicted to be a life-long teacher ever in search of knowledge. Even at age 80, I still thirst for knowledge.

An Ashṭakā or this 'sole Ashṭakā' was the eighth day after the full moon is clearly shown by the Atharvaveda. (ref 4.607) In the hymn dedicated to her praise this night is likened to a cow and addressed as the consort of the Year (saṁvatsarasya painī). (ref 4.608) She is asked to grant abundant happiness, children, wealth, cattle and the favour of the gods. Above all, she is lauded as the mother of Indra and Soma, and the daughter of Prajāpati. (ref. 4.609) She is said to have brought forth hear babe, the mighty and illustrious Indra, with whom the gods could subdue their adversaries and who killed in his might the Dasyus or Asuras. (ref 4.610)

The Taittirīya Saṁhitā tells us that the Ekāshṭakā is the wife of the year, and on his night he dwells with her. (ref 4.611) In the Mantra Brāhmaṇa  she is addressed as Night, the wife or counterpart of the year. (ref 4.612) Elsewhere she is equated with this earth (ref 4.613) and said to be sacred to Prajāpati. (ref 4.614)

From the Tāṇdya Brāhmaṇa we know of a tradition according to which the twelve Ekāshṭakās is (properly Ashṭakās, each eighth day following a full-moon day) had come to be believed as sacred. (ref 4.615) On the same lines Grbyasūtras appear to enjoin more than one such day, i.e, three or even four Ashṭakās. (ref 4.616) But the Ashṭakā par excellence or Ekāshṭakā seems to be held in special reverence and was celebrated in the month of Māgha. [UKT ]

V.M Apte has termed it as 'the middle Ashṭakā', of which the sacrifice of a cow or an animal (goat) was a district feature. (ref 4.617) As noted by Keith, "A very odd rite is prescribed by the Mānava school (VOJ IV.211; MGS ii.9.1-3), for the evening before the last Astaka: at the cross-roads the sacrificer kills a cow, dismembers it, and divides the flesh among the passers by. (ref 4.618) It is interesting to note that in the Anvāshṭakya ceremony, or the rites following the Ashṭakā, the "Mothers" were offered their sacrificial share along with the Fathers, Agni and Soma, and they received particularly wine (surā) and the scum of boiled rice. (ref 4.619)

Somewhat similar to Ashṭakā is the personification of the full-moon night of the month of Margasirsha under the name Āgrahāyaṇī . (ref 4.620) It is in fact the full moon day which comes in the beginning of the year, and the festival on this occasion seems to make use of some of the mantras that were recited on the Ashṭakā festivals (i.e. AV III. 10.2-6: Taitt. Saṁ

Ratrī the Night

(p108 contd)
More or less of the same type is the personification of Night, Rātrī, who seems to be hailed in one complete hymn as early as the Ṛgveda. (ref 4.622)   She is called (p109end


We see this idea extended to the Lord of the Country - the king. We worship him, and it is his duty to protect us from the enemies. As for the control of finances, and education, etc., it is the job of the population. It is enshrined in the teachings of the Buddha himself.

I think it is based on the ancient worship of the Mdaw {m-tau}. The ancient Pyus had images of Mother Goddess, and many households in present-day Yangon have a shrine to the Nankareing {nn-ka.reing: m-tau}. Refer to Myanmar Traditional Nat History - by U Htw Han and U Ba Nyunt, Rangoon, 1981, p.162 .

I have come to notice the strange likeness of god or goddess of the lost Harappan culture to our Mother Goddess Nankareing, especially because of the fish in her hands. The fish symbol was also important in the Harappan culture.

The story of Sati probably reflects the episode of the Southern Indians (worshippers of Siva - the Dravidian speakers - "Pre-Hindus") coming into contact with the Northern Indians (worshippers of Shakti - the Triple Mother Goddess of the Tib-Bur - "Pre-Buddhists") much to the anger of the Tib-Bur population personified by Himalaya (the father of Shakti - Daksha). It probably results in Rhotacism [reverse: Lalation (?)] : changing of /l/ to /r/ in the common language. Many Vedic words becoming difficult for the speakers. It probably tells the about the split of Vedic and Classical Sanskrit codified by Panini. - UKT110811

Deva-god Kama was thus instructed by the Deva-gods to make the Deva-god Shiva fall in love again [and have sex for procreation]. Kama went to Mount Kailash {k-la-a. taung} with Rati and Madhu or Vasanta ("Spring"), [UKT ]

UKT 130305: Mt. Kailalsh in Tibet has a namesake {k-la-a. taung} in the Mon State, Myanmarpr.

[Karma] ... shot his love-arrows at Shiva (in another version of the legend, Kama entered Shiva's mind) and invoked [sexual] desire. Wounded by Kama's arrows, Shiva becomes attracted to Parvati, the reincarnation of Sati, but agitated, burns Kama by a glance of his third eye. [10] [11] [12]

UKT: More in Wikipedia article.

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Pronunciation of Rimes of row #4

-- UKT 110724, 121003, 130304, 130911, 140711 , 160605

As my study of Mon-Myan progresses, I have to rewrite some portions. Mon-Myan aksharas have two types of inherent vowels, which to my ears sound like, {a.} and {}, thus, {ka.} {hka.} {g} {hk} {ng}.

The nasal of the row#4 {wag}-consonant, न {na.}, is the most readily understood in BEPS languages. However in Mon-Myan, its intrinsic vowel is not {a.}, but {}. When this intrinsic vowel has to be killed with the viram aka {a.t} in the coda of syllables we are in difficulty.

न na + viram --> न् n
{na.} + {a.t} --> {n} 

Remember the canonical form of the Dev and Myan syllables is CV, where is the killed consonant of the type {n}. Suppose, we have to transcribe the Eng-Lat <ban> or just <an>. We have to transcribe as:

{a.} + {n} --> {n} with IPA pronunciation /ʌn/ -- NOT /n/ nor /an/

The transcription become more confusing when we have to included the "short" and "long" vowels of Eng-Lat, and the three pitch-registers of Bur-Myan together. Throw in the very short sound of {a:.} of Mon-Myan and its equivalent अः of Skt-Dev, and we are in a mess, particularly when we do not know the vowel-duration of "short" and "long". To remedy this, I have used the time to blink your eye, eye-blink shortened to blk:

Bur-Myan: creak (1 blk): {n.},  modal (2 blk): {n},  emphatic (2 blk + emphasis):  {n:}

Incorporating Mon-Myan into our study - BEPS (Burmese-English-Pali-Sanskrithe following 'allophones' of the vowel /a/.

-------------------------------- 1/2 blk ------ 1 blk ------ 2 blk --  -- 2 blk + emphasis
Regular Bur-Myan: ------- {aa.} ----- {a.} ---- {a} --  -- {a:}
Regular Mon-Myan: ------ {a:.} अः -- {a.} ---- {a} आ
Nasal of indefinite POA:  {n.} ------ {n} अं

Note that I have to use the three-dot notation in {a:.}, the parallel of which is found in  ஃ -- the Tamil Sign Visarga {wic~sa.pauk} U+0B83.

However, in both Pal-Myan, and Skt-Myan, we find only the modal: {n}. The pitch-registers may also be simulated by the use of {::tn} 'dot above' as in अं & नं with IPA pronunciations /ʌn/ & /nʌn/. See definition in MLC MED2006-500. Note: I am not giving the IAST transcriptions here to avoid confusion.

1 blk (creak):  {n.} -- in place of {n.}
2 blk (modal): {n} -- in place of {n}
2 blk + emphasis (emphatic}: not realized

The only other consonant of row#4 that may be killed is the tenuis consonant {ta.}.

त ta + viram --> त् t
{ta.} + {a.t} --> {t} 

{a.} + {t} --> {t} with IPA pronunciation /ʌt/ -- NOT /t/ nor /at/

Even in Bur-Myan there is only one pitch-register in rime.


Negation using {na.} न and {n} अन्

UKT - 110811, 130219, 130305, 130823, 140711

To negate a word in Skt-Dev , {a.} अ  inserted as a prefix. Negation in Bur-Myan, and possibly in Nwari, is different. Let us see the steps in negative prefix formation in Skt-Dev.

#1. {a.} अ and {na.} न  readily forms the syllable {n} अन् . The viram {a.t} sign is not shown in a conjunct.

#2. The pronunciation of {n} अन्  is different in Bur-Myan  and Eng-Lat. The Bur-Myan {n} अन्  is /ʌn/ , in Eng-Latin /n/. The back vowel in Bur-Myan /ʌ/ becomes a front vowel,  // in Eng-Lat

#3. To take a concrete example:
Skt: अतिपात्य atipātya - adj. to be neglected, to be passed over -- SpkSkt
Skt antonym: अनतिपात्य [an-ati-ptya] --> {a.na.ti.pa-t~ya.}
- fp. not to be neglected. -- Mac011c3
Pal: {a.ti.pa-ta.}
- - UHS-PMD0031
   UKT from UHS: m. passed over, jumped over

Now, a second example:

#4. A second example:
Skt: अनशित an-asita = अ न श ि त - pp. not eaten.
Skt antonym: अनश्नत् an-as-nat = अ न श ् न त ् - pr. pt. not eating.

Note: In the first example, [a.na.ti-ptya] becomes [an-ati-ptya]. In the second, an-asita becomes an-as-nat. In both cases, <an> becomes prominent.

#5. In Macdonell's transliteration, the {na.} is split up into {n}~{a.} as: 

{a.na.} अन /ə.na/ --> {n~a.} अन्अ /ʌn.a/
{a.na} --> {n~a} e.g. अनाकम्प an-akampa 'immovable'
{a.ni.} --> {n~i.} e.g. अनिच्छत् an-icchat 'not wishing'
{a.nu.} --> {n~u.} e.g. अनुक्त an-ukta 'unuttered, undiscussed, unsummoned'

The above mechanism (my proposal) calls for the presence of an {a.t} aka viram after {na.}, or a conjunct in the spelling. I had looked into the possibility of this splitting up in Pal-Myan, in the negatives involving {a.} & {na.} as given in UHS-PMD on p.0049-0054. I do not find the above mechanism. Similarly, There may be none in Skt-Dev.

My conclusion at this point: Macdonell's transliteration showing <a.na> to <an-a.> is misleading. Perhaps it throws light on the use of <an> in English. 

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Third Eye - pineal gland

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Third_eye 121004

The third eye (also known as the inner eye) is a mystical and esoteric concept referring to a speculative invisible eye which provides perception beyond ordinary sight.[1] In certain dharmic spiritual traditions such as Hinduism, the third eye refers to the ajna, or brow, chakra.[2] The third eye is referred to the gate that leads within to inner realms and spaces of higher consciousness. In New Age spirituality, the third eye often symbolizes a state of enlightenment or the evocation of mental images having deeply personal spiritual or psychological significance. The third eye is often associated with religious visions, clairvoyance, the ability to observe chakras and auras,[3] precognition, and out-of-body experiences [OBE]. People who are claimed to have the capacity to utilize their third eyes are sometimes known as seers.

The third eye is supposedly located around the middle of the forehead, slightly above the junction of the eyebrows. In some traditions, it is believed to be be connected with the pineal gland, or identical with it. Some theories posit that in far ancient times, humans had a third eye on their foreheads which provided them the ability to peer into spiritual realms. Over time, the third eye atrophied and sunk into the convolutions of the brain.[1]
UKT: More in the Wikipedia article.


UKT 130824: The mark on Buddha's forehead, the external eyes, and the pineal gland are almost in alignment. This has led to the suggestion that the pineal is the Third eye.

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pineal_gland 121004

The pineal gland (also called the pineal body, epiphysis cerebri, epiphysis, conarium or the "third eye") is a small endocrine gland in the vertebrate brain. It produces the serotonin derivative melatonin, a hormone that affects the modulation of wake/sleep patterns and seasonal functions.[1][2] Its shape resembles a tiny pine cone (hence its name), and it is located near the centre of the brain, between the two hemispheres, tucked in a groove where the two rounded thalamic bodies join.

The pineal gland is reddish-gray and about the size of a grain of rice (58 mm) in humans, located just rostro-dorsal to the superior colliculus and behind and beneath the stria medullaris, between the laterally positioned thalamic bodies. It is part of the epithalamus.

The pineal gland is a midline structure shaped like a pine cone,[3] and is often seen in plain skull X-rays, as it is often calcified;[4] calcification has been shown in one small study to correlate with the accumulation of fluoride. [5]


UKT: As a down-to-earth scientist, I don't believe in all that have been reported as science. The following is to be read with an open mind.

Dr. Rick Strassman, while conducting research on the psychedelic dimethyltryptamine (DMT) in the 1990s at the University of New Mexico, advanced the controversial hypothesis that a massive release of DMT from the pineal gland prior to death or near death was the cause of the near death experience (NDE) phenomenon. Several of his test subjects reported NDE-like audio or visual hallucinations. His explanation for this was the possible lack of panic involved in the clinical setting and possible dosage differences between those administered and those encountered in actual NDE cases. Several subjects also reported contact with 'other beings', alien like, insectoid or reptilian in nature, in highly advanced technological environments[28] where the subjects were 'carried,' 'probed,' 'tested,' 'manipulated,' 'dismembered,' 'taught,' 'loved,' and even 'raped' by these 'beings' (one could note the strong similarities of these bodily tests/invasions in other psychedelic experiences throughout time, outlined in Graham Hancock's "Supernatural"[29]). Basing his reasoning on his belief that all the enzymatic material needed to produce DMT is found in the pineal gland (see evidence in mammals), and moreover in substantially greater concentrations than in any other part of the body, Strassman ([28] p. 69) has speculated that DMT is made in the pineal gland.

UKT: More in the Wikipedia article.
Now a conjecture of my own:

On many images of the Buddha in Myanmar a mark representing a "living hair" is clearly depicted. It has been said that it represents the Third Eye. However, because such marks were later additions after hundreds of years after Buddha's death, there is no credence to such conjecture as a "living hair". Since, the Gautama Buddha was not a Hindu, there could have been no such marks as would find on Hindu holy men. I wait for input from my peers. -- UKT121004

UKT: More in the Wikipedia article

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