Update: 2019-06-25 11:06 PM -0400

TIL

Practical Sanskrit Dictionary for Buddhists and Hindus

p000.htm

A Practical Sanskrikt Dictionary, by A. A. Macdonell, 1893,
http://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/scans/MDScan/index.php?sfx=jpg; 1929.
- Nataraj ed., 1st in 2006, 2012.
- https://dsal.uchicago.edu/dictionaries/macdonell/ 190516
The Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Grammar and Dictionary, BHS, vol.2, by F. Edgerton, pp. 627.
- FEdgerton-BHSD<> / Bkp<> (link chk 180627)
The Student's Pali English dictionary , by U Pe Maung Tin, 1920.
- (ref: UPMT-PEDxxx).  Downloaded copies in TIL HD-PDF and SD-PDF libraries:
- UPMT-PaliDict1920<> / bkp<> (link chk 190113)
  Pali-Myanmar Dictionary (in Pal-Myan), by U Hoke Sein,
- (ref: UHS-PMD). The dictionary in printed form is in TIL Research Library.
Latin-English Vocabulary II, by Hans H rberg, 1998
- HHOrberg-LinguaLatina<> / Bkp<> (link chk 190624)

Edited by U Kyaw Tun (UKT) (M.S., I.P.S.T., USA), Daw Khin Wutyi, Daw Thuzar Myint, Daw Zinthiri Han and staff of Tun Institute of Learning (TIL). Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone. Prepared for students and staff of TIL  Research Station, Yangon, MYANMAR 
 - http://www.tuninst.net , www.romabama.blogspot.com 

MC-indx.htm | Top
MCv1pp-indx.htm

Contents of this page

{a.da.} / {d} / {d~}
  p009c1
{a.da.ya.} : {ya.ping.} is not formed
{a.dar~} : repha
{a.da.a.}
{a.da}
{a.di.}
{a.di}
{a.du.}
{a.du}
{a.dRi.}
  p009c2

{a.d}
{a.d:}
{a.dau:}

{d} / {d~} : an important prefix

{a.d~ya.} : NOT {d~ya.} / {a.dya.}
{a.d-ra.} / {a.dra.} / {a.dRa.}
{a.d-rau:} / {a.dRau:}
{a.d~wa.ya.}
  p009c3

{a.Da:.}/ {a.Da.} : borrowings from Mon-Myan and Tamil
{a.Da:.ka.}
{a.Da:.hka.}
{a.Da:.pa.}
{a.Da.na.}
{a.Da.ma.}
{a.Da.ra.}

{a.Dar~} : repha
{a.Dar~ma.} : Though Hindu-religionist {Dar~ma.}, and Buddhist {Dm~ma.} (UHS-PMD0495 ),
  are both glossed as "Law", they are fundamentally different, and sometimes just the opposite.
{a.Dar~Sa.}
{a.Da.sha.}

 

UKT notes :
Aditi {a.di.ti.} - infinity or 'Space'
  See a devotional video on Adi Shakti  शक्ति  :
  - http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LiXS4d85cmQ 140716
Adivasi {a-di.wa-i} - aboriginals of India
Dharma & Adharma : Buddhist {Dm~ma.} and Hindu {Dar~ma.} are fundamentally different
Diti {di.ti.} - 'Earth'
Three seasons (weather) of Myanmarpr

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{a.da.} / {d}

p009c1

{a.da.ya.}

p009c1-b00/ p015-019

अदय [ a-day ] = अ द य --> {a.da.ya.}
- a. pitiless: -m, ad. heartily.
19) अदय (p. 15) a-day pitiless: -m, ad. heartily.

 

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{a.dar~} : repha

p009c1-b01/ p015-018

अदर्शन [ a-darsana ]
- n. not seeing; not visiting; non-investigation; non-occurrence; disappearance, invisibility: ab. beyond the vision of (ab.); a. invisible; -patha, m. what is beyond the vision of (g.).
18) अदर्शन (p. 15) a-darsana not seeing; not visiting; non-investigation; non-occurrence; disappearance, invisibility: ab. beyond the vision of (ab.); a. invisible; -patha, m. what is beyond the vision of (g.).

 

p009c1-b02/ not online

अदर्शनीभू  [adarsan-bh ]
= अ द र ् श नी भू
- become invisible

 

p009c1-b03/ p015-017

अदर्शनीय [ a-darsanya ]
- fp. invisible; -tva, n. -ness.
17) अदर्शनीय (p. 15) a-darsanya invisible; -tva, n. -ness.

 

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{a.da.a.}

p009c1-b04/ p015-016

अदस्् [ a-d-s ]
- prn. n. (m. f. asau) yon, that: ac. ad. there.
16) अदस्् (p. 15) a-d-s asau) yon, that: ac. ad. there.

 

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{a.da}

p009c1-b05/ p015-015

अदाक्षिण्य [ a-dkshinya ]
- n. impoliteness.
15) अदाक्षिण्य (p. 15) a-dkshinya impoliteness.

 

p009c1-b06/ not online

अदातृ [a-dtri]
- a. unliberal, stingy; not liable to pay;  not giving in marriage

 

p009c1-b07/ p015-014

अदादित्व [ ad-di-tva ]
--> {a.da-ti.twa.}
- n. appertaining to the verbs beginning with 'ad' (=Ad-class).
14) अदादित्व (p. 15) ad-di-tva appertaining to the verbs beginning with ʻadʼ (=Ad-class).

 

p009c1-b08/ p015-039

अदान [ -dna ]
--> {a.da-na.}
Skt: n. not giving, withholding; a. not giving; not exuding juice from the temples. -- Mac09c1
39) अदान (p. 15) -dna not giving, withholding; a. not giving; not exuding juice from the temples.
 
BPal: {a.da-na.} - UHS-PMD0041
-
BPal antonym: {da-na.} - UHS-PMD0465
-
  UKT from UHS:
  Pal: {a.da-na.} - n. not giving, not giving charity
  Pal antonym: {da-na.}
  . n. giving, giving liberally, giving charity
  . n. cutting (meaning "cutting of attachment"), cutting of family ties,
  must (a secretion from the temple of a male elephant
  which becomes excessive during must or mating season)
  . n. elimination

 

p009c1-b09/ p015-038

अदाभ्य [ -dbhya ]
- fp. inviolable; indestructible.
38) अदाभ्य (p. 15) -dbhya inviolable; indestructible.

 

p009c1-b10/ p015-037

अदायाद [ a-dyd (&isharp;; C. ) ]
--> {a.da-ya-da.}
- a. not entitled to inheritance.
37) अदायाद (p. 15) a-dyd (; C. ) not entitled to inheritance.

 

p009c1-b11/ p015-036

अदारुण [ a-druna ]
= अ द ा र ु ण   -->  {a.da-ru.Na.}
- a. not pitiless, mild.
36) अदारुण (p. 15) a-druna not pitiless, mild.

 

p009c1-b12/ p015-035

अदास [ a-dsa ]
--> {a.da-a.} 
- m. freeman.
35) अदास (p. 15) a-dsa freeman.

 

p009c1-b13/ p015-034

अदाह्य [ a-dhya ]
= अ द ा ह ् य
- fp. incombustible.
34) अदाह्य (p. 15) a-dhya incombustible.

 

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{a.di.}

p009c1-b14/ p015-013

अदिति [ 1. -diti ]
--> {a.di.ti.}
Skt:  अदिति [ 1. -diti ] - .  f. want, penury. -- Mac009c1
13) अदिति (p. 15) 1. -diti want, penury.
 
[UKT: see below for implied meaning - the emptiness of Space (or sky) in which the luminaries (dvas & asuras) move.]

penury - n. . Extreme want or poverty; destitution. . Extreme dearth; barrenness or insufficiency. -- AHTD

UKT, 120925, 160526:
Macdonell's choice of "penury" is interesting. "Aditi" is the name of the mother of the Dvas (according to UHS), and to say that her name means "poverty" or "want" -- implying that she is destitute, does not make sense. However, "penury" can also mean "barrenness" -- implying the barrenness of Sky or Space above and around us --  brings some sense. In the Sky or Space above us we find the luminaries -- in modern astronomical sense, the fixed stars, and Sun, Moon, and Planets moving against the background of the fixed stars. These moving luminaries, according to old story tellers, who have to travel on the seas and deserts, are celestial beings whom they described as Dva-gods and Asura-gods. To make their stories easy to remember, they give them names and assign spouses to them, and started weaving fictional stories about their military exploits and sex-lives.

 

p009c1-b15/ p015-012

अदिति [ 2. -diti ]
Skt: . a. infinite; f. infinity; N. of the mother of the gods. -- Mac009c1
12) अदिति (p. 15) 2. -diti infinite; f. infinity; N. of the mother of the gods.
 
BPal: {a.di.ti.}
- UHS-PMD0041
BPal antonym: {di.ti.}
- - UHS-PMD0470
  UKT from UHS:
  Pal: {a.di.ti.} - f. mother of dva, "devamata"
  Pal antonym: {di.ti.} - f. Goddess Diti, "asuramata"
  See my notes on
  - Aditi - "Space" or "Sky"
  - Adivasi आदिवासी ādivāsī {a-di.wa-i)
  - Diti - "Earth"

 

p009c1-b16/ p015-011

अदित्सत्् [ -dits-at ]
- des. pr. pt. not inclined to give.
11) अदित्सत्् (p. 15) -dits-at not inclined to give.

 

p009c1-b17/ not online

अदित्सु [a-dit-su]
- des. a. id.

 

p009c1-b18/ p015-010

अदिप्रभृति [ adi-prabhriti ]
= अ द ि प ् र भ ृ त ि 
Skt: अदिप्रभृति  [adi-prabhriti] - pl. Ad-class of verbs.
10) अदिप्रभृति (p. 15) adi-prabhriti Ad-class of verbs. 

UKT 130820: The above word is a combination of adi &  prabhṛti
Skt:  प्रभृति  = प ् र भ ृ त ि  prabhṛti - f. commencement, continuance from,
   beginning, offering, bringing forward, throw or stroke -- SpkSkt 

 

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{a.di}

p009c1-b19/ p015-009

अदीन [ -dna ]
- a. not depressed, cheerful; -sattva, a. elated, cheerful; -‿tman, a. id.
9) अदीन (p. 15) -dna not depressed, cheerful; -sattva, a. elated, cheerful; -̮tman, a. id.

 

p009c1-b20/ p015-008

अदीयमान [ a-dya-mna ]
- pr. pt. ps. not being given; f. , not being given in marriage.
8) अदीयमान (p. 15) a-dya-mna not being given; f. , not being given in marriage.

 

p009c1-b21/ p015-007

अदीर्घ [ -drgha ]
- a. not long; -stra, a. not dilatory, prompt: -t, f. despatch.
7) अदीर्घ (p. 15) -drgha not long; -stra, a. not dilatory, prompt: -t, f. despatch.

 

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{a.du.}

p009c1-b22/ p015-006

अदुर्ग [ a-durga ]
- a. devoid of fortresses; -vishaya, m. unfortified country.
6) अदुर्ग (p. 15) a-durga devoid of fortresses; -vishaya, m. unfortified country.

 

p009c1-b23/ p015-005

अदुर्मङ्गल [ -durmaṅgala ]
- a. () causing no calamity.
5) अदुर्मङ्गल (p. 15) -durmaṅgala () causing no calamity.

 

p009c1-b24/ p015-004

अदुर्वृत्त [ a-dur-vritta ]
- pp. not behaving badly.
4) अदुर्वृत्त (p. 15) a-dur-vritta not behaving badly.

 

p009c1-b25/ p015-003

अदुष्ट [ a-dushta ]
- pp. blameless; innocent; -tva, virtue; innocence.
3) अदुष्ट (p. 15) a-dushta blameless; innocent; -tva, virtue; innocence.

 

p009c1-b26/ p015-002

अदुष्प्राप [ a-dushprpa ]
- a. not hard to obtain.
2) अदुष्प्राप (p. 15) a-dushprpa not hard to obtain.

 

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{a.du}

p009c1-b27/ p015-001

अदून [ -dna ]
= अ द ू न --> {a.du-na.}
- pp. untormented, unhurt.
1) अदून (p. 15) -dna untormented, unhurt.

 

p009c1-b28/ p015-045

अदूर [ a-dra ]
= अ द ू र  -->  {a.du-ra.}
- a. not far, near; n. nearness: -tas, ab., lc. near; -kopa, a. irascible; -bhava, -vartin, -stha, a. near; imminent.
45) अदूर (p. 15) a-dra not far, near; n. nearness: -tas, ab., lc. near; -kopa, a. irascible; -bhava, -vartin, -stha, a. near; imminent.
 

irascible - adj. . Prone to outbursts of temper; easily angered. . Characterized by or resulting from anger. -- AHTD

 

p009c1-b29/ p015-044

अदूषण [ a-dshana ]
- n. not allowing to perish.
44) अदूषण (p. 15) a-dshana not allowing to perish.

 

p009c1-b30/ p015-043

अदूषित [ a-dsh-ita ]
- pp. blameless, good: f. , unviolated; -kaumr, a. f. whose virginity is intact.
43) अदूषित (p. 15) a-dsh-ita blameless, good: f. , unviolated; -kaumr, a. f. whose virginity is intact. 

 

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{a.dRi.}

UKT 120926, 130526, 160526
{a.dRi.} is a highly rhotic close front-vowel sound. There is another less rhotic close front-vowel sound {a.dri.}. How different do they sound to the hearer? And will there be a confusion in meaning? The two sounds are fundamentally different. {a.dRi.} is derived from a regular Skt-Dev vowel which is very rhotic. It is absent in non-rhotic Bur-Myan. {a.dri.} is a medial present in Bur-Myan, and is derived from {da.} and medial former {ra.}. It is only slightly rhotic and ordinarily it would be pronounced without any rhoticity in Irrawaddy dialect of Bur-Myan. However, it would be pronounced with a fair degree of rhoticity in the Rakhine dialect.

 

p009c1-b31/ p015-042

अदृढ [ a-dridha ]
- pp. not firmly attached; -tara, cpv. not very firm.
42) अदृढ (p. 15) a-dridha not firmly attached; -tara, cpv. not very firm. 

 

p009c1-b32/ p015-041

अदृपित [ -drip-ita or -ta ]
- pp. thoughtful, attentive.
41) अदृपित (p. 15) -drip-ita or -ta thoughtful, attentive.

 

p009c1-b33/ p015-040

अदृश्य [ a-drisya ]
- fp. invisible; -t, f., -tva, n. -ness; -‿agana, n. salve making invisible.
40) अदृश्य (p. 15) a-drisya invisible; -t, f., -tva, n. -ness; -̮agana, n. salve making invisible.

 

p009c1-b34/ p015-033

अदृष्ट [ a-drshta ]
- pp. unseen; unknown; invisible; unexpected; unsanctioned; n. the invisible, fate; -karman, a. inexperienced in (lc.); -kma, m. love for one not yet seen; -krita, pp. caused by fate; -nara, -purusha, a. concluded without an intermediary (alliance); -para-smarthya, a. not having experienced an enemy's power; -prva, a. never seen, unknown before; -rpa, a. of unknown appearance; -viraha-vyatha, a. not having experienced the pangs of separation.
33) अदृष्ट (p. 15) a-drshta unseen; unknown; invisible; unexpected; unsanctioned; n. the invisible, fate; -karman, a. inexperienced in (lc.); -kma, m. love for one not yet seen; -krita, pp. caused by fate; -nara, -purusha, a. concluded without an intermediary (alliance); -para-smarthya, a. not having experienced an enemy's power; -prva, a. never seen, unknown before; -rpa, a. of unknown appearance; -viraha-vyatha, a. not having experienced the pangs of separation.

 

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p009c2

p009c2-b01/ p015-032

अदृष्टिदान [ a-drishti-dna ]
- n. non-admittance.
32) अदृष्टिदान (p. 15) a-drishti-dna non-admittance.

 

p009c2-b02/ p015-031

अदृष्ट्वा [ a-drishtv ]
- gd. without seeing.
31) अदृष्ट्वा (p. 15) a-drishtv without seeing.

 

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{a.d}

UKT 130820, 160526: There is a grand mix-up in BEPS of mid-vowels: {d}, {d:}, {do}, {dau:}. Bur-Myan has 3 tones or pitch-registers for each. Skt-Dev also has 3 tones but they are different from those of Bur-Myan. Pal-Myan is lacking in some.

Now, throw in Mon-Myan, and you are in a mess. Mon-Myan has a basic vowel, {ou}, absent in Bur-Myan.

Moreover English, the transcribing language, is very poor in these vowels. To keep my sanity intact, I have no choice but to use only Romabama transcriptions, based on Bur-Myan phonology. However, since Bur-Myan is a Tib-Bur (Tibeto-Burman) language, whilst Mon-Myan is an Aus-Asi (Austro-Asiatic), I am finding that Romabama transcriptions are not applicable to Mon-Myan. Still we can get some sense when Pali is being used because Bur-Myan speakers and Mon-Myan speakers have been living in close proximity for thousands of years, sharing the same Theravada Buddhism, and many other cultural contacts.

UKT 140710: the bookmark for {d:} is presently derived from {hta:w-mro.}. However, since it is more open than English <ei>, the bookmark may have to be changed to <ai>

 

p009c2-b03/ p015-030 

अदेय [ a-deya ]
- fp. not to be given.
30) अदेय (p. 15) a-deya not to be given.

 

p009c2-b04/ p015-029

अदेव [ -deva ]
- a. () hostile to the [dva]-gods; m. Asura.
29) अदेव (p. 15) -deva () hostile to the gods; m. Asura. 

UKT 160526: Asura were also gods - not devils - in early Vedic period. However, by the time of Panini's Classical Sanskrit, Asura were thoroughly demonized. Even then, there are places such as in Sri Lanka, descendants of Asura are still worshipped, e.g., Ravana - the demon king of Lanka, who opposes Rama - the northern Indian king. Rama was supposed to be an incarnation of Dva-god Vishnu. See also Wikpedia:
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ravana 160527

 

p009c2-b05/ p015-028

अदेवजुष्ट [ a-deva-gushta ]
- pp. displeasing to the [dva]-gods.
28) अदेवजुष्ट (p. 15) a-deva-gushta displeasing to the gods.

 

p009c2-b06/ p015-027

अदेवर [ a-devara ]
- m. not a brother-in-law.
27) अदेवर (p. 15) a-devara not a brother-in-law.

 

p009c2-b07/ p015-026

अदेश [ a-desa ]
--> {a.d-sha.}
- m. wrong place.
26) अदेश (p. 15) a-desa wrong place.

 

p009c2-b08/ p015-025

अदेशकाल [ a-desa-kla ]
- m. wrong place and time: -ga, a. suiting neither place nor time.
25) अदेशकाल (p. 15) a-desa-kla wrong place and time: -ga, a. suiting neither place nor time.

 

p009c2-b09/ p015-024

अदेशज्ञ [ a-desa-ga ]
- a. unacquainted with the place; -stha, a. absent fr. his country, absentee.
24) अदेशज्ञ (p. 15) a-desa-ga unacquainted with the place; -stha, a. absent fr. his country, absentee.

 

p009c2-b10/ p015-023

अदेहबन्ध [ a-deha-bandha ]
- m. non-assumption of a new body; -bheda, m. no change of body.
23) अदेहबन्ध (p. 15) a-deha-bandha non-assumption of a new body; -bheda, m. no change of body.

 

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{a.d:}

p009c2-b11/ p015-022

अदैव [ a-daiva ]
--> {a.d:wa.}
- a. independent of fate.
22) अदैव (p. 15) a-daiva independent of fate.

 

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{a.dau:}

p009c2-b12/ p015-021

अदोष [ a-dosha ]
--> {a.dau:Sa.}
Skt: अदोष  [a-dosha] - m. no fault, no sin; a. guiltless; -ga, a. not knowing what faults are. -- Mac009c2
21) अदोष (p. 15) a-dosha no fault, no sin; a. guiltless; -ga, a. not knowing what faults are.
 
Skt-antonym: दोष doṣa - m. defect, blame -- SpkSkt
Skt-antonym: द्वेष dveṣa = द ् व े ष - m. hate -- SpkSkt

UKT 120925:
Bur-Myan is almost non-sibilant, and as a result, there is no need for a dedicated phoneme for /s/. The grapheme {sa.} /c/ - the palatal-plosive - because of the friction involved has been used to transcribe the Eng-Lat <s> /s/ - the dental-alveolar sibilant. And so {sa.} is has been used to represent both /c/ and /s/ ever since the Annexation of Burma into the British Empire in the late 19th century. This problem does not arise in Skt-Dev, because it has dedicated graphemes च for /c/ and ष for /s/. Romabama has followed this practice except to use
   {sa.} /c/ च , {Sa.} /s/ ष as onsets, and
   {s} /c/ च् , {S} ष् as codas.

 

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{d} / {d~}

UKT 150126: {d~} is an important prefix.

p009c2-b13/ p015-020

अद्ग [ dga ]
= अ द ् ग --> {d~ga.}
- m. cane; stalk.
20) अद्ग (p. 15) dga cane; stalk.

UKT 130913, 161208: Sanskrit allows both the viram and the conjunct. I use this fact, in my presentation of Skt-Myan. This is not the case with Pal-Myan, which does not allow the explicit viram.

 

p009c2-b14/ p015-065

अद्धा [ ad-dh ]
= अ द ् ध ा --> {d~Da.}
Skt: अद्धा  [ad-dh] - ad. [in this manner], truly, indeed. -- Mac009c2
Skt: अद्धा addhā - ind. in this way, manifestly, certainly, truly -- SpkSkt
65) अद्धा (p. 15) ad-dhaN [in this manner], truly, indeed.
 
Pal: {d~Da}
- - UHS-PMD0042
  UKT from UHS: . m. long journey, lengthy period, permanence. . really, exactly.

 

{d~da.}

आर्द्रा ārdra
= आ र ् द ् र ा  --> {aar~d~ra.}
Skt: आर्द्रा ārdra = आ र ् द ् र ा - Moist One -- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nakshatra 091031
Skt: आर्द्रक ārdraka = आ र ् द ् र क --> / {aar~d~ra.ka.}
Skt: आर्द्रक ārdraka - n. ginger [fresh root]. adj. moist, wet, born under constellation Ardra -- SpkSkt
BPal: {d~da.} - UHS-MED0042
-
  UKT from UHS: . n. ginger [fresh root]. . mfn. wet (with water), stuck (with dirt)

UKT 130913: Weather-wise, Ardra (आर्द्रा = आ र ् द ् र ा ) (Moist One) implies rainy-season.
See my note on Three seasons of Myanmarpr

 

{d~Da.}

BPal: {d~Da.}- UHS-PMD 0042
-
  UKT from UHS: . n. half. . wet (with water), stuck (with dirt)

 

p009c2-b15/ p015-064

अद्भिस्् [ ad-bhis ]
= अ द ् भ ि स ्
- in. pl. of ap, water.
64) अद्भिस्् (p. 15) ad-bhis ap, water.

 

p009c2-b16/ p015-063

अद्भुत [ dbhuta ]
- a. [at(i)-bhta, transcendent], wonderful; n. portent; -tama, spv. most marvellous; -darsana, a. of wondrous aspect; -rpa, a. of wondrous form; -‿vaha, a. exciting wonder; -‿upam, f. simile assuming a miracle.
63) अद्भुत (p. 15) dbhuta [at(i)-bhta, transcendent], wonderful; n. portent; -tama, spv. most marvellous; -darsana, a. of wondrous aspect; -rpa, a. of wondrous form; -̮vaha, a. exciting wonder; -̮upam, f. simile assuming a miracle.

 

p009c2-b17/ p015-062

अद्भुताय [ adbhutya ]
- den. appear a wonder.
62) अद्भुताय (p. 15) adbhutya appear a wonder.

 

p009c2-b18/ p015-061

अद्भ्यस्् [ ad-bhyas ]
- d. ab. pl. of ap, water.
61) अद्भ्यस्् (p. 15) ad-bhyas ap, water.

 

p009c2-b19/ not online

अद््मन्् [ d-man ]
= अ द ् म न ्  -->  {d~mn}
- n. food.

 

p009c2-b20/ not online

अद््मसद्् [ adma-sd ]
- m. partaker of the feast, guest.

 

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{a.d~ya.} : NOT {d~ya.} / {a.dya.}

p009c2-b21/ p015-058

अद्य [ a-dy () ]
= अ द ् य
- ad. to-day, now: adya‿eva, this very day; adya‿api, even to-day: w. neg. not even yet; -prvam, -yvat, hitherto; --prabhriti, -‿rabhya, from to-day onwards.
58) अद्य (p. 15) a-dy (aN) to-day, now: adya̮eva, this very day; adya̮api, even to-day: w. neg. not even yet; -- prvam, -- yvat, hitherto; --prabhriti, -̮rabhya, from to-day onwards.

 

अद्य  adya
Skt: ad. to-day, now; -- Mac009c2
Skt: अद्य adya - indecl. today -- SpkSkt
BPal: {iz~za.} - UHS-PMD0018
 
  UKT from UHS: time today, now

 

p009c2-b22/ p015-057

अद्यतन [ adya-tana ]
- a. () of to-day, present, contemporary; -tanya, a. id.
57) अद्यतन (p. 15) adya-tana () of to-day, present, contemporary; -tanya, a. id.

 

p009c2-b23/ p015-056

अद्यदिन [ adya-dina ]
- m. the present day.
56) अद्यदिन (p. 15) adya-dina the present day.

 

p009c2-b24/ not online

अद्यदिवस adya-divasa
- m. id.

 

p009c2-b25/ not online

अद्यौत् a-dyaut
- 3 s. impf. of √dyut

 

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{a.d-ra.} / {a.dra.} / {a.dRa.}

UKT 130821, 160527: Probably the medial {a.dra.} is formed. But since since only conjuncts are met in Skt-Dev, we will rule the medial out. In Irrawaddy dialect of Bur-Myan, {a.dra.} is non-rhotic, but the the Rakhine dialect, it is definitely rhotic. Similarly, it is rhotic in Pali-Myan. In order to accommodate the Rakhine dialect and Pali-Myanmar, we will write {a.dra.} as {a.dRa.} even though it is not related to highly rhotic Skt-Dev ऋ {iRi.} (1 eye-blink) & ॠ {iRi} (2 blk).

 

p009c2-b26/ p015-055

अद्रव्य [ a-dravya ]
- n. worthless object.
55) अद्रव्य (p. 15) a-dravya worthless object.

 

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{a.d~ri.}

UKT 130820: NOT {a.dri.} to differentiate from {a.dRi.} .

p009c2-b27/ p015-054

अद्रि [ -dri ]
= अ द ् र ि
- m. [not splitting], rock, hill, mountain-range; stone (as missile); pressing stone; cloud; -grahana, n. reverberation; -dugdha, pp. milked, i.e. pressed out, with stones; -pati, m. Himlaya: -kany, f. Prvat; -budhna, a. founded on rock; -bhedana, n. cleaving of rocks.
54) अद्रि (p. 15) -dri [not splitting], rock, hill, mountain-range; stone (as missile); pressingstone; cloud; -grahana, n. reverberation; -dugdha, pp. milked, i. e. pressed out, with stones; -pati, m. Himlaya: -kany, f. Prvat; -budhna, a. founded on rock; -bhedana, n. cleaving of rocks. 

 

p009c2-b28/ p015-053

अद्रिवत्् [ adri-vat ]
- a. (vc. -vas) armed with stones.
53) अद्रिवत्् (p. 15) adri-vat -vas) armed with stones.

 

p009c2-b29/ p015-052

अद्रुह्् [ a-drh ]
- a. not hurting, benevolent (nm. a-dhruk).
52) अद्रुह्् (p. 15) a-drh not hurting, benevolent (nm. a-dhruk).

 

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{a.d~rau:} / {a.dRau:}

p009c2-b30/ p015-051

अद्रोघ [ -drogha ]
- a. (also -gh) guileless; friendly; -vk, a. of guileless speech.
51) अद्रोघ (p. 15) -drogha -gh) guileless; friendly; -vk, a. of guileless speech.

 

p009c2-b31/ p015-050

अद्रोह [ a-droha ]
- a. friendly; m. friendliness; -samayam kri, agree to peace.
50) अद्रोह (p. 15) a-droha friendly; m. friendliness; -samayam kri, agree to peace.

 

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{a.d~wa.ya.}

p009c2-b32/ p015-049

अद्वय [ a-dvaya ]
- a. not of two kinds, single: -tva, n. unity; -‿nanda, m. N. of a philosopher (whose joy is unity).
49) अद्वय (p. 15) a-dvaya not of two kinds, single: -tva, n. unity; -̮nanda, m. N. of a philosopher (whose joy is unity).

(p009c2end)

अद्वयानन्द  'Advayananda' (1912-2001)
Skt:  -‿nanda, m. N. of a philosopher (whose joy is unity). - Mac009c2
See a translation from French: http://www.google.com.mm/...Advayananda%27+ 150630
See also: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Advaita_Vedanta 150630

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p009c3

p009c3-b00/ p015-048

अद्वितीय [ a-dvitya ]
- a. secondless, single, only.
48) अद्वितीय (p. 15) a-dvitya secondless, single, only. 

 

p009c3-b01/ p015-047

अद्विवर्ष [ a-dvi-varsha ]
- a. not yet two years old.
47) अद्विवर्ष (p. 15) a-dvi-varsha not yet two years old.

 

p009c3-b02/ p015-046

अद्वेषरागिन्् [ a-dvesha-rgin ]
- a. free from like or dislike.
46) अद्वेषरागिन्् (p. 15) a-dvesha-rgin free from like or dislike.

 

p009c3-b03/ not online

अद्वेष्टृ  [a-dveshtri
= अ द ् व े ष ् त ृ  --> {a.d~w-s~tRi.}
Skt: अद्वेष्टृ  [a-dveshtri ] - a. not hating, well-disposed towards (g.); -tva , n. benevolence -- Mac009c3
Skt: अद्वेष्टृ adveṣṭṛ - m. friend, not an enemy -- SpkSkt

 

p009c3-b04/ p015-087

अद्वैत [ a-dvaita ]
- n. non-duality, unity; a. without duality, secondless, single.
87) अद्वैत (p. 15) a-dvaita non-duality, unity; a. without duality, secondless, single.

 

p009c3-b05/ p015-086

अद्वैध [ a-dvaidha ]
- a. undivided; not double, sincere.
86) अद्वैध (p. 15) a-dvaidha undivided; not double, sincere.

 

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{a.Da:.} / {a.Da.}

UKT 150126: The notation is a borrowing from Mon-Myan method of denoting a very short vowel of 1/2 eye-blink. Romabama "3-dot" visarga is borrowed from Tamil script ஃ (U+0B83). Romabama recognizes the following allophones with varying vowel-lengths in eye-blinks:

{a:.} (1/2 blk);  {a.} (1 blk);  {a} (2 blk);  {a:} (2 blk with emphasis)

Eng-Lat speakers can differentiate only short vowel with 1 eye-blink, and long vowel with 2 eye-blinks.
Mon-Myan {a:.} (1/2 blk) is the same as Bur-Myan {aa.}.

 

BPal: {a.Dn-a.}
- - UHS-PMD0043
  UKT from UHS: m. not falling down

 

p009c3-b06/ p015-085

अध dha, अधा [ dh (older form of athbrev;) ]
- ad. then, thereupon (often corr.); therefore; adha--adha, both -and; adha--adha v, either -or.
85) अध (p. 15) dh (older form of athă̂) then, thereupon (often corr.); therefore; adha--adha, both -- and; adha--adha v, either -- or.

 

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{a.Da:.ka.}

p009c3-b07/ p015-084

अधःक्रिया [ adhah-kriy ]
= अ ध ः क ् र ि य ा  --> related to  
- f. abasement; contempt.
84) अधःक्रिया (p. 15) adhah-kriy abasement; contempt. 

 

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{a.Da:.hka.}

p009c3-b08/ p015-083

अधःखनन [ adhah-khanana ]
- n. undermining.
83) अधःखनन (p. 15) adhah-khanana undermining.

 

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{a.Da:.pa.}

p009c3-b09/ p015-082

अधःपात [ adhah-pta ]
- m. downfall.
82) अधःपात (p. 15) adhah-pta downfall.

 

p009c3-b10/ p015-081

अधःपातित [ adhah-ptita ]
- cs. pp. thrown down.
81) अधःपातित (p. 15) adhah-ptita thrown down.

 

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{a.Da.na.}

p009c3-b11/ p015-080

अधन  a-dhana --> {a.Da.na.}
Skt: अधन  [a-dhana] - a. indigent, poor. -- Mac009c3
80) अधन (p. 15) a-dhana indigent, poor.

BPal: {a.Da.na.}
- - UHS-PMD0043
  UKT from UHS: mfn. poverty. m. a poor person

 

p009c3-b12/ p015-079

अधन्य [ a-dhanya ]
= अ ध न ् य --> {a.Da.n~ya.}
- a. poor; unfortunate.
79) अधन्य (p. 15) a-dhanya poor; unfortunate. 

 

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{a.Da.ma.}

p009c3-b13/ p015-078

अधम [ adha-ma ]
--> {a.Da.ma.}
- spv. lowest, worst, vilest (of, --); -keshta, a. acting meanly; -dh, a. of mean understanding; -yoni-ga, a. born of a very low mother.
78) अधम (p. 15) adha-ma lowest, worst, vilest (of, --); -keshta, a. acting meanly; -dh, a. of mean understanding; -yoni-ga, a. born of a very low mother. 

अधम  adhama 
Skt: अधम  [adha-ma] - spv. lowest, worst, vilest (of, --) -- Mac009c3
Skt: अधम adhama - adj. inferior, lowest, vilest, base, worst, very bad, abject -- SpkSkt

अधमर्ण adhamarṇa
= अ ध म र ् ण  --> Pal: {a.Da.mN~Na.} अधम्णण
Skt: अधमर्ण adhamarṇa - m. one reduced to inferiority by debt, debtor -- SpkSkt
BPal: {a.Da.mN~Na.}
- - UHS-PMD0043
  UKT from UHS: m. one who borrows money, debtor

 

p009c3-b14/ p015-230

अधमाधम [ adhama‿adhama ]
- a. lowest of all.
230) अधमाधम (p. 15) adhama̮adhama lowest of all.

 

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{a.Dm~ma.} धम्म dhamma

UKT 160528: Whenever, the two members of a conjunct are the same akshara, there is always the possibility of a repha being formed.

अधम्म adhamma
= अ ध म ् म   --> {a.Dm~ma.} --[repha change]-->  {a.dar~ma.} अधर्म adharma
Skt: अधर्म  [-dharma] = अ ध र ् म 
-- m. unrighteousness, breach of duty; injustice: -- Mac009c3
Skt: अधर्म adharma
-- adj. immoral, not pious. f. unrighteousness.
  m. demerit, guilt, sin, injustice, unrighteousness, irreligion, wickedness -- SpkSkt
BPal: {a.Dm~ma.} धम्म dhamma - UHS-PMD0043
-  
  UKT from UHS: m. a bad habit, the practice of bad persons, unfair actions, opposing fairness
  See also my note on Dharma & Adharma

UKT 130821, 160528: I hold that a language should be free of religion -- of all religions, including Theravada Buddhism, my personal religion. Because of which words like <pious>, <sin> and <irreligion> which smack of religious flavour should be taken with caution. See my note on Morality and Religion
in LANGUAGE AND THOUGHT , in Section 3: LANGUAGE, MEANING, RELIGION & THOUGHT
- lang-thot-indx.htm > lang-thought.htm > morality and religion

 

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{a.Da.ra.}

p009c3-b15/ p015-077

अधर [ adha-ra ]
--> {a.Da.ra.}
- cpv. lower: -m kri, subject; m. under-lip, s. coll. lips; -dala, n. lip; -rukaka, n. lovely lips.
77) अधर (p. 15) adha-ra lower: -m kri, subject; m. under-lip, s. coll. lips; -dala, n. lip; -rukaka, n. lovely lips. 

 

p009c3-b16

[adhara'‿ak]
- a. downward ; southern

 

p009c3-b17/ p015-076

अधरात्् [ adhart ]
- ad. below; -t, id.
76) अधरात्् (p. 15) adharaNt below; -t, id.

 

p009c3-b18/ p015-075

अधराम्बर [ adhara‿ambara ]
- n. under garment.
75) अधराम्बर (p. 15) adhara̮ambara under garment. 

 

p009c3-b19/ p015-074

अधरारणि [ adhara‿arani ]
- f. the lower piece of tinder-wood.
74) अधरारणि (p. 15) adhara̮arani the lower piece of tinder-wood.

अधरारणि  adhararani
= अ ध र ा र ण ि  
Skt: अधरारणि  [adhara‿arani] - f. the lower piece of tinder-wood. -- Mac009c3
Skt: अधरारणि  adharāraṇi f. lower of the two pieces of wood used in producing fire by friction -- SpkSkt 

अधरिक adharika
- adj. subordinate - SpkSkt 

 

p009c3-b20/ not online

अधरीक्रृ [adhar-kri ]
- vanquish;  -bh succumb

 

p009c3-b21/ p015-073

अधरोत्तर [ adhara‿uttara ]
- a. losing or winning; high and low; earlier and later; n. address and answer; gradation; topsy-turviness.
73) अधरोत्तर (p. 15) adhara̮uttara losing or winning; high and low; earlier and later; n. address and answer; gradation; topsy-turviness.

 

p009c3-b22/ p015-072

अधरोष्ठ,˚रौष्ठ [ adhara‿oshtha ]
- n. (--, f. ) lower lip; lower and upper lip, the lips.
72) अधरोष्ठ˚रौष्ठ (p. 15) adhara̮oshtha ) lower lip; lower and upper lip, the lips.

 

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{a.Dar~} : repha

UKT 130913, 150126: Though Hindu-religionist {Dar~ma.}, and Buddhist {Dm~ma.} (UHS-PMD0495 ) are both glossed as "Law", they are fundamentally different and sometimes even the opposite of each other. In the following we meet the antonym, Skt-Dev अधर्म  adharma / {a.Dar~ma.} --> Pal-Myan {a.Dm~ma.}. Dharma-Adharma is just an idea, and the Hindu views given in Skt-Dev, will not coincide with Theravada Buddhist views given in Pal-Myan. See my note on Dharma & Adharma.

 

{a.Dar~ma.}

p009c3-b23/ p015-071

अधर्म [ -dharma ]
= अ ध र ् म --> {a.Dar~ma.}
- m. unrighteousness, breach of duty; injustice: -tas, in. unjustly, iniquitously; -ga, a. ignorant of the law, -of justice; -dandana, n. unjust punishment; -bhru, a. shrinking from wrong; -sarana, a. not based on law.
71) अधर्म (p. 15) -dharma unrighteousness, breach of duty; injustice: -tas, in. unjustly, iniquitously; -ga, a. ignorant of the law, -- of justice; -dandana, n. unjust punishment; -bhru, a. shrinking from wrong; -sarana, a. not based on law.

UKT 160530: To the Bramin-Poannar {braah~ma.Na poaN~Na:} 'breach of duty' means failure to maintain the 'sacred fire' at home, and 'ignorance of law' means the ignorance of Hindu-religious law'. Even their highest "god", the Maha-Brahma, is a sexual being and must have a "wife". At the wedding of Maha-Brahma and his wife - his own creation and technically his 'daughter' - Saraswati, the couple was meant circumambulate 'to walk around the sacred fire as part of ritual'. However, Saraswati failed to appear at the appointed time, because of which she was 'divorced' by the groom. I got this info from one of the Hindu-websites many years ago. Though I have downloaded the file, I can no longer trace it at present.

अधर्म  a-dharma
= अ ध र ् म  --> / {a.Dar~ma.}
Skt: अधर्म  [-dharma] - m. unrighteousness, breach of duty; injustice: -- Mac009c3
BPal: {a.Dm~ma.} - UHS-PMD0043
-
  UKT from UHS: m. evil conduct, conduct of lowly persons, {a.ku.ol}-conduct, bad conduct

UKT 160530: Though the question of what is {ku.ol} and what is {a.ku.ol}, is almost non-controversial among the Theravada Buddhists of Myanmarpr, there is no unanimous view on English translations. However, "forced marriage" and therefore "incest", as is done by the Hindu MahaBrahma on Saraswati, is clearly {a.ku.ol}.

 

p009c3-b24/ p015-070

अधर्मण [ a-dharmana ]
- m. debtor.
70) अधर्मण (p. 15) a-dharmana debtor.

 

p009c3-b25

[a-dharmika]
- m. id.

 

p009c3-b26/ p015-069

अधर्मिष्ठ [ a-dharmishtha ]
- a. not doing right; illegal.
69) अधर्मिष्ठ (p. 15) a-dharmishtha not doing right; illegal.

 

p009c3-b27

[a-dharmya]
- a. = a-dharmishtha

 

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{a.Dar~Sa.}

p009c3-b28/ p015-068

अधर्षण [ a-dharshana ]
- a. unapproachable.
68) अधर्षण (p. 15) a-dharshana unapproachable.

 

p009c3-b29/ p015-067

अधर्षणीय [ a-dharshanya ]
- fp. invincible.
67) अधर्षणीय (p. 15) a-dharshanya invincible.

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{a.Da.sha.}

p009c3-b30/ not online

अधश््चरणावपात [ adhas-karana‿avapta ]
- m. prostration at the feet of any one.

 

p009c3-b31/ p015-101

अधःशय [ adhah-say ]
- a. lying on the ground; -sayy, f. sleeping on the ground: -‿sanin, a. sleeping and sitting on the ground.
101) अधःशय (p. 15) adhah-say lying on the ground; -sayy, f. sleeping on the ground: -̮sanin, a. sleeping and sitting on the ground.

 

p009c3-b32/ p015-100

अधःशायिन्् [ adhah-syin ]
- a. sleeping on the ground; (yi)-t, f. id.
100) अधःशायिन्् (p. 15) adhah-syin sleeping on the ground; (yi)-t, f. id.

 

UKT: p009c3-b33 is moved to next page to be joined to its remainder.

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UKT notes

Aditi

UKT 130525, 140716, 160530:

It is my belief that a language must be religion-independent, and thus Skt-Dev should not be looked upon as the language of the Hindu religionists. The words Diti and its antonym Aditi can be looked at from our modern point of view of Space-Time. Thus, Diti describes our Earth, and, Aditi as the Sky above us.

Humans are earth-bound, whereas, the luminaries such as the Sun, the Moon, and astronomical planets which move from west to east against the fixed stars are the celestial beings. These are the Dvas and Asuras. The ancients then postulated that there must be other below-ground beings such as Nagas (not the animal snakes).

Dva & Asura, Man, and Naga are all intelligent beings and are above the animals and animal-like beings in intellect. The Theravada Buddhists believe that the Buddha had preached Abidhama to the Dvas -- there is no reason why the Asuras were not in the audience -- and Mahayana Buddhists believe that the Diamond Sutra was preached to the Nagas.

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aditi 110721, 120925

Aditi  अदिति 'limitless', from "a" (not) + "diti" (bound) from the verb root "da" (to bind)) in Sanskrit, an ancient Indian language. [UKT ]

In the Vedas, Aditi is mother of the gods (devamatri) from whose cosmic matrix the heavenly bodies were born. As celestial virgin mother of every existing form and being, the synthesis of all things, she is associated with space (akasa) and with mystic speech (Vāc). [UKT ]

UKT 130525, 140710: It seems that the language of the majority of India was Vedic and its dialects, which was codified into classical Sanskrit by Panini. We must note that there were others who codified Vedic into Sanskrit, but Panini's system was the most popular and finally accepted.

If so who were the peoples who spoke Vedic, and what was their religion?

My speculation (note - speculation), was that the Vedic speakers were subjugated militarily by the IE speakers with their dominant god, Vishnu in north-western India, and by the Dravidian speakers with their dominant god, Shiva, in the southern-parts. Then conquerors formulated the caste system. The conquerors styled themselves as the Brahmins 'teachers', Kshtriyas 'rulers', Vaishyas 'tradesman', and the conquered tribes as Shudras 'the slaves'.

The Shudras were the original speakers of Vedic, and the conquerors, married off their gods to the Mother Goddesses of the Vedic speakers: Vishnu to Lakshmi and Shiva to Pravati (and Durga of Bengal, and Sundari of Tripura, and Shakti शक्ति - the 'mother' herself).

See Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adi_Shakti
See also a video on a devotional dance:
- http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LiXS4d85cmQ 140716

Not knowing what to do next they "married" off their creator-god Maha-Brahma to Saraswati against her will.

The conquerors not only took over the land, they took over the religion of Mother Goddess and her three aspects personified as Saraswati 'intelligence' (or Vak), Pravati 'protection', and Lakshmi 'wealth'. Since the invaders because of their highly rhotic and hissing accents could not pronounce the Vedic hymns properly, Panini had to come up with a system of transformation of Vedic to Sanskrit.

The new comers could not imagine the Supreme Mother Goddess to create off-springs by her power. The new comers were 'male-oriented' and could not imagine off-springs being born without sexual union. And so they married off the Mother Goddess to their male gods.

The Mother Goddess religion was also probably the religion of the Pyus of Myanmarpr.

She [Aditi} may be seen as a feminized form of Brahma and associated with the primal substance (mulaprakriti) in Vedanta. She is mentioned nearly 80 times in the Rigveda: the verse "Daksha sprang from Aditi and Aditi from Daksha" is seen by Theosophists as a reference to "the eternal cyclic re-birth of the same divine Essence" [1] and divine wisdom. [2]

In contrast, the puranas पुराण   {pu.ra-Na.}, Bur: {pu.raaN-kym:], such as the shiva purana and the bhagavata purana, suggest that Aditi is wife of sage Kashyap {ka~a.hpa. ra.e.} and gave birth to the adityas such as Indra, Surya, and also vamana.

UKT 140710: According to A Pal-Myan-Engl Dict. of Noble Words of Buddha by U Myat Kyaw & U San Lwin, there are two persons with the name {ka~a.hpa.}.
See - PED-MK-indx.htm (link chk 140710)
and proceed to -- kum.htm (link chk 140710)

The "sage Kashyap" aka "Rishi Kashyap" mentioned above is the third with the same name. He is {ka~a.hpa. ra..}. Theravada Buddhism of Myanmarpr would not have a Rishi having sex with a wife, and regards the Hindu puranas or {pu.raaN-kym:] to be just the work of heretical Hindu religionists. Aditi is the Mother Goddess and she did not need a husband to create her children. (Note: I still need to look again for the reference to this remark.)

The name is mentioned in Vedas as mother of Surya (Sun) and other celestial bodies Adityas (meaning sons of Aditi).

The first written mention of goddess Aditi is found in Rigveda, which is estimated to have been composed roughly during 1700-1100 BC. [3]

UKT: More in the Wikipedia article.

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Adivasi {a-di.wa-i)

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adivasi 110901, 120924

Adivasi (Skt: Nepali: Hindi: आदिवासी  ādivāsī --> {a-di.wa-i} is an umbrella term for a heterogeneous set of ethnic and tribal groups claimed to be the aboriginal population of India. [1] [2] [3] [UKT ]

The same term Adivasi is used in Sri Lanka (Sinhala: ආදී වාස) to refer to the native Vedda people. They comprise a substantial indigenous minority of the population of India. [UKT ]

The word is used in the same sense in Nepal as is another word janajati (Nepali: जनजाति janajāti, although the political context differed historically under the Shah  and Rana dynasties [16th century until democratic movement of recent times].

Adivasi societies are particularly present in the Indian states of Kerala, Orissa, Madhya Pradesh, Chattisgarh, Rajasthan, Gujarat, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Jharkhand, West Bengal, Mizoram and other northeastern states, and the Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Many smaller tribal groups are quite sensitive to ecological degradation caused by modernization. Both commercial forestry and intensive agriculture have proved destructive to the forests that had endured swidden agriculture for many centuries. [4] Officially recognized by the Indian government as "Scheduled Tribes" in the Fifth Schedule of the Constitution of India, they are often grouped together with scheduled castes in the category "Scheduled Castes and Tribes", which is eligible for certain affirmative action measures.

Although terms such as atavika, vanavāsi ("forest dwellers"), or girijan ("hill people") [5] are also used for the tribes of India, adivāsi carries the specific meaning of being the original and autochthonous inhabitants of a given region, and was specifically coined for that purpose in the 1930s. [6] Over a period of time, unlike the terms "aborigines" or "tribes", the word "adivasi" has also developed a connotation of past autonomy which was disrupted during the British colonial period in India and has not been restored. [7]

UKT: More in Wikipedia article.

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Dharma & Adharma

-- UKT 130913, 160530

UKT 160530: Though the question of what is {ku.ol} and what is {a.ku.ol}, is almost non-controversial among the Theravada Buddhists of Myanmarpr, there is no unanimous view on English translations. However, "forced marriage" and therefore "incest", as is done by the Hindu MahaBrahma on Saraswati, is clearly {a.ku.ol}.

To many in Myanmarpr where the predominant religion is Theravada Buddhism, Dhamma {Dm~ma.} -- not Dharma {Dar~ma.} -- is simply the teachings of Gautama Buddha, and Adharma is what is outside his teachings, especially those that are opposed to that of Buddha. Yet when I delve more into the question, it gets more and more complex. This is not a religious nor philosophical essay, but one written by a hard-nosed material scientist who is a professed "skeptical chemist" just like Robert Boyle (1627 1691). Many of my present views would not acceptable to many in Myanmarpr.

I accept the first two or three laws of Buddhism as scientific laws that transcends Time and Space or Space-Time Continuum of modern Science. The rest of what goes under Theravada Buddhism is of little concern to me.

space-time - n. Physics . The four-dimensional continuum of one temporal and three spatial coordinates in which any event or physical object is located. - AHTD

These are: the Four Noble Truths, the Anatta doctrine, and the Twenty-four roots of human thoughts and actions.

Simply put, the Four Noble Truths states: 1. No sentient being is ever free from mental-suffering. 2. Attachment to material things and ideas is the cause of suffering. 3. The end of attachment is the end of suffering. 4. The Eight modes of living are the basis of freedom from attachment.

The Anatta doctrine first let you define Atta - the permanent, indestructible entity or basis and let you search for it. Inability to find Atta proves that there is no Atta. It is only an axiom, just like the idea of a geometrical point. Thus there is no sense in being attached to an axiom -- an idea.

The Twenty-four roots tell  us that every thought and action is based on Greed, Anger, Ignorance, or their opposite three.

I have been asked about Nirvana and Karma in relation to a next existence after physical death. These I dismiss are just ideas without any scientific foundations.

My views are so narrow that I cannot say they are the Dharma, and everything else Adharma. I have put the question of the teachings of Buddha to my father U Tun Pe. When I asked him, I was still in my early teens. I  had just been taught about the Ten Commandments at the Christian school I was attending. Realizing that my views were becoming so down-to-earth, my father just summed up the Three Summaries: Do good, don't do bad, and purify your mind.

Years later after coming to Canada, I watched the Mahabharata on TV. I believe there were 10 episodes, and they were aired only after mid-night. I watched them all while taping them in VCDs. In it the question of Dharma came up. It is so hard to explain. I am studying Skt-Dev to delve more into the whole epic. All I can come up is just one word 'Fairness'.

'Fairness' and 'Unfairness' are just ideas. What is 'fair' to one may not be 'fair' to another. I remember what my father had told me. In such a case, just ask yourself, "would I like this to be done to me?". If you come up with the answer, No, just don't do it. 

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Diti

-- UKT 130301
In reading this article, remember to equate the words "demon" to Asura, and "god" to Deva. Remember, "Indra" is the king, or rather the office of kingship of the Deva-gods. Diti is the Mother-goddess representing Earth, and Aditi represents the Space through which the luminaries equated to Deva-gods and Asura-demons move.

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Diti 120925

In Hinduism, Diti (Skt: दिति) {di.ti.} is an earth goddess and mother of the Maruts with Rudra. She is also the mother of the Daityas with the sage Rishi Kashyapa {ka~a.hpa. ra.}. [UKT ]

She [Diti] wanted to have a son who would be more powerful than Indra (who had killed her previous children) and so she practiced magic and kept herself pregnant for one year. [1] Indra used a thunderbolt to splinter the fetus into many pieces, the Maruts. [UKT ]

She is also Aditi's sister. Diti is the daughter of Daksha-Prajapati one of the grandfather's of creation, a son of Brahma, the god of ritual skill and a king. Her mother was Veerni. She is among one of the sixty daughters of Daksha. She is one of the thirteen wives of Kashyapa, another prajapati and a great sage. She has many demon sons and daughters. [UKT ]

Her two most famous sons were the rebirths of Vishnu's gatekeepers Jaya and Vijaya who failed to keep their dharma. They were Hiranyaksha who was slain by Vishnu's varaha avatara and Hiranyakashipu who was slain by Vishnu's man-lion, narasimha avatara. She also had a daughter named Holika who was killed by her own powers. [UKT ]

Holika (होलिका) was a good demoness in Hindu scripture who was burnt to death with help of God Brahma by Prahlad. She was the sister of King Hiranyakashipu.
   The story of Holika's conflict signifies the triumph of good over evil, and death of Holika is celebrated as Holi.
-- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Holika 130301

Diti is usually mean and cruel to Kashyapa and Aditi. She is always obsessed with trying to raise the power of demons to its peak. She also hates Aditi's sons who are the gods.

In Sanskrit, the word Diti means tej or brilliance or Idea.

Besides great Asura Hiranyakashipu, some other more famous sons of Diti are also mentioned in Adiparava, Mahabharata, as follows:

1. Sivi: A great Asura, known among the sons of Diti, became on earth the famous monarch Druma;

2. Aswa: That great Asura, son of Diti, known as Aswa (Asva), [2] became on earth the monarch Ashoka of exceeding energy and invincible in battle. [3] [4]

3. Aswapati: Younger brother of Aswa and another son of Diti, was born as Hardikya, the king of the Mallas;

4. Sarabha: A great Asura and son of Diti, was born on this earth as royal sage Paurava;

5. Chandra: The foremost among the sons of Diti and handsome as the lord of the stars himself, became on earth noted as Chandra Varmana Kamvoja, the king of the Kamvojas (i.e. Kambojas). [5] Also see link: [1].

UKT: More in the Wikipedia article

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Three Seasons (weather) of Myanmarpr

-- UKT 091031, 130913

From: Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nakshatra 091031

Ardra (आर्द्रा = आ र ् द ् र ा ) (Moist One) [Nakshatra (नक्षत्र = न क ् ष त ् र ) number 6 of 27]

Western star name : Betelgeuse
Lord : Rahu (North lunar node)
Symbol : Teardrop, diamond, a human head
Deity : Rudra, the storm god
Indian zodiac : 6 40' - 20 Mithuna ; Western zodiac: 2 40' - 16 Cancer
The moon in Ardra indicates a person with sadness and destructive impulses, but also who is skilled at creating new things out of destruction and renovating old things. They are cold, calculating, stubborn and controlling, with a violent temperament, but can also be strong, stable and sympathetic personalities.

The Dry and the Wet

-- UKT 130913

Myanmarpr really has only two seasons -- the dry and the wet. From the middle of March to about middle of July are the four months of dry hot weather. Pix on the left shows Shan State in the dry-hot season.

During the next four months, we have the rainy season. During the dry months the fields have been ploughed producing upturned clumps of soil. Now comes the rains flooding the fields. Middle pix shows a cultivator at the second stage of ploughing. This time he uses a rake-like contraption on which he has one foot to control the weight of the plough. He holds a rattan cane and the reins to control the buffalos. Horse are not used even for dry ploughing.

The reason may be rooted in culture, because the horse and the elephant are royal animals used as mounts by the king and the royalty and they were used in war-fare.

The wet-plough reduces the clumps of earth to a fine oozy mud. The cultivator goes over the same area if needs be, because the finer the mud the better is the quality of the crop. Then comes transplanting by women-folk as the right pix shows.

During my service in Bassein college, my quarter was on a small hill at the foot of which were rice-fields, and scenes like the ones in the middle and right were common sight from my veranda. The cultivators work in the sun and in the rain with water-leeches bothering them. Chewed tobacco leaves are used to remove the leeches.

Then comes four months of dry-cool weather, when it is time to harvest the rice (we called it paddy). There is only a need to work for the first two months. Then comes the pagoda festivals with their travelling music and dancing troupes.

I was born in the southern Myanmarpr where extensive wet-cultivation of rice was practiced, and had served in the Shan State till I retired from the service of my ancestral land until I was 58 - a total service of more than 33 years as a university teacher. With my class-mate and wife Daw Than Than who was also a chemistry teacher herself, my working years in Myanmarpr was an extended honey-moon.

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