Update: 2019-06-25 11:02 PM -0400


Practical Sanskrit Dictionary for Buddhists and Hindus


A Practical Sanskrikt Dictionary, by A. A. Macdonell, 1893,
http://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/scans/MDScan/index.php?sfx=jpg; 1929.
- Nataraj ed., 1st in 2006, 2012.
- https://dsal.uchicago.edu/dictionaries/macdonell/ 190516
The Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Grammar and Dictionary, BHS, vol.2, by F. Edgerton, pp. 627.
- FEdgerton-BHSD<> / Bkp<> (link chk 180627)
The Student's Pali English dictionary , by U Pe Maung Tin, 1920.
- (ref: UPMT-PEDxxx).  Downloaded copies in TIL HD-PDF and SD-PDF libraries:
- UPMT-PaliDict1920<> / bkp<> (link chk 190113)
  Pali-Myanmar Dictionary (in Pal-Myan), by U Hoke Sein,
- (ref: UHS-PMD). The dictionary in printed form is in TIL Research Library.
Latin-English Vocabulary II, by Hans H rberg, 1998
- HHOrberg-LinguaLatina<> / Bkp<> (link chk 190624)

Edited by U Kyaw Tun (UKT) (M.S., I.P.S.T., USA), Daw Khin Wutyi, Daw Thuzar Myint, Daw Zinthiri Han and staff of Tun Institute of Learning (TIL). Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone. Prepared for students and staff of TIL  Research Station, Yangon, MYANMAR 
 - http://www.tuninst.net , www.romabama.blogspot.com 

MC-indx.htm | Top

Contents of this page

{a.kRi.ta.} - cont
{a.k:} : though {k:} is present in Bur-Myan, it is not in Pal-Myan

{ak} : the first rime
{ar~ka.} Repha derived from {ak~ka.}
{ak~na.} / {a.k~na.} - See Hanging Consonants of Mon-Myan
{ak~ya.} / {a.kya.}
{ak~ra.} / {a.kra.}
{ak~la.} / {a.k~la.}
{ak~Sa.} : * Pseudo-Kha {kSa.} - Always keep in mind the transformation {ak~Sa.} to {a.kSa.}


{a.ga.}  / {ag}

* UKT150105, 150629: In many ways {ak~Sa.} behaves as {a.k~Sa.}, because of which I refer to the conjunct {kSa.} (without the ~ sign) as Pseudo-Kha. It, {kSa.}, is found in literature as {ksa.} - the capital S written as small s . I had thought that s /s/ in {ksa.} was the palatal plosive-stop.

I have found it to be the dental fricative-hisser (which is not present in Burmese). The conjunct {ksa.} is so stable that it is not broken up when "killed" as shown in अक्ष्णया [ akshnay&asharp; ] = अ (क ् ष) ् ण य ा . Compare this to case of Pal-Myan Nya'major {a.} which is broken up under {a.t}. See the case of Shin Kic'si: {shin kic~s} (the name of the famous Pali grammarian-monk) becoming "Kachchayano" {kis~si~a.} in International Pali.

Romabama now differentiates between: Bamah-Mon-Sanskrit 

Bamah palatal plosive-stop - {sa.}/ {c} :
Mon palatal fricative - {Ca.}/ {C} : च च्
Sanskrit dental fricative-hisser - {Sa.}/ {S} : ष ष्
   The instrument for differentiating the three speeches, 
   Bamah (Burmese), Mon, and Sanskrit is the Virama {a.t}
   The 2nd Mon palatal fricative is {cha.}/ {ch}, from which we get
     English "church" = {chaach} or {chuuch}

There can be confusion because Romabama uses the same glyph for both palatal plosive-stop and dental fricative-hisser, but there is no confusion in Devanagari because it uses different glyphs, च & ष .
Caveat: IPA & IAST transliterations should not be used because they make the confusion worse.

12) अक्त (p. 8) akta √ag and √ag.
55) अक्लेश (p. 8) a-klesa no hardship, ease: ab. without trouble.

UKT notes :
Canopus, the second brightest star
Non-rhotic to rhotic series for front vowels
Problem of medial formation

Contents of this page

{a.kRRi.ta.} - cont


p002c1-b00/ p008-029

अकृतसंकल्प [ akrita-samkalpa ]
- a. irresolute.
29) अकृतसंकल्प (p. 8) akrita-samkalpa irresolute.


p002c1-b01/ p008-028

अकृतात्मन्् [ akrita‿tman ]
- a. of unformed mind, undisciplined, rude, vicious.
28) अकृतात्मन्् (p. 8) akrita̮tman of unformed mind,


p002c1-b02/ p008-027

अकृतार्थ [ akrita‿artha ]
- a. unsatisfied.
27) अकृतार्थ (p. 8) akrita̮artha unsatisfied.


p002c1-b03/ p008-026 

अकृत्य [ a-kritya ]
- fp. not to be done; n. misdeed.
26) अकृत्य (p. 8) a-kritya not to be done; n. misdeed.


p002c1-b04/ p008-025

अकृत्रिम [ a-kritrima ]
- a. unfeigned; un-artificial, natural; unsophisticated.
25) अकृत्रिम (p. 8) a-kritrima unfeigned;


p002c1-b05/ p008-024

अकृत्वा [ a-kritv ]
- gd. without doing.
24) अकृत्वा (p. 8) a-kritv without doing.


p002c1-b06/ p008-023

अकृत्स्न [ -kritsna ]
- a. incomplete.
23) अकृत्स्न (p. 8) -kritsna incomplete.


p002c1-b07/ p008-022

अकृत्स्नविद्् [ a-kritsna-vid ]
- a. not knowing everything, of defective knowledge.
22) अकृत्स्नविद्् (p. 8) a-kritsna-vid not knowing everything,


Contents of this page


p002c1-b08/ p008-021

अकृप [ a-kripa ]
- a. pitiless.
21) अकृप (p. 8) a-kripa pitiless. 


p002c1-b09/ p008-020

अकृपण [ a-kripana ]
- a. generous; uncomplaining, cheerful.
20) अकृपण (p. 8) a-kripana generous;


--> {a.kRi.pa.Nm}
BHS: akṛpaṇam -- FE-BHS002c2


p002c1-b10/ p008-019

अकृशलक्ष्मी [ a-krisa-lakshm ]
- a. rich in beauty; very prosperous.
19) अकृशलक्ष्मी (p. 8) a-krisa-lakshm rich in beauty;


p002c1-b11/ p008-018

अकृषीवल [ -krishvala ]
- a. not agricultural.
18) अकृषीवल (p. 8) -krishvala not agricultural.


p002c1-b12/ p008-017

अकृष्ट [ -krishta ]
- pp. unploughed; growing wild; n. untilled soil.
17) अकृष्ट (p. 8) -krishta unploughed;

Contents of this page


p002c1-b13/ p008-016

अकेशव [ a-kesava ]
- a. without Kesava (Krishna).
16) अकेशव (p. 8) a-kesava without Kesava (Krishna). 

Contents of this page


p002c1-b14/ p008-015 

अकैतव [ a-kaitava ]
- a. not simulated, genuine.
15) अकैतव (p. 8) a-kaitava not simulated, genuine.

Contents of this page


अकोपन akopana
--> {a.kau:pa.na.}
Skt: अकोपन akopana - adj. not irascible -- SpkSkt
  [not prone to outbursts of temper; not easily angered -- AHTD].
*Pal-antonym: {kau:pa.na.}  - UHS-PMD0338
  UKT from UHS: mfn. prone to outbursts of temper


p002c1-b15/ p008-014

अकोपिता [ a-kopi-t ]
- f. evenness of temper.
14) अकोपिता (p. 8) a-kopi-t evenness of temper.


अकोविद akovida
Skt: अकोविद akovida - adj. unwise, ignorant -- SpkSkt
BPal: {a.kau:wi.da.} - UHS-PMD0004
  UKT from UHS: mfn. unwise


Contents of this page


p002c1-b16/ p008-013

अकौशल [ a-kausala ]
- n. inexperience, helplessness.
13) अकौशल (p. 8) a-kausala inexperience, helplessness.


Contents of this page

{ak} / {ar~ka.} अर्क  : the first rime

UKT 160329: What could be words with {ar~ka.} अर्क are found in FE BHS-Dictonary p065-p067.

{ar~ka.} Repha derived from {ak~ka.}

UKT 160331: Repha formation - Generally, when a conjunct of two plosive-stops consonants follows {a.}, the top consonant is changed into {r} written in Repha form, e.g. {ak~ka.} -> {ar~ka.}

Skt: अर्क arka - m. Sunday, sun, sunbeam, Calotropis gigantea , copper, elder brother, etc. -- SpkSkt 
BHS: Arka - n. of a king (previous incarnation of Śākyamuni): Mv i.54.5
  UKT: Mv cited is Mahāvastu, ed. Senart, Paris, 1882, 1890, 1897. It is a text of the
  Lokottaravāda school of Early Buddhism. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mah%C4%81vastu 160328
BPal: {ak~ka.} usually changes into {ar~ka.} अर्क
  {ak~ka.} [implied meaning 'prominence' ] - UHS-PMD0004
  UKT from UHS: m. Sun, {ma.ro:}-shrub - Caltropis gigantea .

UKT 130722: A common wild plant in the drier regions of central Myanmar, but can withstand lots of rain. It commonly grows to about 5 ft. but can grow taller. On breaking a part, milky sap runs out which is used for curdling milk. It is a useful medicinal plant. The stem may be beaten into fibers which can be spun and woven into cloth. The fibers may also be made into strings, bowstrings, and ropes. See Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Calotropis_gigantea 120905, 130722


Pal: {ak~ka.na-la.} - UHS-PMD0005
  UKT from UHS: n. monk-robe woven with C. gigantea fibers .


अक्का akkā   --> {ak~ka}
Skt: अक्का  akkā - f. mother (pejorative), procuress -- SpkSkt
Skt: अक्का akkā -- f. (Voc. akka Pāṇ.) a mother (used contemptuously),
  N. of a woman ; [supposed to be a term of foreign origin, Lat. ācca.] -- MW-002c3

UKT 130722: Remember this is a Sanskrit dictionary, but if you are Pal-Myan speaker-writer, you are bound to look for {ak~hka.} अक्ख -- a Pali word. I was in that situation when I started to learn Sanskrit.
Pal: {ak~hka.} - UHS-PMD0005
  - UKT from UHS: m. cart axle, chariot axle, six-sided die for gambling,
  small white cowrie-shells used in place of six-side die (different from four-sided die),
  a measure of weight. mfn. having seeing-eyes [probably referring to intelligence].
Skt: अक्ष  [aksh] - . m. die for playing . -- MC002c1


Contents of this page


p002c1-b17/ p008-011

अक्त [ akta ]
= अ क ् त --> {ak~ta.}
  11) अक्तु (p. 8) ak-t ointment; light, ray; clear night: in. pl. by night.
Skt: अक्त [akta] - pp. of √ag and √ag. Mac002c1
Skt: akta - .  akta mfn. (√aj), driven. . akt mfn. (√aj), smeared over, diffused, bedaubed, tinged, characterized. Often ifc. (cf. raktkta). (am), n. oil, ointment. -- MW-002c3 


p002c1-b18/ not online

अक्तु [ ak-t ]
- m. ointment; light, ray; clear night: in. pl. by night.


Contents of this page


UKT 160330: See Hanging Consonants (Nasals & Approximants) in Mon-Myan Language: Speech and Script - MonMyan-indx.htm > MonMyan-NMgToe-Mon-Bur<> (link chk 160330)
Refer to Naing Maung Toe, p047/pdf051

p002c1-b19/ p008-019

अक्न [ akna ]
= अ क ् न -> {ak~na.}
- pp. of √ak. 
10) अक्न (p. 8) akna √ak.


Contents of this page

{ak~ya.} or {a.kya.}


See: Non-rhotic to rhotic series for front vowels
and read my note on Problem of medial formation

p002c1-b20/ p008-008

अक्र [ 1. -kra ]
= अ क ् र -> Skt {a.k~ra.}, Pal {a.kRa.}, Bur {a.kra.}.

8) अक्र (p. 8) 2. ak-r banner.

Skt: अक्र [ 1. -kra ] . a. inactive, indolent. -- Mac002c1
Pal antonym: {ka.ra.} - UHS-PMD0297
  UKT from UHS: mfn. done. m. doer, ray, hand, (prehensile) elephant's trunk, taxation

Note: Whether Skt-Dev अक्र a-kra & Pal-Myan {ka.ra.} are antonyms would be reviewed again. For the present, we will tentatively say they are. -- UKT120905


p002c1-b21/ p008-009

अक्र [ 2. ak-r ]
- m. banner.
9) अक्र (p. 8) 1. -kra inactive, indolent.


p002c1-b22/ p008-007

अक्रत krata, अक्रन्् [ kran ]
- V. 2 & 3 pl. impf. of √kri.
7) अक्रत (p. 8) kran 2 & 3 pl. impf. of √kri.


p002c1-b23/ p008-006

अक्रतु [ a-krat ]
- a. powerless; senseless.
6) अक्रतु (p. 8) a-krat powerless; senseless.


p002c1-b24/ p008-005

अक्रव्याद्् [a-kravya‿ad], द [ -da ]
- a. not eating flesh.
5) अक्रव्याद्् (p. 8) -da not eating flesh.


p002c1-b25/ p008-004

अक्रियमाण [a-kri-ya-mna ]
= अ क ् र ि य म ा ण
- pr. pt. ps. not being done.
4) अक्रियमाण (p. 8) a-kri-ya-mna not being done.


p002c1-b26/ p008-003

अक्रिया [ a-kriy ]
- f. omission to do (g.).
3) अक्रिया (p. 8) a-kriy omission to do (g.).


p002c1-b27/ p008-002

अक्रियाक [ a-kriy-ka ]
- a. inactive, immovable.
2) अक्रियाक (p. 8) a-kriy-ka inactive, immovable.


p002c1-b28/ p008-001

अक्रूर [ a-krra ]
- a. not harsh, tender, gentle; - parivra, a. having gentle attendants.
1) अक्रूर (p. 8) a-krra not harsh, tender, gentle;


p002c1-b29/ p008-060

अक्रोध [ -krodha ]
- m. freedom from anger; a. not given to anger; -na, a. id.
60) अक्रोध (p. 8) -krodha freedom from anger;


Contents of this page

{ak~la.} / {a.kla.}

p002c1-b30/ p008-059

अक्लिष्ट [ a-klishta ]
- pp. not worn out, fresh.
59) अक्लिष्ट (p. 8) a-klishta not worn out, fresh.


p002c1-b31/ p008-058

अक्लिष्टकार [ aklishta-kra ]
- m. indefatigable activity; -krin, a. indefatigable.
58) अक्लिष्टकार (p. 8) aklishta-kra indefatigable activity; -krin, a. indefatigable.


p002c1-b32/ p008-057

अक्लीब [ a-klba ]
= अ क ् ल ी ब --> {ak~li.ba.}
- a. manly; -t, f. manliness.
57) अक्लीब (p. 8) a-klba manly;


p002c1-b33/ p008-056

अक्लेद्य [ a-kledya ]
- fp. not to be moistened.
56) अक्लेद्य (p. 8) a-kledya not to be moistened.


p002c1-b34/ not online

अक्ल ेश [ a-klesa ]
- m. no hardship, ease: ab. without trouble.


Contents of this page

{a.kSa.} : Pseudo-Kha

UKT 160330: There were two special conjuncts in Skt-Dev that had troubled me in my earlier days of studying Skt-Dev: क्ष {k~Sa.} & ज्ञ {z~a.} . They are special because they occur frequently. As a special allowance, I have left out the ~ (TIL notation for conjunct), and write क्ष {kSa.} & ज्ञ {za.}, and finally but occasionally  as क्ष {ksa.} & ज्ञ {jna.} knowing fully well that {s} & {n} can be mistaken for other graphemes.

The transformation {ak~Sa.} to {a.kSa.} must be kept in mind when comparing to Pal-Myan:
Pal: {ak~hka.} / {a.hka.}


p002c1-b35/ not online

अक्ष् [aksh]
- reach: pp. sahta. nis, unman


p002c1-b36/ p008-052 

अक्ष [ . aksh ]
= अ क ् ष --> {ak~Sa.}
  52) अक्ष (p. 8) 3. aksha organ of sense: --= kshi, eye.
Skt: अक्ष [ aksh ] - m. die for playing. -- Mac002c1
BPal: {ak~hka.} - UHS-PMD0005
  UKT from UHS: m. axle, chariot axle, 6-face dice, a trio of cowries used as dice in gambling, Terminalia bellirica , a count noun. mfn. having eyes


p002c1-b37/ p008-053

अक्ष [ . ksha ]
- m. axle; bone of the temples.
53) अक्ष (p. 8) 2. ksha axle;


p002c1-b38/ not online

अक्ष [ . aksha ]
- m. n. organ of sense: -- = kshi, eye.


p002c1-b39/ p008-054

अक्ष [ 4. aksha ]
- m. N.; -kshapana, -ka, m. N. of a gambler
54) अक्ष (p. 8) 1. aksh die for playing.


p002c1-b40/ p008-051

अक्षज्ञ [ aksha-ga ]
= अ क ् ष ज ् ञ
51) अक्षज्ञ (p. 8) aksha-ga skilled in dice.


UKT 160331: In the above word are two conjuncts, क्ष {k~Sa.} & ज्ञ {z~a.},  that are of interest to us. Though क्ष {k~Sa.} can be related to Bur-Myan {hka.}, ज्ञ {z~a.} cannot be related to anything in Bur-Myan. ज्ञ {z~a.}  may be interpreted as "intrinsic knowledge" -- an inborn 'skill', or cultivated by intense mental training such as through yogic practices. From this it can be related to Jhāna (Pal-Dev झान) = {Zaan} (Bur-Myan -- MLC MED2006-155). This is my reasoning is the basis for placing {Za.} & ज्ञ {z~a.}* in the cell r2c4 together in Base akshara matrix of Romabama for BEPS.

*The question now arises in the light of Hanging Nya'gyi in Mon-Myan: can it be {z~a.} instead of ? Since Nya'gyi {a.}/ {} as the Palatal Approximant is found only in Myanmar script, and lost to everyone else, there is actually no way of knowing for sure.


p002c1-b41/ p008-050

अक्षण्वत्् [ akshan-vt ]
- a. possessed of eyes.
50) अक्षण्वत्् (p. 8) akshan-vt possessed of eyes.



-- 3 s. sbj. aor. of √as , obtain


p002c1-b43/ p008-049

अक्षत [ -kshata ]
  49) अक्षत (p. 8) -kshata uninjured; unscathed: n. s. & m. pl. unhusked grain (esp. barley); f. , virgo intacta.
Skt: अक्षत [-kshata - pp. uninjured; unscathed: n. s. & m. - pl. unhusked grain (esp. barley); f. , virgo intacta. -- Mac002c1
Skt: अक्षत akṣata - adj. uninjured, un-thrashed, unbroken, whole, not crushed, Shiva, boil or sore not produced by cutting, eunuch, un-husked barley-corns - SpkSkt
BPal: {ak~hka.ta.} - UHS-PMD0005
  UKT from UHS: mfn. uninjured
Pal antonym: {hka.ta.} - UHS-PMD0343
  UKT from UHS: mfn. being injured and hurt. n. process of being injured and hurt

UKT 130601: I am unable to explain why SpkSkt has included "eunuch" 'castrated-male' as one of the meanings. A possible explanation: to become an eunuch for royal service as a harem-attendant, a young boy would be castrated before he had attained puberty. Thus, he might be considered to be chaste or "unspoiled by sex".

virgo intacta /ˈvɜːgəʊ ɪnˈtktə/
-- n. Medicine/ Gynaecology & Obsetrics , a girl or woman whose hymen has not be broken.
Latin, literally 'untouched virgin' -- http://www.thefreedictionary.com/virgo+intacta 120907


Contents of this page


p002c2-b01/ p008-048

अक्षतकेशर [ akshata-kesara ]
- a. having an uninjured mane.
48) अक्षतकेशर (p. 8) akshata-kesara having an uninjured mane.

UKT 130721: A horse whose mane has not been tempered with shows that it has not been used before -- a chaste animal.


p002c2-b02/ p008-047

अक्षत्र [ a-kshatra ]
= अ क ् ष त ् र  = --> {a.hkt~ti.ya.}
  47) अक्षत्र (p. 8) a-kshatra without the warrior caste.
Skt: अक्षत्र [a-kshatra] - a. without the warrior caste. -- Mac002c2
BPal antonym: {hkt~ti.ya.} - UHS-PMD0343
  UKT from UHS: mfn. governing the land and the water, ruling class. m. a person of ruling class.

Cultural note 130721: In Bur-Myan custom, a person's head-hair is inviolate, and a person committing "pulling another's head-hair" is committing an offence amounting to "murder", and is punishable by death. Only the king of the land has the right to pull another's head-hair. Thus the Myanmar kings were known as the Lord of Land, Water, and Head-hair {ak-U:hsn-peing Bu.rn}. Of course, one's mentor-monk and parents are above the customary law.


p002c2-b03/ p008-046

अक्षद्यूत [ aksha-dyta ]
- n. game of dice.
46) अक्षद्यूत (p. 8) aksha-dyta game of dice.


p002c2-b04/ p008-044

अक्षन्् [ 1. akshn ]
- n. eye: weak base of akshi.
44) अक्षन्् (p. 8) 2. -ksh-an 3 pl. impf. of √ghas.


p002c2-b05/ p008-045

अक्षन्् [ 2. -ksh-an ]
- V. 3 pl. impf. of √ghas.
45) अक्षन्् (p. 8) 1. akshn eye: weak base of akshi.


p002c2-b06/ p008-043

अक्षनैपुण [ aksha-naipuna ]
- n. skill in dice.
43) अक्षनैपुण (p. 8) aksha-naipuna skill in dice.


p002c2-b07/ p008-042

अक्षपटल [ aksha-patala ]
= (अ क ् ष) (प ट ल) = {ak~Sa. pa.Ta.la.}
  42) अक्षपटल (p. 8) aksha-patala archives.
Skt: अक्षपटल [aksha-patala] - n. archives. -- Mac002c2

UKT 130530: {ak~hka. pa.Ta.la.} is not listed in UHS. However, {pa.Ta.la.} is listed on p0574. From the examples given, I can make out the gloss to be 'a place of storage', such as <hive> 'a place of storage of honey', <rain cloud> 'a place of storage of rain drops'. Extending this idea further, {ak~hka. pa.Ta.la.} may be glossed as 'archive'.

आक्षपटलिक ākṣapaṭalika
Skt: आक्षपटलिक ākṣapaṭalika - m. keeper of the archives - SpkSkt


p002c2-b08/ p008-041

अक्षप्रिय [ aksha-priya ]
- a. fond of dice or lucky at play (beloved by dice).
41) अक्षप्रिय (p. 8) aksha-priya fond of dice or lucky at play


p002c2-b09/ p008-040

अक्षभूमि [ aksha-bhmi ]
- f. place for playing at dice.
40) अक्षभूमि (p. 8) aksha-bhmi place for playing at dice.


p002c2-b10/ p008-039

अक्षम [ a-kshama ]
- a. unable to, incapable of (lc., inf. or --ree;).
39) अक्षम (p. 8) a-kshama unable to, incapable of (lc., inf. or --).


p002c2-b11/ p008-038

अक्षमद [ aksha-mada ]
- m. passion for play.
38) अक्षमद (p. 8) aksha-mada passion for play.


p002c2-b12/ p008-037

अक्षमा [ a-ksham ]
- f. ill-will, envy.
37) अक्षमा (p. 8) a-ksham ill-will, envy.


p002c2-b13/ p008-036

अक्षमात्र [ aksha-mtra ]
- n. (measured by the eye), moment: in. in a moment.
36) अक्षमात्र (p. 8) aksha-mtra (measured by the eye), moment:

UKT 130721, 160331: मात्रा mātrā simply means a 'measure', and is measured by the blink of an eye or eye-blink. For example, a "short" vowel lasts one mātrā or 1 eye-blink, a "long" vowel lasts two or 2 blk. The modern linguistic term "mora" derived from Roman-Latin is the same as Skt-Dev मात्रा mātrā.


p002c2-b14/ p008-035

अक्षमाला [ aksha-ml ]
- f. rosary; N. of Arundhat.
35) अक्षमाला (p. 8) aksha-ml rosary; N. of Arundhat.

UKT 160331: Arundhatī is the wife of Rishi Vashishta who was in conflict with a human-king who eventually became a more powerful rishi - Rishi Vishwamitra.

I have come to view the conflict between the two as the struggle between the Iron age Sanskrit speaking invaders headed by Rishi Vashishta, and the Bronze age defenders speaking Tib-Bur languages headed by Rishi Vishwamitra. The invaders are more used to detailed study of the stars because they were more used to celestial navigation across oceans and deserts than the land-based defenders who rely on the stars to predict the seasons mainly for agriculture.

A group of losers headed by King Abhiraza sought refuge in northern Myanmarpr and founded the first kingdom - Tagaung Kingdom which preceded the Pagan Kingdom.
See https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vashistha 160331
"In the Vinaya Pitaka of the Mahavagga (I.245)[7] section the Buddha pays respect to Maharishi Vashistha by declaring that the Veda in its true form was declared to the Vedic rishis "Atthako, Vmako, Vmadevo, Vessmitto, Yamataggi, Angiraso, Bhradvjo, Vsettho, Kassapo, and Bhagu".
See also the Battle of Ten Kings - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_the_Ten_Kings  160331
and possible connection to King Abhiraza of Taguaung Kingdom.

p002c2-b15/ p008-034

अक्षमालिका ; [ aksha-mlik ]
- f. rosary.
34) अक्षमालिका (p. 8) aksha-mlik rosary.


p002c2-b16/ p008-033

अक्षमिन्् [ a-kshamin ]
- a. pitiless.
33) अक्षमिन्् (p. 8) a-kshamin pitiless.


p002c2-b17/ p008-032

अक्षय [ a-kshaya ]
= अ क ् ष य  = {ak~Sa.ya.}
Skt: अक्षय [a-ksaya] - a. imperishable; -tva, n. -ness, exemption from decay; -loka, m. heaven. -- Mac002c2
  32) अक्षय (p. 8) a-kshaya imperishable;
BPal: {ak~hka.ya.} - UHS PMD0006
  UKT from UHS: mfn. inexhaustible, indestructible .


p002c2-b18/ p008-030

अक्षय्य [ 1. a-kshayy ]
- fp. undecaying, indestructible, inexhaustible.
30) अक्षय्य (p. 8) 2. a-kshayya that it may never fail; -̮udaka, n. id.


p002c2-b19/ p008-031

अक्षय्य [ 2. a-kshayya ]
- n. water accompanied by a wish that it may never fail; -‿udaka, n. id.
31) अक्षय्य (p. 8) 1. a-kshayy undecaying, indestructible, inexhaustible. 


p002c2-b20/ p008-085

अक्षर [ a-kshra ]
= अ क ् ष र = {ak~Sa.ra. } --> {ak~hka.ra.}
- a. imperishable; n. word, syllable, the sacred syllable (om); sound, letter; document, epistle; the supreme deity; -kyutaka, n. supplying an omitted syllable (a game); -khhandas, n. syllabic metre; -ml, f. wreath of letters (written by fate on the forehead), i-k, f. id.; -vargita, pp. illiterate; -vinysa, m. writing; -siksh, f. alphabet.
85) अक्षर (p. 8) a-kshra imperishable;


अक्षर akṣara 
Skt: अक्षर akṣara -- a. imperishable; n. word, syllable, the sacred syllable (om)*; sound, letter; document, epistle; the supreme deity; -- Mac002c2
Bur: {ak~hka.ra} - n. character, letter of an abugida alphabet, abugida alphabet -- MLC MED2006-619
(It is regrettable that MLC does not make the distinction between the two writing systems: the abugida and the alphabet. -- UKT130531)

UKT 130531: The Skt-Dev word ॐ <Om> is also written in Dev as ओं , औं , or 'ओ३म् .  
See Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Om 130531.
   Though generally recited as the opening sound, {On}, in reciting mantras by Bur-Myan Buddhists, it is different from Skt-Dev
<Om>. The Bur-Myan is an open back vowel, whereas the Skt-Dev is close back vowel.
   Whatever the case may be, I hold that the meaning of the word
अक्षर akṣara should be given as "a. imperishable, n. word, syllable". We should neglect all religious references to it to be in line with my aim of making BEPS 'religion neutral'. That the "akshara" is unchanging makes sense because the akshara is the basis of the Abugida writing system, and by definition it must be unchanging from language point of view.

अक्षर माला akṣara mālā
Skt: - f. wreath of letters (written by fate on the forehead) -- Mac002c2


p002c2-b21/ p008-084

अक्षवती [ aksha-vat ]
= अ क ् ष व त ी = {ak~Sa.wa.ti} --> {ak~hka.wa.ti}
- f. game of dice; -stra, n. rosary; -hridaya, n. secret of dice.
84) अक्षवती (p. 8) aksha-vat game of dice;


Contents of this page


p002c2-b22/ p008-083

अक्षान्ति [ a-kshnti ]
= (अ क ् ष ा न ्) (त ि) = {ak~Saan-ti.}
- f. malevolence, envy.
83) अक्षान्ति (p. 8) a-kshnti malevolence, envy.


p002c2-b23/ p008-082

अक्षारलवण [ a-kshra-lavana ]
= (अ क ् ष ा र) (ल व ण) = {ak~Sa-ra.la.wa.Na.}
- n. what is not pungent and salt; -‿sin, a. abstaining from seasoned and salted food.
82) अक्षारलवण (p. 8) a-kshra-lavana what is not pungent and salt;


p002c2-b24/ p008-081

अक्षालित [ a-kshlita ]
= (अ क ् ष ा) (ल ि त) = {ak~Sa-li.ta.}
- pp. unwashed.
81) अक्षालित (p. 8) a-kshlita unwashed.


p002c2-b25/ p008-080

अक्षावली [ aksha‿val ]
= अ क ् ष ा व ल ी  = {ak~Sa-wa.li}
- f. rosary.
80) अक्षावली (p. 8) aksha̮val rosary.


Contents of this page


p002c2-b26/ p008-079

अक्षि [ kshi ]
= अ क ् ष ि = {ak~Si.} --> {ak~hki.} (short vowel 1 eye-blk)

79) अक्षि (p. 8) kshi eye: -- a, f. .

Skt: अक्षि [kshi] - n. eye: --; a, f. . -- Mac002c2
BPal: {ak~hki.} (1 blk) -- UHS-PMD0006
 UKT from UHS: n. eye
BPal: {ak~hki} (2 blk) - UHS-PMD0007
  UKT from UHS: mfn. what has eyes


p002c2-b27/ p008-078

अक्षिकूट [ akshi-kta ]
- n. edge of the eye-socket.
78) अक्षिकूट (p. 8) akshi-kta edge of the eye-socket.


p002c2-b28/ p008-077

अक्षिगत [ akshi-gata ]
- pp. being before the eyes; being an eye-sore.
77) अक्षिगत (p. 8) akshi-gata being before the eyes; being an eye-sore.


p002c2-b29/ p008-076

अक्षित [ -kshita ]
- pp. intact; imperishable.
76) अक्षित (p. 8) -kshita intact; imperishable.


p002c2-b30/ p008-075

अक्षिपत्् [ akshi-pt ]
- ad. a very little.
75) अक्षिपत्् (p. 8) akshi-pt a very little.


Contents of this page


p002c2-b31/ p008-074

अक्षी [ aksh ]
- f. eye.
74) अक्षी (p. 8) aksh eye.


p002c2-b32/ p008-073

अक्षीण [ -kshna ]
- pp. not waning; not losing weight.
73) अक्षीण (p. 8) -kshna not waning;


p002c2-b33/ p008-072

अक्षीयमाण [ -kshya-mna ]
- pr. pt. imperishable; inexhaustible.
72) अक्षीयमाण (p. 8) -kshya-mna imperishable; inexhaustible.


अक्षीब akṣība
Skt: अक्षीब akṣība - n. sea salt - SpkSkt
BPal: {ak~hki-wa.} - UHS-PMD0007
  UKT from UHS: n. salt from ocean water.

UKT 130602: There are two kinds of common salt used for human consumption: land salt and sea salt.
   Land salt is generally reddish in color and is obtained by leaching out from the salty soil as is still done in Tagaung - the ancient city of the Pyus. There was evidence that the Pyus were exporting the land salt together with the tea-leaves caked in the form of bricks to places as far as Rome along the southern Silk Road in ancient times. The modern people of Tagaung are still producing this salt. See my papers on Myanmarpr. The word used in connection with salt is {ka:}.
   The other kind of salt was produced by evaporation of sea water in southern Myanmarpr and in India. Historically, Mahatma Gandhi led the "salt protest" against the British Raj who had imposed an excise tax on salt.
   The sea salt is used as an eyewash since ancient times. I think it is because of this reason that sea-salt is known in Pal-Myan as {ak~hki-wa.}.
   A specific word for sea-salt in Skt-Dev is:
लवणसमुद्र  lavaṇasamudra -- m. salt-sea  -- SpkSkt


Contents of this page


p002c2-b34/ p008-071

अक्षुण [ a-kshunna ]
- pp. uninjured; not trite, new, peculiar; uninterrupted, lasting; -t, f. untroddenness (of a road).
71) अक्षुण (p. 8) a-kshunna uninjured;


p002c2-b35/ p008-070

अक्षुद्र [ a-kshudra ]
- a. not insignificant, considerable.
70) अक्षुद्र (p. 8) a-kshudra not insignificant,


Contents of this page


p002c2-b36/ p008-069

अक्षेत्र [ a-kshetra ]
= (अ क ् ष े) (त ् र)   = {ak~S-tra}
69) अक्षेत्र (p. 8) a-kshetra untilled soil; a. uncultivated.

  -->  {ak~hk-tra} 
Skt: अक्षेत्र [a-kshetra] - n. untilled soil; a. uncultivated. -- Mac002c2
BPal antonym: {hkt~ta.} - UHS-PMD0351
  UKT from UHS: - n. [cultivated] field, area for growing crops,
  [by implication] your wife's private parts which you can access


p002c2-b37/ p008-068

अक्षेत्रतर [ kshetra-tara ]
- n. quite uncultivated region, very uninhabitable region.
68) अक्षेत्रतर (p. 8) kshetra-tara quite uncultivated region,

Contents of this page


p002c3-b00/ p008-067

अक्षेत्रिन्् [ a-kshetrin ]
- a. owning no field.
67) अक्षेत्रिन्् (p. 8) a-kshetrin owning no field.


Contents of this page


p002c3-b01/ p008-066

अक्षोड [ akshoda ]
- m. walnut-tree.
66) अक्षोड (p. 8) akshoda walnut-tree.


p002c3-b02/ p008-065

अक्षोधुक [ -kshodhuka ]
- a. not hungry.
65) अक्षोधुक (p. 8) -kshodhuka not hungry.


p002c3-b03/ p008-064

अक्षोभ्य [ a-kshobhya ]
- fp. not to be shaken.
64) अक्षोभ्य (p. 8) a-kshobhya not to be shaken.


Contents of this page


p002c3-b04/ p008-063

अक्षौहिणी [ akshauhin ]
= अ क ् ष ौ ह ि ण ी = {ak~Sau-hi.Ni}
Skt: अक्षौहिणी [akshauhin] - f. complete army; -pati, m. lord of an army, general.
  63) अक्षौहिणी (p. 8) akshauhin complete army;
BPal: {ak~hkau:Bi.Ni} - UHS-PMD0007
  UKT from UHS: - f.  a numeral with 42 zeros, a complete army comprising of 21870 elephantry, 21870 chariots, 65610 calvery, 109350 foot.

UKT 130602: For a description of the Chandra Gupta's army, according to Megasthenes, ambassador from Seleucid Empire, see Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Military_history_of_India 130602


p002c3-b05/ p008-062

अक्ष्णया [ akshnay&asharp; ]
= अ क ् ष ् ण य ा
- ad. across.
62) अक्ष्णया (p. 8) akshnayaN across.


Contents of this page


UKT 150101: {a.hka.} & its derivatives imply "imperfection"

अख akha
BPal: {a.hka.} - UHS-PMD0007
  UKT from UHS: n. a full solid object without any hollow or void space inside.
* Skt: आख ākha - m. pitfall - SpkSkt
Skt antonym: ख kha - hollow - SpkSkt
BPal antonym: {hka.} - UHS-PMD0341 : See also PTS-pdf 443/1358
  UKT from UHS: n. hollow, sky, the energy part of five basic elements .


p002c3-b06/ p008-061 

अखञ्ज [ a-khaga ]
= अ ख ञ ् ज --> {a.hki~za.}
Skt: अखञ्ज  [a-hkaga] - a. not limping, walking well. -- Mac 002c3
  61) अखञ्ज (p. 8) a-khaga not limping, walking well.
BPal antonym: {hki~za.} - UHS-PMD0342
  UKT from UHS: mfn. speech defect [not amounting to mute], bandy [not limp]. m. bandy legs [not limping]


p002c3-b07/ p008-114

अखण्ड [ a-khanda ]
= अ ख ण ् ड --> {a.hkN~a.}
Skt: अखण्ड [a-khanda] -- a. indivisible, entire; -mandala, a. possessing the whole realm. -- Mac002c3
  114) अखण्ड (p. 8) a-khanda indivisible, entire;
BPal: {a.hkN~a.} - UHS-PMD0007
  UKT from UHS: mfn. without breaks, intermissions. [implying continuity]


p002c3-b08/ p008-113

अखण्डित [ a-khandita ]
- pp. uninjured; more unbreakable than (ab.); uninterrupted.
113) अखण्डित (p. 8) a-khandita uninjured;


p002c3-b09/ p008-112

अखण्डिताज्ञ [ akhandita‿ga ]
- a. whose orders are not infringed; -tva, n. abst. ɴ.
112) अखण्डिताज्ञ (p. 8) akhandita̮ga whose orders are not infringed;


p002c3-b10/ p008-111

अखर्व [ -kharva ]
- a. uncurtailed; capable; considerable.
111) अखर्व (p. 8) -kharva uncurtailed;

Contents of this page


अखात akhāta
Skt: अक्षत [-kshata] - pp. uninjured; unscathed:   n. s. & m. pl. unhusked grain (esp. barley);-- Mac-002c1
BPal: {a.hka-ta.} - UHS-PMD0007
  UKT: mfn. - what should not have been dug [implying natural]. mn. {nt}-created pond.

UKT 130604, 160515: To the ancients, what is not done by man must have been done by the {nt} who can be Dva {d-wa}, Ancestral Guardians aka Ma'nes {ro:ra}, or any kind of super-naturals. All of them are worship-able out of respect, gratitude, or even of fear.  In modern thinking it is a pond unspoiled by man, i.e. natural.


Contents of this page


p002c3-b11/ p008-110

अखिन्न [ a-khinna ]
- pp. unwearied, in (lc.).
110) अखिन्न (p. 8) a-khinna unwearied, in (lc.).


p002c3-b12/ p008-109

अखिल [ a-khila ]
- a. without a gap, entire, all; n. everything: in. quite, completely.
109) अखिल (p. 8) a-khila without a gap, entire, all;


Contents of this page


BPal: {a.hkoad~da.} - UHS-PMD0007
  UKT from UHS: mfn. what is not small


Contents of this page


p002c3-b13/ p008-108

अखेद [ a-kheda ]
- m. absence of fatigue, freshness.
108) अखेद (p. 8) a-kheda absence of fatigue, freshness.



-- ij. (joy, surprise); i-kri , greet kindly


Contents of this page

{a.ga.} / {ag}

p002c3-b15/ p008-107 

अग [ a-ga ]
Skt: अग [a-ga]- m. tree; mountain. -- Mac002c3
  107) अग (p. 8) a-ga tree; mountain.
Skt: अग aga adj. unable to walk. m. mountain, tree, snake, number seven, sun, water-jar. -- SpkSkt


p002c3-b16/ p008-106

अगणयत्् [ a-gan-ay-at ]
- pr. pt. disregarding; -i-tv, gd. id.
106) अगणयत्् (p. 8) a-gan-ay-at disregarding;


p002c3-b17/ p008-105

अगणितप्रतियात [ a-ganita-pratiyta ]
- pp. come back because disregarded.
105) अगणितप्रतियात (p. 8) a-ganita-pratiyta come back because disregarded.


p002c3-b18/ p008-104

अगणेय [ a-ganeya ]
- fp. innumerable.
104) अगणेय (p. 8) a-ganeya innumerable.



- id.; -t, f. abst. ɴ.


p002c3-b20/ p008-103

अगति [ a-gati ]
- f. no way, impossibility; a. not going; helpless, unhappy; -t, f. stand-still.
103) अगति (p. 8) a-gati no way, impossibility;


p002c3-b21/ p008-102

अगतिक [ a-gati-ka ]
- a. having no resource left; gati, f. very last resource.
102) अगतिक (p. 8) a-gati-ka having no resource left;


p002c3-b22/ p008-101

अगद [ a-gada ]
Skt: अगद [ a-gada ] - m. health; a. (-d) healthy, well; wholesome; n. medicine, esp. antidote. -- Mac002c3
  101) अगद (p. 8) a-gada health;
Skt antonym: - MCv1pp-indx.htm > p002.htm p081c3-b07
BPal: {a.ga.da.} - UHS-PMD0007
  UKT from UHS: mfn. free from disease. m. medicine

UKT 120130: The words अगद agada and गद gada together refers to
गदागद gadāgada - m. two azvins - SpkSkt
See Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ashvins 160403


p002c3-b23/ p008-100

अगदित [ a-gadita ]
- pp. unasked.
100) अगदित (p. 8) a-gadita unasked.


p002c3-b24/ p008-099

अगन्् [ -gan ]
- V. 2. 3 s., -ganma, 1 pl. aor. of √gam.
99) अगन्् (p. 8) -gan 2. 3 s., -ganma,


p002c3-b25/ p008-098

अगन्ध [ a-gandh ]
- a. scentless.
98) अगन्ध (p. 8) a-gandh scentless.


p002c3-b26/ p008-097

अगम [ a-gama ]
- a. immovable; m. tree.
97) अगम (p. 8) a-gama immovable;


p002c3-b27/ p008-096

अगम्य [ a-gamya ]
- fp. inaccessible; that should not be approached; unintelligible; unsuitable.
96) अगम्य (p. 8) a-gamya inaccessible;


p002c3-b28/ p008-095

अगम्यरूप [ agamya-rpa ]
- a. hard to traverse.
95) अगम्यरूप (p. 8) agamya-rpa hard to traverse.


p002c3-b29/ p008-094

अगम्यागमन [ agamy‿gamana ]
- n. illicit intercourse; -ya, a. consisting in --.
94) अगम्यागमन (p. 8) agamy̮gamana illicit intercourse;


p002c3-b30/ p008-093

अगर्व [ a-garva ]
- a. free from pride, humble.
93) अगर्व (p. 8) a-garva free from pride, humble.


p002c3-b31/ p008-092

अगर्हित [ a-garhita ]
- pp. not blamed, not despised; blameless, irreproachable.
92) अगर्हित (p. 8) a-garhita not blamed, not despised;



- m. Agstya


p002c3-b33/ p008-091

अगस्त्य [ agstya ]
- m. N. of a Vedic Rishi.
91) अगस्त्य (p. 8) agstya Rishi.

UKT 130221, 160403:
Rishi Agastya is also the Indian astronomical name of the star Canopus, is said to be the 'cleanser of waters', since its rising coincides with the calming of the waters of the Indian Ocean.
See Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Agastya 160403
The star Canopus, the second brightest star, can easily be seen in the month of February.
See http://earthsky.org/brightest-stars/few-know-the-second-brightest-star-canopus 160403


p002c3-b34/ p008-090

अगस्महि [ -ga-smahi ]
- V. 1 pl. aor. . of √gam.
90) अगस्महि (p. 8) -ga-smahi 1 pl. aor. . of √gam.

Contents of this page


p002c3-b35/ p008-089

अगाग्र [ aga‿agra ]
- n. mountain-top, peak.
89) अगाग्र (p. 8) aga̮agra mountain-top, peak.


p002c3-b36/ p008-088

अगात्मजा [ aga‿tmag ]
- f. N. of Prvat.
88) अगात्मजा (p. 8) aga̮tmag Prvat.

UKT 120910, 130830, 160403: From the word अग aga 'tree, mountain' (Mac002c3), implying "immovability" we get अगात्मजा agatmaja referring to "immovability" and "birth". It means the terra firma earth. It was personified as Mother-Earth "Prvat". She was made the consort of the Siva - a later-day Vedic god of the Hindu religionists to bring the Mother-goddess worshipers under their control.


p002c3-b37/ p008-087

अगाध [ a-gdha ]
- a. unfathomable; very deep, profound; -gala, n. very deep water.
87) अगाध (p. 8) a-gdha unfathomable;


p002c3-b38/ p008-086

अगाधरुधिर [ agdha-rudhira ]
- n. torrents of blood.
86) अगाधरुधिर (p. 8) agdha-rudhira torrents of blood.


p002c3-b39/ p008-117

अगार [ agra ]
- (m.) n. house.
117) अगार (p. 8) agra house.


p002c3-b40/ p008-116

अगारदाहिन्् [ agra-dhin ]
- a. incendiary.
116) अगारदाहिन्् (p. 8) agra-dhin incendiary.

Contents of this page


p002c3-b41/ p008-115

अगुण [ a-guna ]
- m. lack of virtue, demerit, defect; fault, vice; a. void of qualities; worthless, vicious.
115) अगुण (p. 8) a-guna lack of virtue, demerit,


Contents of this page

UKT notes

Canopus, the second brightest star

- UKT 160403

I was in the Chemistry dept. at Mandalay Arts & Science Univ. from 1967 Nov to 1971 Oct. For the last few weeks I was officially appointed by the Higher Education Directorate as the Head of Department of Chemistry while Dr. U Khin Maung was away in Britain. Soon after the appointment a transfer order arrived because of which my wife Daw Than Than (demonstrator in Chemistry, MASU), and I, together with our two children gladly moved back to Rangoon our home town.

While in Mandalay, we did enjoy the cool winter months when the sky was clear and we could see the stars in the night-sky. I took that opportunity to look at the night sky in the evenings and sometimes early mornings, and taught my son Zin Tun to enjoy Nature. The star-group easiest to identify is Orion which we call {maung-yn-hsen:tn:}. Below Orion the Hunter is his dog - the Dog Star Sirius. The Dog Star is brightest winter star, and we associate it with the infectious disease - rabies aka hydrophobia - the Mad Dog disease which usually crop up in March, and the bright red flowers of Letpan: {lak-pn pwn.hkain/ hkw:ru:hkain}. If you can find Sirius you are on your way to finding Canopus, the second brightest star.

Winter months are the pleasantest to travel on the Indian Ocean and the huge Irrawaddy Delta rivers, which few in Mandalay would have enjoyed. I was lucky to be born in the town of Kungyangon. I had accompanied my father U Tun Pe, the-then Inspector of Public Health of both Kungyangon North and Kungyangon South townships who was an avid traveller and a good marks-man with his double-barrel shot gun. As a child I had the chance to enjoy Nature.

See also Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Orion_constellation  160403

Go back Canopus-note-b

Contents of this page

Non-rhotic to rhotic series for front vowels

UKT 160329:

{a.kya.} is the first medial in Bur-Myan. It is not listed in Skt-Dev either in Macdonell or Monier-Williams. I am going by my ad hoc rule that there is only disyllabic {ak~ya.} in Skt-Dev, and only monosyllabic {a.kya.} in Bur-Myan. For {a.kra.}, I have to invent a non-rhotic (Burmese) to rhotic (Sanskrit) series with slightly rhotic (Pali) in the middle differentiated by the length of the Ra'ric hood:

---------------------------------------- Burmese -------- Pali ------- Sanskrit
Open-front vowel:  non-rhotic: {a.kra.};  {a.kra.};  {a.k~ra.}  rhotic
Close-front vowel:  non-rhotic: {a.kri.};   {a.kri.};   {a.kRi.}   rhotic

Note: In close-front vowels, traditionally, the same glyph is used for both Bur-Myan and Pal-Myan. However, Romabama uses the highly rhotic Skt-Dev ऋ {iRi.} for pronunciation of Skt-Myan.

Go back non-rhotic-to-rhotic-note-b

Contents of this page

Problem of medial formation

-- UKT120905, ... , 160329

When two consonants are "joined" they are known as conjuncts. A conjunct can be either vertical or horizontal, e.g.

vertical: {ka.} क + viram + {ka.}  क  --> {k~ka.} क्क  : the conjunct is mute
horizontal: {a.} + viram + {a.} --> {~a.} : the conjunct is mute

A mute conjunct can be formed into a disyllabic word, by supply it with a vowel:

  {a.} अ +  {k~ka.} क्क  -->  {ak~ka.} अक्क

The medials are a subset of conjuncts which can be pronounced with intermediate sounds. They are monosyllabic and are very prominent in Bur-Myan. They are formed when a consonant -- either {wag} or {a.wag.} -- is modified by one or more of the 5 medial formers:

{ya.}, {ra.}, {la.}, {wa.}, & {ha.}.

The medial formers are classified by IPA as approximants. In our parlance, the medial formers are {a.wag.}. They change in form or position on forming medials. However, if a medial is not formed, it retains its shape but undergoes position change:

medial-former  -> ----- medial-form ----- :  conjunct-form
  {ya.} ------- -> --- {ya.pn.}-form -------- {ya.hsw:}-form
  {ra.} -------- -> --- {ra.ric}-form ---------- {ra.hsw:}-form
Caution: Don't get mixed-up with Mon-Myan r1c5 akshara {ng~ra.}
  {la.} -------- -> -- {la.hsw:}-form  : ------ {la.hsw:}-form
  {wa.} ------- -> -- {wa.hsw:}-form : ------ {wa.hsw:}-form
  {ha.} ------- -> -- {ha.hto:}-form -- :
Caution: There is probably no {ha.hto:} in Skt-Dev.

When Romabama was meant to cater to only two languages Bur-Myan & Eng-Lat, there were only a few problems to consider. On adding two more languages, Pal-Myan & Skt-Dev, new problems have cropped up. To check the efficacy of my endeavour, I have looked at the possibility of including Mon-Myan, and straight away I have found that because Bur-Myan and Mon-Myan belongs to two entirely linguistic groups, there could be no common transliteration. I now admit that Romabama is satisfactory for BEPS, but not good for Mon-Myan, even though the same Myanmar script is used. I have a basic problem: I don't read and write the Mon language. The problem is compounded because basic Mon aksharas can have differing intrinsic vowels which to my ears sounded as {a.} or {}.

From my study of BEPS languages, I realize that medial formation is probably confined to Bur-Myan. I am less certain about medial formation in Pal-Myan and Mon-Myan. For now, in the light of the following words, what can we say of Skt-Dev?

#1 अकरण a-karana --> {a.ka.ra.Na.}
-- . - n. omission to do.

#2 अकर्ण a-karna [-karna] 
= अ क र ् ण --> {a.kar~Na.} (in {kn:si:} 'centipede-ridden' form)
Skt: a. deaf; without Karna. -- Mac001c2
Skt: a-karṇka mfn. without ears TS., &c -- MonWilliWash-001c3
Pali antonym: {kN~Na.} - UHS-PMD0282
  UKT from UHS: m. ear, ear-lobe, edge, corner
Note: I am taking this word to imply 'absence of guidance by being "deaf" to good advice'.

#3 अक्र a-kra
= अ क ् र  --> {ak~ra.} or {a.kra.}
Skt: . a. inactive, indolent. -- Mac002c1

Coming back to medial formation, it seems {ka.} & {ra.} can give:
#1. separate {ka.}{ra.} as कर
#2. to form a repha as {kar}
#3. to form a medial

It clearly shows that I still need to study further.

Go back problem-medial-note-b

Contents of this page

End of TIL file