Update: 2016-11-24 05:51 PM -0500


A Practical Sanskrit Dictionary


by A. A. Macdonell, 1893,
http://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/scans/MDScan/index.php?sfx=jpg 1929.
Nataraj ed., 1st in 2006, 2012

Edited, with additions from Pali sources, by U Kyaw Tun (UKT) (M.S., I.P.S.T., USA) and staff of Tun Institute of Learning (TIL) . Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone. Prepared for students and staff of TIL  Computing and Language Center, Yangon, MYANMAR :  http://www.tuninst.net , www.romabama.blogspot.com

MC-indx.htm | Top

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{a.}/ {n}
{n-sha.} : अंश (श /ʃ/)
  {n-shi.} अंशि 
  {n-shu.} अंशु 
  {n-ha.} अंह
{n-Sa.} : ष /S/ - not listed
{n-a.} : स /s/

UKT 150429: Skt-Dev speakers mispronounce non-hissing dental thibilant /θ/ as hissing dental sibilant /s/.
In Pal-Myan, {n} has the same pronunciation as {a.} checked by {na.}-killed, {n}:
those entries, some with repha, will be found on p017.htm & p018.htm .
In Skt-Myan, {n} has the pronunciation of {m}.
The following are entries of {a.} with Wag-consonants

{a.ka.} / {ak} : Effect of coda consonant on the nuclear vowel
  {a.ka.ka.} : velar plosive-stop row
  {a.ka.sa.} : palatal plosive-stop row
  {a.ka.Ta.} : retroflex plosive-stop row
  {a.ka.ta.} : dental-alveolar plosive-stop row
  {a.ka.pa.} : bilabial plosive-stop row

The following are entries of {a.} with Awag-consonants, which are subdivided into 3 groups:
semi-consonants: {ya.}, {ra.}, {la.}, {wa.}
fricatives: {sha.}, {Sa.}, {a.}
deep-H, etc.: {ha.}

  {a.ka.ya.} : semi-consonants
{a.ka.ra.} अकर
  {a.kar} : Repha form
  {a.ka.la.} / {a.k}
  {a.kaS~} - mispronunciation of {a.} as {Sa.} produces this form
  {a.kaar} / {a.kaar~} Repha
{a.kin} : from {a.ki.}
{a.kiir} & {a.kiir~} from {a.ki}

UKT notes :
Akata : Religion of Inaction - attitude of Nietzsche
Difference between Bur-Myan & Pal-Myan
Pronunciation of Dental-Fricative Trio: Skt-Dev श /ʃ/, ष /S/, स /s/ (Pal-Myan) /θ/
Pronunciation in Bur-Myan, and in Pal-Myan of अकन्या a-kanyā
Representing repha in Romabama :
   checking vowels with approximants: {} & {l}. What about {r}?

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{a.}/ {n}



अ [ 1. a ]
Skt: - pn. root used in the inflexion of idam and in some particles: a-tra, a-tha. - Mac-001c1
Pal: A-, before a vowel  AN-, a negative particle, used only as an inseparable prefix. - Chil-001c1


अ [2. a- ]

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{n-sha.} : श /ʃ/

See my note on the Pronunciation of Dental-fricative Trio,
Skt-Dev sha श /ʃ/ ; ssa ष /S/ ; sa स /s/ or tha /θ/


अंश [ msa ] {n-sha.}
Skt: अंश [ msa ] - m. part, share; N. of a god: in. partly. - Mac001c1
Pal: {n-a.} - UHS-PMD0001
  UKT from UHS: 1. m. part, share, group, small amount. 2. m. shoulder

UKT 141223: The two meanings, "share" & "shoulder" can probably be taken together to mean "sharing of duties (burden) to be borne on the shoulder. It may not mean "inheritance of property".



अंशकल्पना [ amsa-kalpan ]
- f. arrangement of shares [UKT: duties].






अंशप्रदान [ amsa-pradna ]
- n. distribution of shares.



अंशभागिन्् [ amsa-bhgin ]
- a. having a share.






अंशभूत [ amsa-bhta ]
- pp. forming a share (of, g.).



अंशहर [ amsa-hara ]
- a. receiving a portion.

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{n-shi.} अंशि


अंशिन्् [ ams-in ]
- a. having a share.

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{n-shu.} अंशु


अंशु [ ams ]
--> {n-shu.}
Skt: अंशु [ ams ] - m. Soma plant, -juice; ray; stalk. - Mac001c1
Pal: {n-u.} - UHS-PMD0001
  UKT from UHS: m. cotton strand, beam of light 

UKT 141225: Both Sun-light and Moon-light are viewed as made up of strands of light. Sun-light gives us energy and warmth, whereas Moon-light gives us peace of mind and coolness. The ancients look upon both luminaries, the Sun and Moon, as god (dva) and goddess (dvi). In Hinduism and Greco-Roman religions, they are personified with all the human traits - both good and bad, and the respective priests weave myths around them. Since opiates (from plants and animals) and alcohol when taken in small quantities can smooth a person's tired mind and bring on sleep, these substances have been identified with the Moon.



अंशुक [ amsu-ka ]
- n. leaf; cloth, garment.



अंशुकान्त [ amsuka‿anta ]
- m. hem of a garment.



अंशुपट््ट [ amsu-patta ]
- n. kind of cloth.



अंशुमत्् [ amsu-mt ]
- a. radiant; m. sun; N.



अंशुमालिन्् [ amsu-mlin ]
- m. sun.

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{n-Sa.} : ष /S/ - not listed

{n-a.} : स /θ/ (mis-pronounced as hissing-sibilant /s/ )


अंस [ msa ]
Skt: अंश [ msa ] - m. shoulder. - Mac001c1
Pal: {n-a.} - UHS-PMD0001
  UKT from UHS: 2. m. shoulder

Pal: {n-a.ka-a-wa.} - UHS-PMD001
  UKT from UHS: n. {n-a.keiT in~kn:} 'monk's robe hung from left shoulder'.

UKT 141223: The use of {n-a.keiT in~kn:} can be traced back to Indus-Saraswati civilization (33001300 BCE) - some 2000 years before the birth of the Gautama Buddha. Inset pix shows what is popularly held to be the statue of a "Priest King" of Indus civilization: Material: white, low fired steatite, Dimensions: 17.5 cm height, 11 cm width, Mohenjo-daro, DK 1909, National Museum, Karachi, 50.852, Marshall 1931: 356-7, pl. XCVIII . See: https://www.harappa.com/slide/priest-king-mohenjo-daro 160320



अंसकूट [ amsa-kta ]
- m. top of the shoulder; -prishtha, n. ridge of the shoulder.



अंसत्र [ msa-tra ]
= अ ं स त ् र
- n. armour.



अंसफलक [ amsa-phalak ]
- n. shoulder-blade.



अंसल [ amsa-l ]
- a. strong, powerful.



अंसवर्तिन्् [ amsa-vartin ]
- a. resting on the shoulder; -vivartin, a. bending towards the shoulder(s); -vypin, a. reaching to the --.




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{n-ha.} अंह


अंहस्् [ mh-as ]
- n. distress, need; sin.



अंहुर [ amh-ur ]
- a. distressed; -ran, n. distress.



अंह्रि [ amhri ]
- m. foot.


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{a.ka.} / {ak}


अक [ aka ]
- m. the suffix -aka (gr.).

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{a.ka.ka.} : velar plosive-stop row

{a.ka.sa.} : palatal plosive-stop row

अकच akaca
Skt: अकच akaca - adj. hairless, bald -- SpkSkt
Pali antonym: {ka.sa.} - UHS-PMD0276
  UKT from UHS: m. head hair

UKT 150117, 160320: It is interesting to note that <head hair> (differentiated from "body hair") is also known as {k-a} (UHS-PMD0335). From it we note that in {ka.sa.} & {k-a} differ only in vowel lengths if we were to take the palatal-plosive च ca and dental-fricative स sa to be the same. However if we were to go strictly by Skt-Dev pronunciation, {ka.sa.} would sound " {ka.kya.}.


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{a.ka.Ta.} : retroflex plosive-stop row


अकटुक [ a-katuka ]
= अ क ट ु क  --> {a.ka.Tu.ka.}
- a. assiduous. [constant in application or attention; diligent -- AHTD]


अकण akaṇa
--> {a.ka.Na.}
BHS: asaṇa 'the red coating under the husk of rice' -- FE-BHS001
Pal: {a.ka.Na.} - UHS-PMD0001
  UKT from UHS: mfn. free from broken rice.

अकणक akaṇaka
--> {a.ka.Na.ka.} 
Skt: - adj. without red particles adhering to the rice husks -- SpkSkt

UKT 160321: The "red particle" referred to above is the bran, which is more nutritious than the white starch. Bran is present in and may be milled from any cereal grain, including rice, corn (maize), wheat, oats, barley and millet. Bran should not be confused with chaff, which is coarser scaly material surrounding the grain, but not forming part of the grain itself. - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bran 160321



अकण्टक [ a-kantaka ]
= अ क ण ् ट क --> {a.kN~Ta.ka.}
- a. thornless; foeless.



अकण्ठ [ a-kantha ]
= अ क ण ् ठ --> {a.kN~HTa.}
- a. neckless; voiceless, hoarse.

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{a.ka.ta.} : dental-alveolar plosive-stop row

See my note on {a.ka.ta.} अकत akata 'Inaction', and {a.kRi.ta.} अकृत a-kṛta
with ref. to Vacchagotta Sutta {wic~hsa.gaut~ta. oat~ta.} in Samyutta Nikaya, SN 44.8:

अकत akata
Pal: {a.ka.ta.} - UHS-PMD0001
  UKT from UHS: mfn. not yet to be done, not yet to be decided. n. nirvana 
* Pal: {ka.ta.} - UHS-PMD0283
  UKT from UHS: mfn. should do, done, should diligently do. n. proper action, properly done, doing.

UKT 140401: Compare the above two to:
  अकृत a-krta  = अ क ृ त --> {a.kRi.ta.}  -- Mac001c3-b25-1

UKT 140401: Trying to find the relation between Skt words with highly rhotic vowel, and not-so-rhotic Pali, I have come to realized that: 
  Skt-Dev words, अकृत a-krta &  अकृतक akrtaka , are probably  related to :
Pal: {a.ka.rin} - UHS-PMD0003
  UKT from UHS: (from {ka.rau:ti.} is done.

Pal: {ka.rau:ti.} - UHS-PMD0300
  UKT from UHS: do, done, committed, done as instructed

Pal: {ka.ra.} - UHS-PMD0297
  UKT from UHS: mfn. done. m. doer, ray, hand, (prehensile) elephant's trunk, taxation



अकत्थन [ a-katthana ]
= अ क त ् थ न --> {a.kt~hta.na.}
- n. non-boasting.



अकथम्् [ a-katham ]
= (अ) (क) (थ म ्)  --> {a.ka.htm}
- ad. without (a 'why' =) more ado.



अकथित [ a-kathita ]
- pp. unmentioned, un-discussed.



अकद्वद [ a-kad-vada ]
- a. not speaking ill, speaking well.



अकनिष्ठ [ -kanishtha ]
- m. pl. without a youngest, equally young.



अकन्या [ a-kany ]
= (अ) (क न ्) (य ा) --> {a.kn~ya} or
= (अ) (क) (न ् य ा) --> {a.ka.nya}
Skt: - f. no longer a maid. -- Mac001c1
Pali antonym: {ka.a} -- UHS-PMD0278
  UKT from UHS: f. bride, maiden. Kanya Rasi (approx. Aug.21 to Sep.20, one of the 12 rasi (periods) in a Solar year), the rasi of the full Moon of {tau-a.ling:}.

Note #1: Bur-Myan luni-solar year has 12 months, with {tau-a.ling:} as one. Kanya Rasi is known as Constellation Virgo representing the Virgin with symbol ♍ . See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Virgo_constellation 120930

Note #2: We are meeting here a curious relationship between Burmese, Pali, and Sanskrit spellings which reflects the pronunciation.
See my note on Pronunciation in Bur-Myan, and in Pal-Myan


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{a.ka.pa.} : bilabial row


अकपिलच्छवि [ a-kapila-kkhavi ]
- a. not brownish.



अकम्पित [ a-kampita ]
- pp. not trembling, firm.

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 {a.ka.ya.} : semi-consonants

{a.ka.ra.} अकर


अकरण [ 1. a-karana ]
--> {a.ka.ra.Na.}
Skt: अकरण [a-karana] - . - n. omission to do. -- Mac0001c1
Skt: अकरण akaraṇa - n. absence of action -- SpkSkt
Pal: {a.ka.ra.Na.} - UHS-PMD0002
   UKT from UHS: mfn. what should not have been done. n. non-action, non physical action



अकरण [ 2. a-karana ]
- a. unartificial, natural.

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अकरुण [ a-karuna ]
- a. pitiless; -tva, n. -ness.

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{a.kar} : Repha form


अकर्ण [ -karna ]
--> {a.kar~Na.}
Skt: अकर्ण [ -karna ]- a. deaf; without Karna -- Mac001c2
Pal antonym: {kN~Na.} -- UHS-PMD0282
  UKT from UHS: m. ear, ear-lobe, edge, corner

UKT 141222: "Karna" was a hero who had stood on the side of Justice in the story of Mahabharata. He sided with the Kauravas, who were supposed to be "unjust", against the Pandavas in the Kurukshetra War. He was "unjustly" killed in battle by Arjuna the third Pandava brother who broke the agreed rules of battle to kill him.

To find a clue to how to represent repha in Romabama, I search for equivalent or near-equivalent words in Pal-Myan. UHS-PMD gives:

Pal: {a.kN~Na. nt~ta.} - UHS-PMD0001
  UKT from UHS: mfn. extreme cruelty unfit to be heard or seen, harsh and cruel
Skt: a-karṇya - mfn. not fit for the ears Pāṇ. Sch -- MonWilliWash001c1

See my note on Representing repha in Romabama


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अकर्णधार [ a-karnadhra ]
- a. pilotless.

UKT 130605: Why is कर्ण = क र ् ण = --> {kar~Na.} 'ear' translated as 'pilot'? Its equivalent in Pal-Myan is {kN~Na.}. It is often alleged in Bur-Myan culture that what you see (with eyes) can misled you: you need to hear good counsel (with ears) to correct your path.



अकर्तव्य [ a-kartavya ]
- fp. not to be done; n. misdeed.



अकर्तृ akartṛ
= अ क र ् त ृ  = {a.ktRi.}
Skt: अकर्तृ [a-kartri] - m. non-agent -- Mac001c1
Skt: अकर्तृ akartṛ - m. not an agent, not active, name applied to the puruSa -- SpkSkt



अकर्मक [ a-karma-ka ]
- a. objectless, intransitive.



अकर्मकृत्् [ a-karma-krit ]
- a. inactive.



अकर्मण्य [ a-karmanya ]
- a. ineffectual, useless.



अकर्मन्् [ a-karman ]
--> {a.kar~mn}
- n. inaction; a. (-mn) doing nothing, idling; wicked.



अकर्मप्राप्ति [ a-karma-prpti ]
- f. non-intervention of fate.



अकर्मशील [ a-karma-sla ]
- a. inactive, idle.



अकर्मश्रान्त [ a-karma-srnta ]
- pp. untiring in ritual.

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{a.ka.la.} / {a.k}

UKT 130606 : {a.ka.la.} & {a.kl} do not seem to be as problematic as {a.ka.ya.} & {a.k} . However it is probably not so.


अकलङ्क [ a-kalaṅka ]
--> {a.ka.ln~ka.}
Skt: a. spotless. -- Mac001c2
Pali antonym: {ka.ln~ka.} - UHS-PMD030
  UKT from UHS: m. identification spot, stain, mistake (in recitation or writing)



अकलि [ a-kali ]
Skt: अकलि [a-kali]  -- a. not quarrelling, concordant. -- Mac001c2
Pal antonym: {ka.li.} - UHS-PMD0300
  UKT from UHS: m. mistake, wrong attitude towards another person, wrong deed, filth, loss, sputum, an wrong doer

UKT note: I am avoiding the word "sin" to avoid any connotation to the Christian idea of Original Sin. I maintain that a language must be religion-neutral. However, those who are interested in the idea of "Original Sin" should read: Wikepedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Original_sin 150118
" ... is the Christian doctrine of humanity's state of sin resulting from the fall of man, stemming from Adam's rebellion [against the Creator or God] in [the Garden of] Eden. "



अकलित [ a-kalita ]
- pp. unknown; undefinable.



अकलिप्रसर [ akali-prasara ]
- a. where no quarrelling occurs.


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UKT 160319: From {a.kar}, I have arrived at the Repha form  {a.kar~}
However, in the case of {a.kl}, the form suitable is an ordinary conjunct {a.kl~}
See, e.g., {a.kl~la.} 'disease' - UHS PMD0003, and {k~la.} 'health' - UHS PMD0302
See my note on Representing repha in Romabama


अकल्ककलिल [ a-kalka-kalila ]
- a. free from baseness.



अकल्कता [ a-kalka-t ]
- f. honesty.



अकल्य [ 1. a-kalya ]
= अ क ल ् य = {a.kl~ya.}
Skt: अकल्य [a-kalya] -  . a. not healthy, ill. -- Mac001c2
Pal antonym: {kl~la.} - UHS-PMD0302
  UKT from UHS: . mfn. suitable, appropriate, physically healthy, articulate (diplomatic). m. absence of physical illness. n. time of dawning [implying a fresh start] . mn. ash [implying wood ash or the wood that has come to the end stage of change and therefore free from further change or illness]
*Pal: {a.kl~la.ka.} - UHS-PMD003
  UKT from UHS: mfn. hurt, not healthy



अकल्य [ 2. a-kalya ]
- fp. not to be guessed.


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अकव [ -kava ]
- a. not niggardly, liberal.



अकवि [ -kavi ]
- a. not wise, foolish.

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{a.kaS~} - mispronunciation of {a.} as {Sa.} produces the Repha form


अकस्मात्् [ a-kasmt ]
= अ क स ् म ा त ्
- (ab.) ad. without apparent cause; suddenly; accidentally.



अकस्मादागन्तु [ akasmd-gantu ]
- m. chance-comer.

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अकाकु [ a-kku ] --> {a.ka-ku.}
- a. unchanged (of the voice).



अकाण्ड [ a-knda ]
= अ क ा ण ् ड --> {a.kaaN~a.}
- a. unexpected, sudden: lc. -ly.



अकातर [ a-ktara ]
- a. undaunted.



अकाम [ a-km ] --> {a.ka-ma.}
- a. not desiring; unwilling [to have sex], reluctant; not in love.



अकामतस्् [ a-kma-tas ]
- ad. involuntarily; unwillingly.



अकामता [ a-kma-t ]
- f. freedom from desire or love.



अकामिन्् [ a-kmin ]
- a. not in love.


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अकार [ a-kra ]
- m. the sound or letter ă.



अकारक [ a-kraka ]
- a. ineffectual; -tva, n. -ness.



अकारण [ a-krana ]
- a. causeless; n. lack of cause: --, -tas, -m, in., ab., lc. without cause.


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{a.kaar} / {a.kaar~} Repha


अकार्पण्य [ a-krpanya ]
- a. void of self-abasement.



अकार्य [ a-krya ] --> {a.kaar~ya.}
Skt: अकार्य [ a-krya ] - fp. not to be done; n. misdeed: -tas, ad. by doing wrong. - Mac001c2
Pal: {a.ka-ri.ya.} -- UHS-MPD0003
  UKT from UHS: n. what should not have done



अकार्यकरण [ akrya-karana ]
- n. doing a misdeed.





अकाल [ a-kla ]
- m. unseasonable time: --, -tas, lc. unseasonably.

अकाल akāla
Skt: अकाल [akla] - m. unseasonable time: - Mac001c2-b20-1
BHS: a-kāla 'neg. of kālaka' or 'night-time' - FE-BHS002c1
Pal: {a.ka-la.} - UHS-PMD0003
  UKT from UHS: mfn. untimely

UKT 140331: For a monk on land in Myanmarpr the time to eat the last meal for the day is traditional fixed to be before noon. However, it is a problem for Myan Buddhist monks travelling on an air plane crossing many time-zones. See the next entry from FE-BHS002. See my note on Akala {a.ka-la.} अकाल akāla


अकालकुसुम [ akla-kusuma ]
- n. untimely flower

BHS: akālaka-kaumudī  'festival held irregularly' - FE-BHS002c1



अकालक्षेपम्् [ a-kla-kshepam ]
- ad. without delay.



अकालचर्या [ akla-kary ]
- f. untimely action

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अकालनियम [ a-kla-niyama ]
= अ क ा ल न ि य म  --> {a.ka-la.ni.ya.ma.}
- m. no limit of time.



अकालवेला [ akla-vel ]
- f. undue season.



अकालसह [ a-kla-saha ]
- a. unable to hold out long.



अकालहीनम्् [ akla-hnam ]
- ad. without loss of time, forthwith.

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{a.kin} : from {a.ki.}


अकिंचन [ a-kimkana ]
= अ क ि ं च न --> {a.kin~sa.na.}
- a. having nothing, poor; -t, f., -tva, n. poverty.



अकिंचिज्ज्ञ [ a-kimkig-ga ]
- a. knowing nothing.



अकिंचित्कर [ a-kimkit-kara ]
- a. effecting nothing.

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अकिलिन [ a-kilina ]
- a. not damp, not moist.

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{a.kiir} & {a.kiir~} from {a.ki}


अकीर्तन [ a-krtana ] --> {a.kiir~ta.na.}
- n. lack of mention.



अकीर्तनीय [ a-krtanya ]
- fp. unspeakable.



अकीर्ति [ a-krti ]
- f. disgrace; -kara, a. disgraceful, infamous, humiliating.



अकीर्तित [ a-krtita ]
- pp. unmentioned.

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अकुञ्चित [ a-kukita ]
- pp. not crooked, straight.



अकुण्ठित [ a-kunthita ]
- pp. vigorous, quick.



अकुटिल [ a-kutila ]
- a. straight; honest.



अकुतश््् चिद्भय [ a-kutaskid-bhaya ]
- a. afraid of nothing.



अकुतस्् [ a-kutas ]
- ad. from nowhere.



अकुतोभय [ a-kuto-bhaya ]
- a. afraid of nothing.



- a. id.



अकुत्सित [ a-kutsita ]
- pp. blameless.



अकुध्र्यक्् [ a-kudhryk ]
- ad. aimlessly.



अकुल [ a-kula ]
- a. low-born; -t, f. low birth.



अकुलज [ akula-ga ]
- a. sprung from a low stock.



अकुलीन [ a-kulna ]
- a. low-born.



अकुशल [ a-kusala ]
- a. noxious; unlucky, inauspicious; unskilful; n. mischief, evil; -word.



अकुसुमित [ a-kusumita ]
- pp. not blossoming.

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अकूट [ -kta ]
- a. undeceptive (arms); sterling (coin).



अकूपार [ -k-pra ]
- a. boundless; m. sea.

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{a.kRi.} :

UKT 160325: Skt-Dev rhotic vowel {iRi.} ऋ is not present in Pal-Myan. To bridge Skt-Dev to Pal-Myan, I have to use Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Grammar and Dictionary, by F. Edgerton (18851963), as a bridge.
- BHS-indx.htm (link chk 160325)
Two other works which may be used to bridge the two languages might be:
#1. A Comparative and Etymological Dictionary of Nepali Language by R L Turner
- http://dsal.uchicago.edu/dictionaries/turner/ (link chk 160119)
  Downloaded pages in a folder is in the TIL SD-Library
#2. English to Nepal Bhasa Dictionary by Sabin Bhuju सबिन भुजु , 2005
- SBhuju-NewarDict<> / bkp<> (link chk 160221)
An indication that Nwari aka Nepali-Bhasa the mother tongue of the existing blood relatives of Gautama Buddha is a  Tib-Bur language just like Bur-Myan, is presence of Newa-Dev words beginning with {nga.} ङ, e.g. for <fish> न्या ; ङा . Through this fact I claim that Gautama Buddha and Bur-Myan speakers are linguistic relatives. And I no longer describe Gautama Buddha as an Indian or Nepali (the countries being just geo-political units with shifting boundaries) but a son of Magadha Janapada to which the Taguang, the first kingdom of the present-day Myanmarpr belongs. From this I claim the Pali spoken in Myanmarpr to be the speech used by the Buddha. The fact that Myanmar script and the script of Asoka (the king of Magadha) are directly related also supports my view.

UKT 160329: Words with {kRi.} are found in FE BHSDict p190-p192.


अकृच्छ्रलङ्घ्य [ a-krikkhra-laṅghya ]
- fp. to be traversed without hardship.



अकृच्छ्रिन्् [ a-krikkhrin ]
- a. having no trouble with.

UKT 150104: Many of the following entries are on the antonym of the word {kRi.ta.} used as prefix. The Skt-Myan  {kRi.} which gives rise to {kRi.ta.} has an equivalent in Pal-Myan {ka.ri.} 'hand' (UHS-PMD0299).


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अकृत [ -krita ] --> {a.kRi.ta.}
- pp. not done; unprepared, uncooked; incomplete, unripe; unsummoned.
[UKT: the implied meaning seems to be 'untouched by human hand', 'non-artificial'.]



अकृतक kṛtaka  [a-krita-ka] --> {a.kRi.ta.ka.}
Skt: अकृतक [akritaka] -- a. natural. -- Mac001c3 
BHS: akṛtaka 'not created or unfashioned by humans'  -- FE-BHS002c2
Pal derivative: {a.ka.ta.pb~ta.ra.}
- - UHS-PMD0001
  UKT from UHS: m. a natural cavern

UKT 140401: note {a.ka.ta.} and {a.kRi.ta.} both have the underlying meaning of naturalness or non-artificial which I interpret to be non-axiomatic .



अकृतकृत्य [ akrita-kritya ]
- a. not having done one's duty.



अकृतज्ञ [ a-krita-ga ]
Skt: अकृतज्ञ [ a-krita-ga ] - a. ungrateful -- Mac001c3
Skt: अकृतज्ञ akṛtaja - adj. not acknowledging benefits, ungrateful -- SpkSkt
BHS: akṛtaja  -- . adj., knowing the uncreated. . n. of a prince -- FE-BHS002c2
Pal: {a.ka.ti~u.} - UHS-PMD0001
   UKT from UHS: . mfn. ingratitude . . mfn. knowledge of Nirvana. m. Arahat

UKT 140330: This word has made me uncomfortable for a couple years, until I realized that an >Arahat is beyond ordinary human feelings. He is unaffected 'mentally' by his own action or by the action of others. Since "gratitude" is a common human feeling, an Arahat may be termed an ingrate by a materialistic non-Buddhist.

*UKT 140330, 160325, 160514: I admit that my rendition of अकृतज्ञ akṛtaja [akritajna] = (अ क ृ त) (ज ् ञ) --> {a.kRi.tiz~a.}, is beyond my pronunciation ability. However, the portion ज्ञ jna (FE-BHS244) reminds me of {Zaan} (MLC MED2006-155). I wonder if the two words {a.kRi.tiz~a.} & {Zaan} may be combined for this pronunciation. Secondly, in English terms such as Capitalism and Communism there is commonality in phonemes to Sanskrit and Pali. Compare English s to Skt j and Pali z . Secondly, compare English m to . From this comparison I can "pronounce" akṛtaja as {a.kri.ta. Zaan} and get the underlying meaning as "detail understanding of a subject" whether it is a social issue or a philosophical one.



अकृतपुण्य [ akrita-punya ]
- a. ill-starred.



अकृतपूर्व [ akrita-prva ]
- a. not done before.



अकृतबुद्धि [ akrita-buddhi ]
- a. of unripe understanding: -tva, n. abst. n.



अकृतलक्षण [ a-krita-lakshana ]
- a. having no distinctive mark.



अकृतविद्य [ akrita-vidya ]
- a. uninstructed.



अकृतश्रम [ a-krita-srama ]
= अ क ृ त श ् र म --> {a.kRi.ta.sh~ra.ma.}
- a. having undergone no trouble.


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UKT notes

Akala {a.ka-la.} अकाल akāla

UKT 140331, 160320:

For a monk on land in Myanmarpr the time to eat the last meal for the day is traditionally fixed to be before noon. However, it is a problem for Myan Buddhist monks travelling on an air plane crossing many time-zones. See the next entry from FE-BHS002.

We find a similar problem with Muslims in the Canadian Arctic observing ('fasting in day-time, and breaking fast at sundown') the month of Ramadan where there are only two "days" (light and darkness), each lasting about six months.

From: Ramadan in the Arctic: How do you break a fast at sundown if the sun doesnt set? - Andrew Martin, Washington Post, 2015Jul13
http://news.nationalpost.com/news/religion/ramadan-in-the-arctic 160320

In Iqaluit, Nunavut, labourers are working long hours to finish the regions first mosque before winter. And theyre doing so without eating or drinking anything, even water, for almost 22 hours each day.

Like Muslims around the world, the mosques construction crew is observing the holy month of Ramadan which moves based on the lunar calendar and this year falls during summer by fasting from sunrise to sunset. Summertime means longer days without food for Muslims across the Northern Hemisphere. But it is particularly challenging for the thousands who live near the Arctic Circle, where the sun barely sets. In Iqaluit, one of Canadas northernmost cities, dusk begins around 11:00 p.m. By about 2:00 a.m., the sun is up again. In St. Petersburg, daylight lasts at least 21 hours. In Stockholm, the sun sets at 1 a.m. and rises just 2 1/2 hours later. The land of the midnight sun does not offer much time for repast.

How Muslims living in nearly 24 hours of daylight should observe Ramadan is a fairly new question for the faiths leaders, says Shankar Nair, a religious studies professor at the University of Virginia. Until the 20th century, the number of Muslims living in northern climes was quite small. But generous immigration and refugee policies have drawn followers of Islam to Canada and Northern Europe. About 600,000 Muslims live in the Nordic countries. Canadas Muslim population numbers around 1 million.

Scholars from Egypt, Saudi Arabia and other centres of Islamic learning have issued contradictory fatwas, or legal rulings, on how Ramadan should be celebrated in near-constant sunlight. Muslims in these communities choose which to follow.

In Muslim countries everyone fasts, so you dont see those temptations.

Some decide to adhere to the sunrise and sunset hours of nearby, more southern cities, says Hussain Guisti, general manager and chief financial officer of the Zubaidah Tallab Foundation, a Canadian charity. In Iqaluit, that would mean fasting between about 5:30 a.m. and 9 p.m., as Muslims do in Ottawa. But other members of the community prefer to keep to the long hours of their locale, set by the religious leaders. I think its a sign of being more serious, Guisti says.

Its also a challenge. Studies show that fasting for most of the day can lead to headaches, fatigue and serious dehydration. At night, followers must eat and rehydrate after a long, sometimes sweaty day in just a couple of hours.

Muslims in Kiruna, Sweden, where the sun never sets, say the long fasts make it hard to get through the day. Sometimes I got tired and took the bus home from work instead of walking, Fatima Kaniz told Al Jazeera. I looked at the clock many times.

This is a heavy burden for the human body, said Yelizaveta Izmailova, who is observing Ramadan in St. Petersburg, according to the Guardian. In Iqaluit, residents have begun to nap after work because the window for fast-breaking is so small and so late at night.

Muslims in these places must also cope with the reality that most people around them are not going hungry for 90 percent of the day. It makes it more challenging when youre outdoors and you see people eating and drinking, and youre walking around, and you see the food, you see the ice cream, Guisti says. In Muslim countries everyone fasts, so you dont see those temptations.

Despite the difficulties, most fasters are loath to complain. Rather, they see the long hours without food and water as a test of faith. Mohamed Hassan, the general secretary of the Islamic Society of Nunavut, said a carpenter at work on the Iqaluit mosque told him, You dont feel the thirst here because of the cool temperatures. Once you adjust, 22 or 23 hours is not that hard, says Syed Asif Ali, president of the Islamic Society. It just becomes your habit you dont even notice.

Ali now lives in Regina, Saskatchewan, and admits that he does look back with some wonderment at the long hours he kept. When youre not doing it, you think, How could I have done this? he said. I dont even remember. Depending on what you believe in, everything becomes easier.

Other Muslim communities have come up with a different solution. In Inuvik, Northwest Territories, home to the northernmost mosque in the Western Hemisphere, there is currently daylight 24 hours a day. Abdullah Mohammed, a member of the mosque who immigrated to Canada from Sudan in 1991, says his community has adopted the fasting and prayer hours of Mecca, in Saudi Arabia. Though they dont follow the literal clock in Mecca (the nine-hour time difference would turn their days and nights upside down), the members of the mosque fast for the same number of hours and pray at the same intervals as worshipers in Mecca, resulting in a more traditional 13-hour day that starts around 5 a.m. and ends about 6:30 p.m.

Mohammed says members of the mosque community determined the hours they would keep for Ramadan together, after a debate. Getting everyone on the same page was important, he explained, so that all at the aptly named Midnight Sun Mosque could eat and pray together. The purpose is to worship, not to be tortured, Mohammed says. If you are doing something beyond your capability as a human, that is not Islam.

Still, even with the especially long fasts this Ramadan, Arctic denizens seemed to agree that it was better than the alternative days when the sun never rises. The summer is very nice, Mohammed said. The winter is the difficult one. A long day without food is far better, they said, than life in the dark.

Martin is is a fiction writer and a freelance journalist and critic living in Charlottesville, Virginia.

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Akata : Religion of Inaction

UKT 140401:

{a.ka.ta.} is not listed by Macdonell: what he has given is {a.kRi.ta.}. The two have comparable meanings, yet one is totally non-rhotic (a word used by Pal-Myan speakers) and the other is highly rhotic (used by Sanskrit speakers.). I am curious about this because one of the meanings for {a.ka.ta.} is Nibbana aka Nirvana. The idea of Nirvana (translated as "Heaven")  is so confusing in the current religions: Theravada Buddhism, Mahayana Buddhism, Christianity and Hinduism. Moreover, Theravada Buddhism has been dubbed the "Religion of Inaction".

"Religion of Inaction" was one of the topics I had discussed with my father U Tun Pe, in my teens. It was also the one I had discussed with my co-brother Sarpebeikmhan U Aye Maung, after I was married to his sister-in-law, Daw Than Than. I remember U Aye Maung pointing out to the attitudes of Nietzsche and Schopenhauer on Buddhism. The following Dukkha, Inaction, and Nirvana: Suffering, Weariness, and Death? - A look at Nietzsche's Criticisms of Buddhist Philosophy - by Omar Edward Moad, University of Missouri-Columbia, touches many points which we had discussed.

Excerpt from: http://www.the-philosopher.co.uk/buddhism.htm 140401, 160321
UKT: I have highlighted the important points

"When it comes to Nietzsche's criticisms of Buddhism, such an investigation uncovers what seems to be a misunderstanding of the real meaning of Buddhist doctrine; and one not limited to Nietzsche alone, but common to much of the lay-level understanding of this religion in the West. My goals here, then, will be to address this misunderstanding by examining three important Buddhist concepts at its center: dukkha, inaction, and Nirvana. By focusing on the meaning of these concepts for Buddhists, I do not hope to reconcile Nietzsche with Buddhism in any way, but only to identify a few areas wherein his understanding of it was misconceived. Furthermore, by selecting these three areas for analysis, I do not mean to preclude that there are other important elements of Buddhism that need analysis in light of Nietzsche's critiques. ...

"Kamma-niradha is the Sanskrit word for 'cessation of action'. This state is achieved through adherence to the eight-fold path, which guides the Buddhist into kusula {ku.a.la.}, or 'skillful action'. Therefore, it is not simply ceasing to perform actions that the Buddhist believes will eventually lead one to his or her goal. Rather, the type of actions that are performed is the deciding factor. Likewise, it is wrong to conclude that just because one has attained Nirvana that one ceases to act. Such a conclusion implies a misconceived interpretation of kamma-niradha, as it is understood in Buddhism. This is the misconception Nietzsche seems to have made in characterising Buddhism as being centered on the guideline not to act. ...

"The fact is, Nirvana can only be explained to the 'unenlightened' by negation. The Buddhist texts tell us what it cannot be thought of as, but the only positive descriptions of it tend toward non-existence. An example of this is the simile of the fire that the Buddha uses in his dialogue with Vacchagotama. He asks whether the fire, when it is extinguished, can be said to have gone north, south, east, or west. Of course, the obvious answer is that the fire no longer exists. Nirvana, however, cannot be described as existing, not existing, both existing and not, or neither existing nor not. For Buddhism, even nothingness is constituted by the relative contingencies that arise co-dependently as samsara. ... "

UKT 160321: Refer to Vacchagotta Sutta in Samyutta Nikaya, SN 44.8, and translation by Thanissaro Bhikkhu, 2004
- http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka/sn/sn44/sn44.008.than.html 160321
downloaded pdf available in TIL SD-Library
- Thanissaro-SuttaVacchagotta<> / bkp<> (link chk 160322)
The following is the first para of the Sixth Synod version of {wic~hsa.gaut~ta. oat~ta.} in {n-yoat~ta. ni.ka-ya.}, {hkn~Da. wag~ga.},
{a.La-ya.ta.na. wag~ga. pa-Li.}:

In the translation, Buddha stated:
"But the Tathagata, worthy and rightly self-awakened, does not assume form to be the self, or the self as possessing form, or form as in the self, or the self as in form.
"He does not assume feeling to be the self...
"He does not assume perception to be the self...
"He does not assume fabrications to be the self...
"He does not assume consciousness to be the self, or the self as possessing consciousness, or consciousness as in the self, or the self as in consciousness. That is why, when asked in this way, he does not answer that 'The cosmos is eternal'... or that 'The Tathagata neither exists nor does not exist after death.'"

UKT 140401: After reading the above, or the whole article as I have, if you feel stumped , don't be discouraged. You are not alone!

UKT 150121: My understanding of Nirvana is based on my understanding of the Four Non-axiomatic Principles which others would understand as the Four Noble Truths. As a material scientist of the kind of Skeptical Chemist of Robert Boyle http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Sceptical_Chymist 150121, I am happy only when I can base my thoughts on the modern scientific views which simply put avoids all axioms such as YHVH, God, or Allah.

I understand the Four Principles as:
1. Principle of Mental Suffering: That all sentient beings undergo mental suffering.
2. Principle of Mental Attachment: That all mental suffering is due to one's attachment to other beings, and to "ideas,  suppositions, and axioms".
3. Principle of Cessation: That cessation of all attachment is Nirvana - the end of suffering.
4. Principle of Right Method: That Nirvana can be attained during the life-time by adhering to the eight-fold path, such as (what is held to be) the correct livelihood, the correct thoughts, the correct efforts, etc.

What comes Before Birth and After Death are just "ideas, suppositions, and axioms". However, reading the biographies of the great modern scientists, show that these men and women in spite of their scientific views still cling to "ideas, suppositions, and axioms". After all we are all human beings! Don't be surprised when Albert Einstein said: God does not play dice with the universe. Read Stephen Hawking http://www.hawking.org.uk/does-god-play-dice.html 150121.

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Difference between Bur-Myan & Pal-Myan

- UKT 150101, 150217, 160322

The two languages Burmese (Bur-Myan) and Pali (Pal-Myan), belonging to the same linguistic group - Tib-Bur (Tibeto-Burman) - have the same or almost the same vowel sounds. Yet, they are different. This difference is shown in the prefix, "a-" and "un-" used for making a word negative. The word {a.ni} 'color red' does not mean "the absence of color red". {a.} is not the short vowel a //, nor the long vowel ā. It is schwa /ə/ - the central vowel, and {a.ni} must be pronounced /ə.ni/ - not /a.ni/. It would have been advantageous to show schwa as 'middle-dot' {} (Alt+0183). However, I have to rule it out because the 'middle-dot' Alt+0183 is not ASCII.

However, in Pali "a-" and "un-" can make a word negative. Thus, {ka-ma.} 'in love' [modern term: 'sex'] (UHS-PMD0306) becomes {a.ka-ma.} 'not in love' [modern term: no sex] (UHS-PMD0303). And accordingly, {a.} must be pronounced as short vowel a with emphasis.

Yet, in other cases we find {na.} as the negative-prefix. For example, in both Bur-Myan (MLC MED2006-221) and Pal-Myan (UHS PMD0509), {a.pon} अपुंस् 'enuch' is described with prefix {na.}. In Pal-Myan it is {na.pon-a.ka.}, and in Bur-Myan {na.poan:pn~oak}. The usual negative prefix in Bur-Myan is {ma.}. It is never {a.} अ as in Skt-Dev.

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Pronunciation of Dental-Fricative Trio :
Skt-Dev sha श /ʃ/ ; ssa ष /S/ ; sa स /s/ or tha /θ/

- UKT 141215, 160322

The three dental fricatives,  sha श /ʃ/ ; ssa ष /S/ ; sa स /s/ , gives endless trouble in pronunciation between Indo-European (IE), and Tibeto-Bur (Tib-Bur) speakers. Caveat: I am taking Pal-Myan to be a Tib-Bur language.

Skt-Dev speakers (IE) mis-pronounce IPA Theta /θ/ as a dental-hissing sibilant, whereas Bur-Myan & Pal-Myan (Tib-Bur) speakers pronounce it as dental-nonhissing thibilant, resulting in " {a.}- स {sa.} glyph-pair" having two pronunciations. Secondly Bur-Myan speakers pronounce the Palatals as plosive-stops, whereas Hindi & English pronounce them as Affricates.

Added to these problems is a mis-matched transliteration between Hindi & Sanskrit (Skt-Dev) on one hand and Burmese (Bur-Myan) on the other. In Myanmarpr the English transliteration <tha> means {a.} स, but in India it means {hta.} थ. This makes IAST almost useless in Myanmarpr. Moreover, English speakers cannot differentiate the tenuis-voiceless from the ordinary voiceless. Lastly, Bur-Myan and Pal-Myan has only Palatals which have some hissing sound, but not the Hisser dental fricative ष.

To remedy this situation, Romabama, has to differentiate capital & small English letters, introduce letters from Spanish and Old-English, while keeping the letters of Romabama ASCII compatible. Even then, I have to show the onset-letters and coda-letters together.

{sha.}/ {sh}  श/श्  (IPA /ʃ/);     {Sa.}/ {S}  ष/ष्  (IPA /s/);     {a.}/ {}  स/स्  (IPA /θ/)

When you pronounce /θ/, make sure whether it is Sanskrit or Pali. If Skt-Dev, pronounce it as /s/, and if Pal-Myan pronounce it as /θ/. 

The same words when pronounced by speakers of differing linguistic groups sound differently. Listen to Mora Sutta Paritta recited by Bur-Myan (Tib-Bur) speaker - bk-cndl-Mingun<)) , Chinese (Sino-Tib) speaker - bk-cndl-Chinese<)). You can get a Sri-Lankan pronunciation on line. Compare the pronunciations word by word. The speakers are:

The speakers are:
Bur-Myan: Mingun Sayadaw {min:kwun: hsa.ra-tau:}
Chinese: Jandure Pagngnananda Thero (釋明高)
Nauyane Ariyadhamma Thero දක්ෂිණා විභංග සූත්‍රය - https://archive.org/details/Pirith 141225

Though the words sound differently, they mean the same. Gautama Buddha rules that which sound is correct and which is not is irrelevant. He allows his teachings to be spread in local dialects.

anujānāmi bhikkhave sakāya niruttiyā buddhavacanam pariyā punitum

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Pronunciation in Bur-Myan, and in Pal-Myan
of अकन्या a-kanyā [a-kany] -- Mac01c1

-- UKT 110706, ..., 160320 

Please note I have been on this problem for 5 years, and with my discovery that Bur-Myan Nya'gyi {a.}/ {} is a basic consonant-akshara in its own right, I have to revise my view drastically. I may have to change my view again with my ongoing study of Skt-Dev.

The way in which a word is spelled in Myanmar akshara is indicative of its pronunciation. I cannot say whether it is also true for Devanagari. I have arrived at this conclusion based on an analysis given below by considering the transformation of अकन्या a-kanyā [a-kany] 'no longer a maid' (Mac01c1) to Pal-Myan. First let's see how its antonym कन्या kanyā is formed.

= (क) (न ् य ा) : {ka.n~ya}, or
= (क न ्) (य ा) : {kn-ya}
However, in Pal, viram is not shown, and {kn-ya} has to be shown as conjunct {kn~ya}

The word for 'maid' in Bur-Myan is {ka.a}. Remember in BEPS, it is only in Bur-Myan that we find Nya'gyi {a.} which can be killed to {}. It is a basic consonant-akshara in its own right: it is a Palatal-approximant. It is not a horizontal conjunct as is commonly believed. If it were so, it would break up into 2 Nya'le {~a.} as in Pal-Myan. An example of this break-up is found in Pali-derived word for 'education': {p~a.}. The uninitiated would pronounce this word as pa-nya . However, it must be pronounced as pyin-nya .

If this break up were found in 'maid' the pronunciation would be {k~a}, and it would lose its connection to Skt-Dev कन्या kanyā. 

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Representing repha in Romabama

- UKT: 120901, 130605, 160320

Approximants form a class by themselves. They are different from Plosive-stops  and Nasals. We can divide them into 3 subsets: semi-consonants (aka semivowels), dental-alveolar fricatives (hissing-sibilant and non-hissing-thibilant in Bur-Myan & Pal-Myan, but all hissing-sibilants in Skt-Dev), and deep-h.

Semivowels: {ya.} /j/, {ra.} /ɹ/, {la.} /l/, {wa.} /w/,
Fricatives: {a.} /θ/, {Sa.} /s/, {sha.} /ʃ/,
Deep-h: {ha.} /h/

Only one Fricative is realized in Bur-Myan , whereas IPA calls for three: {a.} /θ/, {Sa.} /s/, {sha.} /ʃ/. The non-hissing thibilant /θ/ is also realized in English <thin>. English also has hissing-sibilants /s/ & /ʃ/.

To summarize, we have Fricative-thibilant: /θ/ and Fricative-sibilant: /s/, /ʃ/ in Bur-Myan. Eng-Lat & Pal-Myan, whereas Skt-Dev has no thibilants: all three are hissing-sibilants.

Bur-Myan: {a.} is Fricative-thibilant. Its sound in the coda is well known to the Bur-Myan: . The Bur-Myan {~a.} (known as Tha'gyi {akri:}) is a horizontal conjunct, and is mute. 

UKT 130605: However, many - including myself at one time - do not know that {~a.} cannot be pronounced. At that time when I approached a senior monk, he told me that it had a sound like ordinary {a.}, but with more  emphasis. I was led astray for quite a while.

Note that the horizontal conjuncts of {~a.}-type and vertical conjuncts of {k~ka.}-type are made up two identical akshara. They are found to be converted into Repha in Skt-Dev.

The sounds of all three fricatives in the onset of syllables are known in Bur-Myan. It is in the coda that we ran into problems.

Since Fricative-sibilants are unknown in Bur-Myan, Romabama has to formulate them as: {sha.} /ʃ/ , & {Sa.} /s/. Note that the only way to differentiate Dental-fricative and Palatal-plosive-stop is to present them together with their killed-forms as:  {Sa.}/ {S} ष, and {sa.}/ {c} च . Remember also that the Palatals are pronounced as Affricates by the English-speakers and Hindi-speakers, and using IPA and IAST transliterations are bound to get you confused.

The differences in the 3 classes, Semivowels, Fricatives, and Deep-h, can be seen in the ability of their killed-consonants, {y}, {r}, {l}, {w},  {}, {S}, {sh}, and {h}, to check the nuclear vowel in the syllable of the canonical form CV. The killed-consonants of the Plosive-stops can check the nuclear vowel V completely, whereas those of the nasals can check only partially, and produce 3 allophones - the creak, the modal, and the emphatic. What about the killed-approximants? It has been a problem in Romabama.

I am curious how a foreigner would "hear" Bur-Myan words where the vowels are checked by various killed consonants. R. C. Temple wrote in 1876 in his "Notes on transliteration of the Burmese alphabet ...":
in pdf : http://www.forgottenbooks.com/readbook_text/Proceedings_of_the_Asiatic_Society_of_Bengal_1878_1000752596/125
A downloaded copy is available in TIL SD-library
- RCTemple-translit-Bur<> / bkp<> (link chk 160321)

How are we to represent Repha in Romabama? The best seems to be {ra.kauk-t}, represented by the glyph . e.g. 

अकर् = अ क र ् {a.kar}.

However, when Repha occurs in the middle of a word, as in

अकर्ण = अ क र ् ण {a.kar~Na.},

the glyph   seems out of place. The solution is to present it similar to the Kinsi-form as in {a.kar~Na.}.

In addition to Repha, there is a pair of very rhotic vowel-letters and their vowel-signs which I have to include in Romabama:

{iRi.} ऋ ृ (1 eye-blink), {iRi} ॠ ॄ (2 blk)

They are known as vocalic R , which had led me to think that they are consonants. They are not! They are vowels in every respect.

It is now observed that medials are probably found only in Bur-Myan and Mon-Myan. They may also be present in Pal-Myan. However, I am not certain if it would be found in Pal-Dev as spoken in Nepal. It would be prudent to say that there are no medials in Skt-Dev, and what we usually represent as {kya.} (mono-syllabic) is to be represented as {k~ya.} (disyllabic).

However, it is better to leave {kra} as it is because with the rhotic syllables, mono-syllables and disyllables are indistinguishable, and more importantly not to get into confusion when dealing with Mon-Myan r1c5 which they represent as {ng~ra.} instead of Bur-Myan {nga.} in syllables such as  {k~nga.}. See
Nga'hsw, p047 or pdf 51/259 - MonMyan-indx.htm > MonMyan-NMgToe-Mon-Bur<> 160320
where the hanging akshara, , represents {nga.} and not {ra.}.

There are two other vowels [known as vocalic L] - the lateral vowel-letters, present in Vedic but almost absent in Classical Sanskrit of Panini.

ऌ  ॢ (1 eye-blk), ॡ  ॣ (2 blk)

UKT 120901: I have run out of L letters, because I have assigned small < l > to {la.}, and cap <L> to {La.}. Maybe I will have to use (Alt+0163) for these vowels.

With the problem of killed-approximants in Romabama solved for Repha, we will next go to solve the problem of killed- {la.}. Unlike the killed-{ra.} 'repha', there is no special form and special name for killed-{la.} in Skt-Dev. It is shown as a conjunct in disyllabic words. In Pal-Myan such words are shown as a vertical conjuncts.

UKT 130606: Because of dearth of front vowels in English (no /a/ nor /ɛ/), study of killed approximants changing the nuclear vowel is very difficult. I have only one concrete example to go on: in {} which is well known in Bur-Myan. For English L in the coda, my question is whether it would be appropriate to represent it as {l} -- an idea based on Skt-Dev vowels ऋ & ऌ being treated as a class by themselves.

Go back represent-repha-note-b / represent-repha-note-b2

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Non-Rhotic to Rhotic series

-- UKT 120112, 120904, 130720, 140331, 160320 

Of the four languages of BEPS,
Bur-Myan would use {a.kya.} (non-rhotic), {a.kra.} (non-rhotic):
In Irrawaddy dialect they are pronounced the same, however, in Rakhine dialect they sound differently.

Pal-Myan would use  {a.kya.} (non-rhotic), {a.kra.} (rhotic)
In Pal-Myan they sound differently.

Skt-Myan would use {a.k~ra.} (rhotic) .

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rhotic_and_non-rhotic_accents 120904
Written for English dialects, but only now (120904) found to be applicable to Romabama.

English pronunciation can be divided into two main accent groups: a rhotic speaker pronounces a rhotic consonant in words like hard and butter; a non-rhotic speaker does not. [UKT ]

That is, rhotic speakers pronounce /ɹ/ (English R) in nearly all positions of a word, while non-rhotic speakers pronounce /ɹ/ only if it is followed by a vowel sound in the same phrase or prosodic unit (see " linking and intrusive R"). [UKT ]

Therefore, when pronounced by a non-rhotic speaker, the word butter would sound like butta /bʌtə/ to a rhotic speaker. Non-rhoticity is featured in many accents in England, Australia, and the North Eastern region of the USA, among others.

In linguistic terms, non-rhotic accents are said to exclude the sound [r] from the syllable coda before a consonant or prosodic break. This is commonly (if misleadingly) referred to as "post-vocalic R".

UKT: More in Wikipedia article.

Go back Rhoticity-note-b

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End of TIL file