Update: 2019-06-25 11:00 PM -0400


Practical Sanskrit Dictionary for Buddhists and Hindus


A Practical Sanskrikt Dictionary, by A. A. Macdonell, 1893,
http://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/scans/MDScan/index.php?sfx=jpg; 1929.
- Nataraj ed., 1st in 2006, 2012.
- https://dsal.uchicago.edu/dictionaries/macdonell/ 190516
The Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Grammar and Dictionary, BHS, vol.2, by F. Edgerton, pp. 627.
- FEdgerton-BHSD<> / Bkp<> (link chk 180627)
The Student's Pali English dictionary , by U Pe Maung Tin, 1920.
- (ref: UPMT-PEDxxx).  Downloaded copies in TIL HD-PDF and SD-PDF libraries:
- UPMT-PaliDict1920<> / bkp<> (link chk 190113)
  Pali-Myanmar Dictionary (in Pal-Myan), by U Hoke Sein,
- (ref: UHS-PMD). The dictionary in printed form is in TIL Research Library.
Latin-English Vocabulary II, by Hans H rberg, 1998
- HHOrberg-LinguaLatina<> / Bkp<> (link chk 190624)

Edited by U Kyaw Tun (UKT) (M.S., I.P.S.T., USA), Daw Khin Wutyi, Daw Thuzar Myint, Daw Zinthiri Han and staff of Tun Institute of Learning (TIL). Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone. Prepared for students and staff of TIL  Research Station, Yangon, MYANMAR 
 - http://www.tuninst.net , www.romabama.blogspot.com 

MC-indx.htm | Top

Contents of this page

The following are entries of {a.} // with Wag-consonants. In Pal-Myan and Skt-Dev, {a.} as a prefix can denote negation of a verb or an adjective. However, in Bur-Myan, the negation is neither a  nor an . The negation prefix is {ma.}. In this page, {a.} denotes negation. In this respect, Bur-Myan is similar to Npali and Nwari. See:
A Comparative and Etymological Dictionary of Nepali Language by R L Turner (ref: Turn-Nepxxx )
  - http://dsal.uchicago.edu/dictionaries/turner/ (link chk 160119)
  Files from Univ. Chicago in TIL HD-nonPDF and SD-nonPDF libraries:
  - Turn-NepalDict<> / Bkp<> (link chk 190417) 
  Downloaded files from Govt. College in TIL HD-PDF and SD-PDF libraries
  - RLTurner-NepalDict<> / Bkp<> (link chk 190417)

{a.ka.} / {ak} : Effect of coda consonant on the nuclear vowel
  {a.ka.ka.} : velar plosive-stop row
    {a.ka.gna.} : 1st nasal
  {a.ka.sa.} : palatal plosive-stop or affricate row
    {a.ka.a.} : 2nd nasal
  {a.ka.Ta.} : retroflex plosive-stop row
     {a.ka.Na.} : 3rd nasal
  {a.ka.ta.} : dental-alveolar plosive-stop row
     {a.ka.na.} : 4th nasal
  {a.ka.pa.} : bilabial plosive-stop row
     {a.ka.ma.} : 5th nasal

The following are entries of {a.} with Awag-consonants, which are subdivided into 3 groups:
semi-consonants: {ya.}/ {}, {a.}/ {} , {ra.}/ {r}, {la.}/ {l}, {wa.}/ {w}
fricatives: {sha.}/ {sh}, {Sa.}/ {S}, {a.}/ {}
deep-H, etc.: {ha.}/ {h} :
The term deep-H is not applicable to Mon-Myan. Just listen to row#1 {ka.} consonants:
   - bk-cndl-{ka.}-row<))  : they sound like /ka./, /hka./, /k/ or /g/, /hk/, /ng/,
not the regular the regular Bur-Myan /ka./, /hka./, /ga./, /Ga./, /nga./ .
How I wish my great-great grand-mother Daw M Ma. (pure Mon speaker of Peguan dialect) were alive to help me with pronunciation. The Peguan dialect is now extinct. What you are hearing is the Martaban dialect which pronounces r1c3 as /g/ instead of /k/. In both Mon dialects, there is no "deep-H".

  {a.ka.ya.} : semi-consonants
{a.ka.ra.} अकर
  {a.kar} : {a.kar~} - Rpha form

  {a.ka.la.} : cf. {a.k}
  {a.kal} : {a.kal~} - Lpha form

  {a.kaS~} - mispronunciation of {a.} as dental-fricative {Sa.} or palatal-stop {sa.} produces this form
    Remember, both {Sa.} and {sa.}, has the same pronunciation as onsets. They differ only as codas.

Contents of this page

UKT notes :
Akata : Religion of Inaction - attitude of Nietzsche
Bran, Chaff, and Broken rice
Difference between Bur-Myan & Pal-Myan
Dot-above aka {::tn} problem
Laterals and Rhotics in BEPS : rewrite necessary.
Pronunciation in Bur-Myan, and in Pal-Myan of अकन्या a-kanyā
Pure Land Buddhism
Savitri stanza

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{a.ka.} / {ak}

p001c1-b27/ p007-021 

अक [ aka ]
Skt: अक [ aka ] - m. the suffix -aka (gr.). - Mac001c1
  21) अक (p. 7) aka -aka (gr.).

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{a.ka.ka.} : velar plosive-stop row

{a.ka.gna.} : 1st nasal (actually semi-nasal) generating {a.kn}/{a.king}

{a.ka.sa.} : palatal plosive-stop in Bur-Myan, but affricate in Mon-Myan

p001c1-not entered in Mac
अकच akaca

Skt: अकच akaca - adj. hairless, bald -- SpkSkt
BPali antonym: {ka.sa.} - UHS-PMD0276
  UKT from UHS: m. head hair

UKT 150117, 160320, 190417: It is interesting to note that <head hair> (differentiated from "body hair") is also known as {k-a} (UHS-PMD0335). From it we note that in {ka.sa.} & {k-a} differ only in vowel lengths if we were to take the palatal-plosive च ca and dental-fricative स sa to be the same. However if we were to go strictly by Skt-Dev pronunciation, {ka.sa.} would sound " /ka.kya./". This is fine as long as I keep Mon-Myan aside. Since I cannot ignore the mother-tongue of my great grandmother Daw M Ma, Mon-Myan, I'm forced to invent new glyphs for r2c1 phoneme: , and {ka.sa.} would be written as {ka.ca.}.


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{a.ka.Ta.} : retroflex plosive-stop row

p001c1-b28/ p007-020 

अकटुक [ a-katuka ]
= अ क ट ु क  
- a. assiduous. [constant in application or attention; diligent -- AHTD]
  20) अकटुक (p. 7) a-katuka assiduous.

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p001c1 - not entered in Mac
अकण akaṇa

BHS: अकण akaṇa 
adj. (= Pal id, see kaṇa , niṣkaṇa), free from the red coating under the husk (of rice) - Edgerton001c1
BPal: {a.ka.Na.} - UHS-PMD0001
  UKT from UHS: mfn. free from broken rice.


p001c1-not entered in Mac
अकणक akaṇaka

Skt: अकणक akaṇaka - adj. without red particles adhering to the rice husks -- SpkSkt
BHS: अकणक akaṇaka = prec.: -śālim akaṇakam - Edgerton001c1

See my note on Bran, Chaff, and Broken rice


p001c1-b29/ p007-019

अकण्टक [ a-kantaka ] {a.kN~Ta.ka.}
- a. thornless; foeless. - Mac001c1
  19) अकण्टक (p. 7) a-kantaka thornless;
Skt: अकण्टक akaṇṭaka - adj. thornless, free from troubles or difficulties or enemies - SpkSkt
BHS: अकण्टक Akaṇṭaka - nt., N. of a Buddhakṣetra - Edgerton001c1

See my note on Pure Land Buddhism , Amitabha Buddha and his world
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sukhavati 180708
"Sukhāvatī, or the Western Paradise, refers to the western pure land of Amitābha in Mahayana Buddhism."


p001c1-b30/ p007-018

अकण्ठ [ a-kaṇtha ] = अ क ण ् ठ
- a. neckless; voiceless, hoarse.
18) अकण्ठ (p. 7) a-kantha neckless; voiceless, hoarse.

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{a.ka.ta.} : dental-alveolar plosive-stop row

See my note on {a.ka.ta.} अकत akata 'Inaction', and {a.kRi.ta.} अकृत a-kṛta
with ref. to Vacchagotta Sutta {wic~hsa.gaut~ta. oat~ta.} in Samyutta Nikaya, SN 44.8:

अकत akata
BPal: {a.ka.ta.} - UHS-PMD0001
  UKT from UHS: mfn. not yet to be done, not yet to be decided. n. nirvana 
* BPal: {ka.ta.} - UHS-PMD0283
  UKT from UHS: mfn. should do, done, should diligently do. n. proper action, properly done, doing.


p001c1-not entered in Mac
अकतिगाथा akati-gāthā 

Skt: अकति akati - v. move tortuously like a snake - SpkSkt
BHS: अकतिगाथा akati-gāthā
- (cf. Pkt. akai , unumbered, infinite), having numberless (a-kati) verses, or an infinite(ly numerous) verse; of sāvitrī stanza. - Edgerton001c1

UKT 180703: See my note on Savitri stanza


p001c1-b31/ p007-017

अकत्थन [ a-katthana ] = अ क त ् थ न --> {a.kt~hta.na.}
- n. non-boasting.
17) अकत्थन (p. 7) a-katthana non-boasting.


p001c1-b32/ p007-016 

अकथम्् [ a-katham ] = (अ) (क) (थ म ्)  --> {a.ka.htm}
- ad. without (a 'why' =) more ado.
16) अकथम्् (p. 7) a-katham without (a ʻwhyʼ=) more ado. 


p001c1-b33/ p007-015

अकथित [ a-kathita ]
- pp. unmentioned, un-discussed.
15) अकथित (p. 7) a-kathita unmentioned,


p001c1-b34/ p007-014

अकद्वद [ a-kad-vada ]
- a. not speaking ill, speaking well.
14) अकद्वद (p. 7) a-kad-vada not speaking ill,


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p001c1-b35/ p007-013

अकनिष्ठ [ -kanishtha ]
- m. pl. without a youngest, equally young.
13) अकनिष्ठ (p. 7) -kanishtha without a youngest,


p001c1-not entered in Mac
अकनिष्ठ  akaniṣṭha

Skt: अकनिष्ठ akaniṣṭha - m. class of Buddhist deities - SpkSkt
BHS: अकनिष्ठ akaniṣṭha*  
- (= Pali अकन्टठ akaniṭṭha; see also aghaniṣṭha), . n. of the fifth and highest class of Śuddhāvāsakāyika gods **(see dva), and . sg., n. of the region where they live. They dwell brahmalok. Often mentioned alone as the highest of the 'form' (rūpāvacara) gods, as also in the lists of classes of gods. Sometimes in sg. of a single member of the class. - FE-BHS001c2b01 

*UKT 180703: transliteration from: Wiktionary
- https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/%E0%A4%85%E0%A4%95%E0%A4%A8%E0%A4%BF%E0%A4%B7%E0%A5%8D%E0%A4%A0 180703
अकनिष्ठ akaniṣṭha- . of whom none is the youngest (i.e. younger than the others)

** For Śuddhāvāsakāyika gods , see The Treatise on the Great Virtue of Wisdom of Nāgārjuna, by E Lamotte, 2001, in TIL HD-PDF and SD-PDF libraries :
- ELamotte-NagarjunaMpp<> / Bkp<> (link chk 180709)

UKT 180719: "The Mahāprajāpāramitā (abbreviated as Mppś) by Nāgārjuna [c150-c250 CE] ... has not come down to us in the original Sanskrit, but only through the intermediary of a Chinese translation, the Ta tche tou louen." I hope my work will be an inspiration to bring back Mahayana Buddhism to northern India from where the original ideas were taken to China after the Third Buddhist Synod.
See Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Buddhist_councils 180719
"Another Fourth Buddhist Council was held in the Sarvastivada tradition, said to have been convened by the Kushan emperor Kanishka, in 78 AD at Kundalban in Kashmir."
And also on Shin Nāgārjuna: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nagarjuna 180709


p001c1-not entered in Mac

BHS: akaniṣṭhika 
- adj. with dva, belonging to the akaniṣṭha class - FE-BHS001c2b02


p001c1-b36/ p007-012

अकन्या [ a-kany ]
= (अ) (क न ्) (य ा) --> {a.kn~ya} or = (अ) (क) (न ् य ा) --> {a.ka.nya}
  12) अकन्या (p. 7) a-kany no longer a maid.
Skt: - f. no longer a maid. -- Mac001c1
BPali antonym: {ka.a} -- UHS-PMD0278
  UKT from UHS: f. bride, maiden. Kanya Rasi (approx. Aug.21 to Sep.20, one of the 12 rasi (periods) in a Solar year), the rasi of the full Moon of {tau-a.ln:}.

Note #1: Bur-Myan luni-solar year has 12 months, with {tau-a.ling:} as one. Kanya Rasi is known as Constellation Virgo representing the Virgin with symbol ♍ . See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Virgo_constellation 120930

Note #2: We are meeting here a curious relationship between Burmese, Pali, and Sanskrit spellings which reflects the pronunciation.
See my note on Pronunciation in Bur-Myan, and in Pal-Myan


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{a.ka.pa.} : bilabial row

p001c1-b37/ p007-011 

अकपिलच्छवि [ a-kapila-kkhavi ]
- a. not brownish.
11) अकपिलच्छवि (p. 7) a-kapila-kkhavi not brownish.


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p001c1-b38/ p007-010

अकम्पित [ a-kampita ]
- pp. not trembling, firm.
  10) अकम्पित (p. 7) a-kampita not trembling,
BHS: Akampitasāgara
- N. of a Bodhisattva - FE-BHS001c2b03

UKT 180704: The highest aim for a human after death
- Christianity - innumerable Saints
- Hinduism - innumerable Dvas
- Mahayana Buddhism - innumerable Bodhisattvas
- Theravada Buddhism - innumerable Arahats


p001c1-not entered in Mac

BHS: akampiya
  - adj (= Pali id., Skt. pya) unshakable - FE-BHS001c2b04
BPali: {a.km~pi.ya.} - UHS-PMD0002c2
  UKT frm. UHS - mfn. unshakable 


p001c1-not entered in Mac

BHS: Akampya
- N. of a Bodhisattva-samādhi - FE-BHS001c2b05


p001c1-not entered in Mac

BHS: Akampyanetra
- N. of a Bodhisattva - FE-BHS001c2b06


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 {a.ka.ya.} : semi-consonants

{a.ka.ra.} अकर

p001c1-b39/ p007-008

अकरण [ . a-karana ] --> {a.ka.ra.Na.}
Skt: अकरण [a-karana] - . - n. omission to do. -- Mac0001c1
  9) अकरण (p. 7) 1. a-karana omission to do.
Skt: अकरण akaraṇa - n. absence of action -- SpkSkt
BPal: {a.ka.ra.Na.} - UHS-PMD0002
   UKT from UHS: mfn. what should not have been done. n. non-action, non physical action


p001c1-b40/ p007-009

अकरण [ . a-karana ]
- a. unartificial, natural.
8) अकरण (p. 7) . a-karana unartificial, natural.


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p001c2/ p007-007


अकरुण [ a-karuna ]
- a. pitiless; -tva, n. -ness.
7) अकरुण (p. 7) a-karuna pitiless;

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{a.kar} : {a.kar~} Repha form

p001c1-not entered in Mac

BHS: Akardama 
- N. of a Buddhakṣetra - FE-BHS001c2b07


p001c2-b01/ p007-006

अकर्ण [ -karna ] --> {a.kar~Na.}
  6) अकर्ण (p. 7) -karna deaf; without Karna.
Skt: अकर्ण [ -karna ]- a. deaf; without Karna -- Mac001c2
BPal antonym: {kN~Na.} -- UHS-PMD0282
  UKT from UHS: m. ear, ear-lobe, edge, corner

UKT 141222: "Karna" was a hero who had stood on the side of Justice in the story of Mahabharata. He sided with the Kauravas, who were supposed to be "unjust", against the Pandavas in the Kurukshetra War. He was "unjustly" killed in battle by Arjuna the third Pandava brother who broke the agreed rules of battle to kill him.

To find a clue to how to represent repha in Romabama, I search for equivalent or near-equivalent words in Pal-Myan. UHS-PMD gives:

BPal: {a.kN~Na. nt~ta.} - UHS-PMD0001
  UKT from UHS: mfn. extreme cruelty unfit to be heard or seen, harsh and cruel
Skt: a-karṇya - mfn. not fit for the ears Pāṇ. Sch -- MonWilliWash001c1

See my note on Rhotic series for BEPS


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p001c2-b02/ p007-005 

अकर्णधार [ a-karnadhra ]
- a. pilotless.
5) अकर्णधार (p. 7) a-karnadhra pilotless.

UKT 130605: Why is कर्ण = क र ् ण = --> {kar~Na.} 'ear' translated as 'pilot'? Its equivalent in Pal-Myan is {kN~Na.}. It is often alleged in Bur-Myan culture that what you see (with eyes) can misled you: you need to hear good counsel (with ears) to correct your path.


p001c2-b03/ p007-075

अकर्तव्य [ a-kartavya ]
- fp. not to be done; n. misdeed.
75) अकर्तव्य (p. 7) a-kartavya not to be done;


p001c2-b04 not online

अकर्तृ akartṛi = अ क र ् त ृ  = {a.ka.tRRi.}
Skt: अकर्तृ [a-kartri] - m. non-agent -- Mac001c1
Skt: अकर्तृ akartṛ - m. not an agent, not active, name applied to the puruSa -- SpkSkt


p001c2-b05/ p007-074

अकर्मक [ a-karma-ka ]
- a. objectless, intransitive.
74) अकर्मक (p. 7) a-karma-ka objectless,


p001c2-b06/ p007-073

अकर्मकृत्् [ a-karma-krit ]
- a. inactive.
73) अकर्मकृत्् (p. 7) a-karma-krit inactive.


p001c2-b07/ p007-072

अकर्मण्य [ a-karmanya ]
- a. ineffectual, useless.
72) अकर्मण्य (p. 7) a-karmanya ineffectual,


p001c2-b08/ p007-071

अकर्मन्् [ a-karman ]
--> {a.kar~mn}
- n. inaction; a. (-mn) doing nothing, idling; wicked.
71) अकर्मन्् (p. 7) a-karman inaction;


p001c2-b09/ p007-070

अकर्मप्राप्ति [ a-karma-prpti ]
- f. non-intervention of fate.
70) अकर्मप्राप्ति (p. 7) a-karma-prpti non-intervention


p001c2-b10/ p007-069

अकर्मशील [ a-karma-sla ]
- a. inactive, idle.
69) अकर्मशील (p. 7) a-karma-sla inactive,


p001c2-b11/ p007-068

अकर्मश्रान्त [ a-karma-srnta ]
- pp. untiring in ritual.
68) अकर्मश्रान्त (p. 7) a-karma-srnta untiring

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{a.ka.la.} / {a.k}

UKT 130606, 180705 : {a.ka.la.} & {a.kl} do not seem to be as problematic as {a.ka.ya.} & {a.k} . However it is probably not so in Skt-Dev - a rhotic language. It seems that {a.kl} is more related to {a.kar} and its repha form {a.kar~} than to non-rhotic {a.k}. This calls for introduction of a new term lepha form, {a.kal~}, which would eventually led to a new kind of basic consonantal-akshara beginning with {Sa.}/{S}, e.g. {S~ka.} -> {ska.}. Remember, the Super-S is dental-hisser and not palatal-stop.

p001c2-b12/ p007-067

अकलङ्क [ a-kalaṅka ] --> {a.ka.ln~ka.}
Skt: a. spotless. -- Mac001c2
  67) अकलङ्क (p. 7) a-kalaṅka spotless.
BPali antonym: {ka.ln~ka.} - UHS-PMD030
  UKT from UHS: m. identification spot, stain, mistake (in recitation or writing)


p001c2-b13/ p007-066

अकलि [ a-kali ]
  66) अकलि (p. 7) a-kali not quarrelling, concordant.
Skt: अकलि [a-kali]  -- a. not quarrelling, concordant. -- Mac001c2
BPal antonym: {ka.li.} - UHS-PMD0300
  UKT from UHS: m. mistake, wrong attitude towards another person, wrong deed, filth, loss, sputum, an wrong doer

UKT 180628: I am avoiding the word "sin" to avoid any connotation to the Christian idea of Original Sin. I maintain that a language must be religion-neutral. However, those who are interested in the idea of "Original Sin" should read: Wikepedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Original_sin 150118
" ... is the Christian doctrine of humanity's state of sin resulting from the fall of man, stemming from Adam's rebellion [against the Creator or God - by not obeying him] in [the Garden of] Eden. "


p001c2-b14/ p007-065

अकलित [ a-kalita ]
- pp. unknown; undefinable.
65) अकलित (p. 7) a-kalita unknown;


p001c2-b15/ p007-064

अकलिप्रसर [ akali-prasara ]
- a. where no quarrelling occurs.
64) अकलिप्रसर (p. 7) akali-prasara where


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UKT 160319, 180705: From {a.kar}, I have arrived at the Repha form  {a.kar~}. A similar situation is what I will term the Lpha form, {a.kal~}, derived from {a.kal}.
I'd thought on 160319, that the ordinary conjunct {a.kl~} would be more suitable. However I later came to know that the highly lateral vowel is present in Vdic, but rare in Classical Sanskrit.
See video lessons by Dr. Pankaja Rajagopal , Shaale.com: School of Traditional  Indian Arts and Literature
- https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PL-ZRhg4pEMrNHVgVUKqpqKJ2FWBbusosK 170520

On Skt vowels, see in SktDevGramm01 section in TIL HD-VIDEO and SD-VIDEO libraries: 
- SktVow<> / Bkp<> (link chk 180821)

See my note on Laterals-Rhotics-BEPS-note-b
{a.kl~la.} 'disease' - UHS PMD0003,
{k~la.} 'health' - UHS PMD0302

p001c2-b16/ p007-063

अकल्ककलिल [ a-kalka-kalila ]
- a. free from baseness.
63) अकल्ककलिल (p. 7) a-kalka-kalila free from baseness.


p001c2-b17/ p007-062

अकल्कता [ a-kalka-t ]
- f. honesty.
62) अकल्कता (p. 7) a-kalka-t honesty.


BHS: akalpika
- adj. (Pali akappiya ) improper ; -dāna , gift of something that is improper - FE-BHSc2b08


BHS: a-kalpya - adj. improper - FE-BHSc2b09



BHS- adj. (Pal akamāsa) pure (lit. not variegated) - FE-BHSc2b10


p001c2-b18/ p007-060

अकल्य [ 1. a-kalya ] = अ क ल ् य = {a.kl~ya.}
Skt: अकल्य [a-kalya] -  . a. not healthy, ill. -- Mac001c2
  61) अकल्य (p. 7) 1. a-kalya not healthy,
*BPal: {a.kl~la.ka.} - UHS-PMD003
  UKT from UHS: mfn. hurt, not healthy


BPal antonym: {kl~la.} - UHS-PMD0302
  UKT from UHS: . mfn. suitable, appropriate, physically healthy, articulate (diplomatic). m. absence of physical illness.
  n. time of dawning [implying a fresh start]
  . mn. ash [implying wood ash or the wood at the end stage of change and no more change or illness]


p001c2-b19/ p007-061

अकल्य [ 2. a-kalya ]
- fp. not to be guessed.
60) अकल्य (p. 7) 2. a-kalya not to be


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p001c2-b20/ p007-058

अकव [ -kava ]
- a. not niggardly, liberal.
59) अकव (p. 7) -kava not niggardly,


p001c2-b21/ not online

अकवि [ -kavi ]
- a. not wise, foolish.
58) अकवि (p. 7) -kavi not wise,

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{a.kaS~} - mispronunciation of {a.} as {Sa.} produces the Repha form

p001c2-b22/ p007-057

अकस्मात्् [ a-kasmt ] = अ क स ् म ा त ्
- (ab.) ad. without apparent cause; suddenly; accidentally.
57) अकस्मात्् (p. 7) a-kasmt without


p001c2-b23/ p007-056

अकस्मादागन्तु [ akasmd-gantu ]
- m. chance-comer.
56) अकस्मादागन्तु (p. 7) akasmd-gantu chance-comer.

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UKT notes

Akata : Religion of Inaction

UKT 140401:

{a.ka.ta.} is not listed by Macdonell: what he has given is {a.kRRi.ta.}. The two have comparable meanings, yet one is totally non-rhotic (a word used by Pal-Myan speakers) and the other is highly rhotic (used by Sanskrit speakers.). I am curious about this because one of the meanings for {a.ka.ta.} is Nibbana aka Nirvana. The idea of Nirvana (translated as "Heaven")  is so confusing in the current religions: Theravada Buddhism, Mahayana Buddhism, Christianity and Hinduism. Moreover, Theravada Buddhism has been dubbed the "Religion of Inaction".

"Religion of Inaction" was one of the topics I had discussed with my father U Tun Pe, in my teens. It was also the one I had discussed with my co-brother Sarpebeikmhan U Aye Maung, after I was married to his sister-in-law, Daw Than Than. I remember U Aye Maung pointing out to the attitudes of Nietzsche and Schopenhauer on Buddhism. The following Dukkha, Inaction, and Nirvana: Suffering, Weariness, and Death? - A look at Nietzsche's Criticisms of Buddhist Philosophy - by Omar Edward Moad, University of Missouri-Columbia, touches many points which we had discussed.

Excerpt from: http://www.the-philosopher.co.uk/buddhism.htm 140401, 160321
UKT: I have highlighted the important points

"When it comes to Nietzsche's criticisms of Buddhism, such an investigation uncovers what seems to be a misunderstanding of the real meaning of Buddhist doctrine; and one not limited to Nietzsche alone, but common to much of the lay-level understanding of this religion in the West. My goals here, then, will be to address this misunderstanding by examining three important Buddhist concepts at its center: dukkha, inaction, and Nirvana. By focusing on the meaning of these concepts for Buddhists, I do not hope to reconcile Nietzsche with Buddhism in any way, but only to identify a few areas wherein his understanding of it was misconceived. Furthermore, by selecting these three areas for analysis, I do not mean to preclude that there are other important elements of Buddhism that need analysis in light of Nietzsche's critiques. ...

"Kamma-niradha is the Sanskrit word for 'cessation of action'. This state is achieved through adherence to the eight-fold path, which guides the Buddhist into kusula {ku.a.la.}, or 'skillful action'. Therefore, it is not simply ceasing to perform actions that the Buddhist believes will eventually lead one to his or her goal. Rather, the type of actions that are performed is the deciding factor. Likewise, it is wrong to conclude that just because one has attained Nirvana that one ceases to act. Such a conclusion implies a misconceived interpretation of kamma-niradha, as it is understood in Buddhism. This is the misconception Nietzsche seems to have made in characterising Buddhism as being centered on the guideline not to act. ...

"The fact is, Nirvana can only be explained to the 'unenlightened' by negation. The Buddhist texts tell us what it cannot be thought of as, but the only positive descriptions of it tend toward non-existence. An example of this is the simile of the fire that the Buddha uses in his dialogue with Vacchagotama. He asks whether the fire, when it is extinguished, can be said to have gone north, south, east, or west. Of course, the obvious answer is that the fire no longer exists. Nirvana, however, cannot be described as existing, not existing, both existing and not, or neither existing nor not. For Buddhism, even nothingness is constituted by the relative contingencies that arise co-dependently as samsara. ... "

UKT 160321: Refer to Vacchagotta Sutta in Samyutta Nikaya, SN 44.8, and translation by Thanissaro Bhikkhu, 2004
- http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka/sn/sn44/sn44.008.than.html 160321
downloaded pdf available in TIL SD-Library
- Thanissaro-SuttaVacchagotta<> / bkp<> (link chk 160322)
The following is the first para of the Sixth Synod version of {wic~hsa.gaut~ta. oat~ta.} in {n-yoat~ta. ni.ka-ya.}, {hkn~Da. wag~ga.},
{a.La-ya.ta.na. wag~ga. pa-Li.}:

In the translation, Buddha stated:
"But the Tathagata, worthy and rightly self-awakened, does not assume form to be the self, or the self as possessing form, or form as in the self, or the self as in form.
"He does not assume feeling to be the self...
"He does not assume perception to be the self...
"He does not assume fabrications to be the self...
"He does not assume consciousness to be the self, or the self as possessing consciousness, or consciousness as in the self, or the self as in consciousness. That is why, when asked in this way, he does not answer that 'The cosmos is eternal'... or that 'The Tathagata neither exists nor does not exist after death.'"

UKT 140401: After reading the above, or the whole article as I have, if you feel stumped , don't be discouraged. You are not alone!

UKT 150121: My understanding of Nirvana is based on my understanding of the Four Non-axiomatic Principles which others would understand as the Four Noble Truths. As a material scientist of the kind of Skeptical Chemist of Robert Boyle http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Sceptical_Chymist 150121, I am happy only when I can base my thoughts on the modern scientific views which simply put avoids all axioms such as YHVH, God, or Allah.

I understand the Four Principles as:
1. Principle of Mental Suffering: That all sentient beings undergo mental suffering.
2. Principle of Mental Attachment: That all mental suffering is due to one's attachment to other beings, and to "ideas,  suppositions, and axioms".
3. Principle of Cessation: That cessation of all attachment is Nirvana - the end of suffering.
4. Principle of Right Method: That Nirvana can be attained during the life-time by adhering to the eight-fold path, such as (what is held to be) the correct livelihood, the correct thoughts, the correct efforts, etc.

What comes Before Birth and After Death are just "ideas, suppositions, and axioms". However, reading the biographies of the great modern scientists, show that these men and women in spite of their scientific views still cling to "ideas, suppositions, and axioms". After all we are all human beings! Don't be surprised when Albert Einstein said: God does not play dice with the universe. Read Stephen Hawking http://www.hawking.org.uk/does-god-play-dice.html 150121.

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Bran, Chaff and Broken rice

UKT 160321: Refer to Skt: अकणक akaṇaka - adj. without red particles adhering to the rice husks -- SpkSkt

The "red particle" referred to above is the bran {hpw: nu.}, which is more nutritious than the white starch. Bran is present in and may be milled from any cereal grain, including rice, corn (maize), wheat, oats, barley and millet. Bran should not be confused with chaff {hpw: krm:}, which is coarser scaly material surrounding the grain.

Bran {hpw: nu.}, was at one time in Myanmarpr added to animal fodder. However during 1960s, rice-bran oil for human consumption was produced. Chaff {hpw: krm:} was used as fuel to produce steam for the steam-engines running the rice-mills.

During the Japanese occupation, my father U Tun Pe was dismissed from service by the Government. He was taken in by the Kampei (the Japanese Military Police) for questioning on his service during the British-Burma time before the War. The interrogator, a Japanese Major who spoke excellent English, and my father who also speak English very well became friends, and he came back home unharmed. The Japanese Major himself came to visit the family.

Because my father was not the family's bread-earner, my mother Daw Hla May a former English and Geography teacher in Kungyangon National School, became the bread-earner. My mother she got married to my father, while in her parent's home in Moulmein had intimate knowledge of Rice-milling and brokerage business started a rice-business. I, as a child of under 10, became well acquainted with the whole business.

I wasn't through with rice even while I was teaching Chemical Engineering and Chemistry at RIT (Rangoon Institute of Technology), when Russian professors came to RIT to conduct classes. I was the counterpart of Prof. Voronsov - a noted expert on grain-milling, who could not speak English, and, I his counter-part who could not speak Russian. A Russian interpreter, who knows nothing of science and engineering was part of the team. Prof. Voronsov would write out his lecture in Russian, and the interpreter did his best to translate it to English. I had to go through it based on my knowledge scientific and engineering terms. The three of us would get together, and the Prof. and I would "discuss" using technical terms.

We produce a series of lectures which the interpreter would give to the students. The students came to believe that the interpreter was the real professor, and Prof. Voronsov and myself to be just spectators. What the students had believed - the whole class to be exact - came to my notice when they started writing newsletters which also came to me. Finally, I settled the matter citing a lecture titled "The inclined grain-separator" which use the property of little hooks on the husk to stick momentarily the canvas - a simple non-mechanical non-electrical device used by Soviet farmers on the farms. The healthy full grain with the husk can easily be separated from empty grains and bits of dry clay.

From: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bran 160321, 180708

Bran, also known as miller's bran, [1] is the hard outer layers of cereal grain. It consists of the combined aleurone and pericarp.

Along with germ, it is an integral part of whole grains, and is often produced as a byproduct of milling in the production of refined grains. When bran is removed from grains, the grains lose a portion of their nutritional value. Bran is present in and may be in any cereal grain, including rice, corn (maize), wheat, oats, barley, rye and millet. Bran is not the same as chaff, which is a coarser scaly material surrounding the grain but not forming part of the grain itself.

Bran is particularly rich in dietary fiber and essential fatty acids and contains significant quantities of starch, protein, vitamins, and dietary minerals. It is also a source of phytic acid, an antinutrient that prevents nutrient absorption.

The high oil content of bran makes it subject to rancidification, one of the reasons that it is often separated from the grain before storage or further processing. Bran is often heat-treated to increase its longevity.

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Derivatives of highly rhotic Sanskrit vowel

UKT 160325, 180628: Skt-Dev rhotic vowel {iRi.} ऋ is not present in Pal-Myan. To bridge Skt-Dev to Pal-Myan,
two works which may be used to bridge the two languages might be:
#1. A Comparative and Etymological Dictionary of Nepali Language by R L Turner
- http://dsal.uchicago.edu/dictionaries/turner/ (link chk 160119)
  Downloaded pages in a folder is in the TIL SD-Library
#2. English to Nepal Bhasa Dictionary by Sabin Bhuju सबिन भुजु , 2005
- SBhuju-NewarDict<> / bkp<> (link chk 160221)
An indication that Nwari aka Nepali-Bhasa the mother tongue of the existing blood relatives of Gautama Buddha is a  Tib-Bur language just like Bur-Myan, is presence of Newa-Dev words beginning with {nga.} ङ, e.g. for <fish> न्या ; ङा . Through this fact I claim that Gautama Buddha and Bur-Myan speakers are linguistic relatives. And I no longer describe Gautama Buddha as an Indian or Nepali (the countries being just geo-political units with shifting boundaries) but a son of Magadha Janapada to which the Taguang, the first kingdom of the present-day Myanmarpr belongs. From this I claim the Pali spoken in Myanmarpr to be the speech used by the Buddha. The fact that Myanmar script and the script of Asoka (the king of Magadha) are directly related also supports my view.
   Words with {kRRi.} are found in FE BHSDict p190-p192.
Go back Derivatives-rhotic-Sanskrit-vow-note-b

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Difference between Bur-Myan & Pal-Myan

- UKT 150101, 150217, 160322

The two languages Burmese (Bur-Myan) and Pali (Pal-Myan), belonging to the same linguistic group - Tib-Bur (Tibeto-Burman) - have the same or almost the same vowel sounds. Yet, they are different. This difference is shown in the prefix, "a-" and "un-" used for making a word negative. The word {a.ni} 'color red' does not mean "the absence of color red". {a.} is not the short vowel a //, nor the long vowel ā. It is schwa /ə/ - the central vowel, and {a.ni} must be pronounced /ə.ni/ - not /a.ni/. It would have been advantageous to show schwa as 'middle-dot' {} (Alt+0183). However, I have to rule it out because the 'middle-dot' Alt+0183 is not ASCII.

However, in Pali "a-" and "un-" can make a word negative. Thus, {ka-ma.} 'in love' [modern term: 'sex'] (UHS-PMD0306) becomes {a.ka-ma.} 'not in love' [modern term: no sex] (UHS-PMD0303). And accordingly, {a.} must be pronounced as short vowel a with emphasis.

Yet, in other cases we find {na.} as the negative-prefix. For example, in both Bur-Myan (MLC MED2006-221) and Pal-Myan (UHS PMD0509), {a.pon} अपुंस् 'enuch' is described with prefix {na.}. In Pal-Myan it is {na.pon-a.ka.}, and in Bur-Myan {na.poan:pn~oak}. The usual negative prefix in Bur-Myan is {ma.}. It is never {a.} अ as in Skt-Dev.

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Dot-above aka  {::tn} problem

-- UKT: 120826, 120903, 151115, 190107 

UKT note #1 : {n} - CAUTION: IAST for Skt-Dev transliteration is aṃ [dot-below-m], whereas, UPMT-PED transliteration is aṁ [dot-above-m]. Here we are seeing this problem in connection with vowels. We will meet this again in consonants
- p068-2.htm (link chk 140304, broken link on 170120)

UKT note #2 : To negate a word that does not start with a vowel, अ {a.} is inserted as a prefix. However, if the word starts with a vowel, as in the case of {a.ka.} & {a.loak}, we are in trouble. Now, take अंश aṃsa which is transcribed in Sanskrit as {n-sha.} 'share, part', and in Pali as {n-a.} 'part, portion, dividend, a period of time' - UHS-PMD0001, the negation becomes अनंश an-aṃsa.

अनंश an-aṃsa --> {a.nn-sha.}
Skt: a. portionless. -- Mac011c2
Skt antonym: अंश aṃsa --> {n-sha.}
Skt antonym: - m. part, share; N. of a god: in. partly. -- Mac001c1
Pal antonym: {n-a.}
- UHS-PMD0001
  UKT from UHS: . m. part, portion, dividend, a period of time. . m. shoulder


{a.na.} is the prefix used. This prefix breaks up into {n}~{a.} as given below:

{a.na.}  --> {n~a.}

The prefix actually used is {n~a.} . See the illustration below:


See my note on negation of words beginning with vowels in TIL-p011-2.htm (link not working).

UKT note #3 : My limited knowledge of Pali grammar, esp. by Shin {kic~s:} , tells me that the type of transformation from {a.t} to {::tn} is allowed. However with my due respect to the ancient Buddhist sage Shin {kic~s:}, I can only accept it for the bilabial and dental. His rule seems to break down completely for the velar. For the velar {ngn} 'to draw with a rope' is not equal to {ngn} 'salty taste' -- at least for Bur-Myan. I still have to check on this further. -- UKT120826

My search on Shin {kic~s:} on the Internet brought up:
"Grammarian Kachchayano wrote of the importance of Magadhi: 'There is a language which is the root (of all languages); men and Brahmans spoke it at the commencement of the kalpa, who never before uttered a human accent, and even the supreme Buddhas spoke it: it is Magadhi.'" (Robert Spence Hardy, The legends and theories of the Buddhists compared with history and science...) -- http://newbuddhist.com/discussion/16368/the-languages-of-buddhism 120903
Also cited in Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Magahi_language 120903

UKT note #4 : Looking into http://newbuddhist.com/discussion/16368/the-languages-of-buddhism 151115
has brought up the following from Shin {kic~s:}, which I must have overlooked the last time, 120903, I looked. My knowledge of Skt-Dev have greatly increased since then, and I have now access to BHS (Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit):

The Four Noble Truth
in English rendition is as follows
1. Suffering does exist
2. Suffering arises from attachment to desires
3. Suffering ceases when attachment to desire ceases
4. Freedom from suffering is possible by practicing the eightfold path.

in Skt-Dev: [ --> Romabama is my transliteration - need to chk again]

चार आर्य सत्य
१. दु:ख है।  --> {du:hka. h:/}
२. दु:ख का कारण है । --> {du:hka. ka ka-ra.Na. h:/}
३. दु:ख का निदान है । --> {du:hka. ka ni.da-na. h:/}
४. वह मार्ग है , जिससे दु:ख का निदान होता है । --> {wa.ha. mar~ga. h: , zi.a. du:hka. ka ni.da-na. h-ta h:/}

In Magadhi, the discourse would have been as follows:

Raua jana tani:
1. saunjhe jaga mein dukhe bani
2. dukh ke karan dher iccha bate
3. dukh ke nivaran lel rah bate
4. okra khatir jey rah apnaval ja sakela; jekar athon hissa hum rauaa ke batavat bani.

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Laterals and Rhotics in BEPS

-- UKT 120106, 130605, 140331, 160320, 170121, 180705:

From {a.kar}, I have arrived at the Repha form  {a.kar~}. A similar situation is what I will term the Lpha form, {a.kl~}, derived from {a.kl}. I'd thought in 160319, that the ordinary conjunct {a.kl~} would be more suitable.

Refer also to Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rhotic_and_non-rhotic_accents 120904

We must note that Sanskrit, unlike Pali, allows killed-consonants being shown explicitly with the 'flag', e.g. {ak}, {ag}, etc. If it had {nga.} prominently  it would have shown { n}. However, Sanskrit does not seem to have a {nga.} ङ before it came into India. And so when it came into contact with Magadhi speech - and its Asokan script, the prominent language of northern India, it had to borrow ड (the equiv. of {a.} ) and had to put a 'dot' to it.

Devanagari:   ड + dot --> ङ  
Note: In Asokan Brahmi - the parent of Devanagari, and Bur-Myan - you do not find such improvisations showing that Skt-Dev is only distantly related to Asokan, whereas Bur-Myan and Asokan are more closely related.

Bur-Myan: {a.} --> {nga.} 
In both Asokan and Myanmar, r1c5 the velar /ŋ/ is an important phoneme. See both Nwari and Npali which has words beginning with /ŋ/. See:
#1. A Comparative and Etymological Dictionary of Nepali Language by R L Turner
Downloaded in TIL SD-Library Turner-NepalDict<> / bkp<> (link chk 161002)
#2. English to Nepal Bhasa Dictionary by Sabin Bhuju सबिन भुजु , 2005
- SBhuju-NewarDict<> / bkp<> (link chk 160914)
Being both Tib-Bur languages Bur-Myan and Newa-Dev have words beginning with {nga.} ङ,
e.g. for <fish> न्या ; ङा

The Asokan graphemes shows some characteristics of the phonemes. Note the shapes of the nasals, r1c5, r3c5, r4c5: they are related to each other. The shape of r5c5 is quite different showing a marked difference in mode of articulation. When the Sanskritists were inventing a grapheme for r1c5, they must have used the Asokan script.

I was surprised to find that Mon-Myan counterpart is {ng~ra.} pronounced as / ng/.
Listen to Mon r1c5 {ng~ra.} {ka.}-row: - bk-cndl-{ka.}-row<))
Unfortunately, the Pyu speech has become extinct, unless you consider the Mindon-dialect and Yaw-dialect to be directly related to Pyu speech. See Wikipedia for locations of Mindon township in Magw
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mindon_Township 180726
and Yaw
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yaw_dialect 180726


Sanskrit was introduced into what was then Myanmarpr -  Pyu city states and Pagan (my estimate: 7th to 11 century AD). These texts would then have to be written in Myanmar akshara.

Remember, I hold that Asokan script must have been in northern Myanmarpr long before Gautama Buddha was born and Myanmar script must have been in existence then.

I also hold that on the evidence of Myanmar script found in Central Asia, it might even be possible that Asokan was derived from Myanmar script. I do not claim that Myanmar script was invented in the present-day Myanmarpr.

It was invented by some ancient rishis of pre-Vdic days, such as Rishi Vishwamitra who had lived in the foot-hills of Himalayas extending into the present-day Myanmarpr. The great rishi realized the importance of the sun as the source of energy and life, and had prayed to the Power of sun to give him knowledge. Listen to the last line of Gayatri Mantra, his invention, in which he prayed for knowledge.

The circle being the shape of the sun, and its counterpart the moon, he must have used the perfectly rounded circle as the basis of his writing system.

For the sibilants and rhotic vowels, the old Sanskritists were following the usage in what is similar to the present-day Skt-Dev. It was obvious that Bur-Myan phonology was not taken into account.

Rhotic series

To accommodate the sounds of BEPS, I have to formulate the following series:

Bur-Myan: {a.kya.} (non-rhotic medial), {a.kra.} (slightly rhotic-medial)
Pal-Myan: ----------------------------------------- {a.kRa.} (rhotic medial)
Skt-Myan: {a.k~ra.}* (conjunct-form),   {ar~ka.} (repha-form)
Note: * Hanging {ra.} is not acceptable because of the confusion it would create in Mon-Myan.

Compounding the above for BEPS, I arrived at new series arranged in order of rhoticity:

{a.kra.},  {ar~ka.}, {a.kRa.},  {a.kRRa.}

Though Skt-Dev has only highly rhotic close {a.kRi.}, I have to invent {a.kRa.} for BEPS.

Remember also that of the four languages,
Bur-Myan and Pal-Myan would use medial {a.kya.} {a.kra.} :
     In ordinary speech in Bur-Myan both are pronounced the same,
     whereas in Pal-Myan they sound differently
Skt-Myan uses only conjuncts. For highly rhotic close sounds, it has its own highly rhotic vowel. 


Effect of hissing tendency (sibilant) on the rhotic accent

- UKT: 120901, 130605, 160320 

The effect of classes of consonants:

1. Palatal Plosive-stops, row#2 {sa.}/ {c}
    Palatal Affricates, row#2 ---  /kya./ /ʧ/
2. Dental-Fricatives, row#6, husher {sha.} /ʃ/, hisser {Sa.}{S} /s/, and non-hissing thibilant {a.}{S} /θ/ , 

Approximants form a class by themselves. There are 5 non-lateral (i.e. without the typical < L > sound of the Chinese who are the butt of the joke for pronouncing "fried rice" as "flied lice") approximants classifiable by POA:

bilabial {wa.} व ,  dental {ra.} र , palatal {a.} ? ,  velar-pharyngeal य :
Note 170122: the pronunciation of above semi-consonants are still a mystery for me.

There is a subset of Approximants known as lateral-approximants . {la.}, {lhy.}, {La.}. Since the Westerners and speakers of Indic languages are notoriously "deaf" to laterals or L-sounds, I have no confidence in their pronunciation. Bur-Myan speakers are aware of more lateral-approximants than the above three. In total Bur-Myan speakers recognize the following:

{la.}, {lya.}, {lwa.}, {lhy.}
{lhya.}, {lhwa.}

The Approximants are different from Plosive-stops and Nasals. We can divide them into 3 subsets: semi-consonants (aka semivowels), dental-alveolar fricatives (hissing-sibilant and non-hissing-thibilant in Bur-Myan & Pal-Myan, but all hissing-sibilants in Skt-Dev), and deep-h.

Semivowels: {ya.} /j/, {ra.} /ɹ/, {la.} /l/, {wa.} /w/,
Fricatives: {a.} /θ/, {Sa.} /s/, {sha.} /ʃ/,
Deep-h: {ha.} /h/

Only one Fricative is realized in Bur-Myan , whereas IPA calls for three: {a.}/{} /θ/ ; {Sa.}/{S} /s/ ; {sha.}/{sh} /ʃ/. The non-hissing thibilant /θ/ is also realized in English <thin>. English also has hissing-sibilants /s/ & /ʃ/.

To summarize, we have Fricative-thibilant: /θ/ and Fricative-sibilant: /s/, /ʃ/ in Bur-Myan. Eng-Lat and Pal-Myan, but not Skt-Dev have thibilants.

Bur-Myan: {a.} is Fricative-thibilant. Its sound in the coda is well known to the Bur-Myan: . The Bur-Myan {~a.} (known as Tha'gyi {akri:}) is a horizontal conjunct, and is mute. 

UKT 130605: However, many - including myself at one time - do not know that {~a.} cannot be pronounced. At that time when I approached a senior monk, he told me that it had a sound like the ordinary {a.}, but with more  emphasis. I was led astray for quite a while.

Note that there are two types of conjuncts: the horizontal conjuncts such as {~a.}, and vertical conjuncts such as {k~ka.}. They can be described as two identical akshara they. They are found to be converted into Repha in Skt-Dev. The two aksharas can also be different.

The sounds of all three fricatives in the onset of syllables are known in Bur-Myan. It is in the coda that we ran into problems.

Since Fricative-sibilants are unknown in Bur-Myan, Romabama has to formulate them as: {sha.} /ʃ/ , & {Sa.} /s/. Note that the only way to differentiate Dental-fricative and Palatal-plosive-stop is to present them together with their killed-forms as:  {Sa.}/ {S} ष, and {sa.}/ {c} च . Remember also that the Palatals are pronounced as Affricates by the English-speakers and Hindi-speakers, and using IPA and IAST transliterations are bound to get you confused.

The differences in the 3 classes, Semivowels, Fricatives, and Deep-h, can be seen in the ability of their killed-consonants, {y}, {r}, {l}, {w},  {}, {S}, {sh}, and {h}, to check the nuclear vowel in the syllable of the canonical form CV. The killed-consonants of the Plosive-stops can check the nuclear vowel V completely, whereas those of the nasals can check only partially, and produce 3 allophones - the creak, the modal, and the emphatic. What about the killed-approximants? It has been a problem in Romabama.

I am curious how a foreigner would "hear" Bur-Myan words where the vowels are checked by various killed consonants. R. C. Temple wrote in 1876 in his "Notes on transliteration of the Burmese alphabet ...":
in pdf : http://www.forgottenbooks.com/readbook_text/Proceedings_of_the_Asiatic_Society_of_Bengal_1878_1000752596/125
A downloaded copy is available in TIL SD-library
- RCTemple-translit-Bur<> / bkp<> (link chk 180718)

How are we to represent Repha in Romabama? The best seems to be {ra.kauk-t}, represented by the glyph . e.g. 

अकर् = अ क र ् {a.kar}.

However, when Repha occurs in the middle of a word, as in

अकर्ण = अ क र ् ण {a.kar~Na.},

the glyph   seems out of place. The solution is to present it similar to the Kinsi-form as in {a.kar~Na.}.

In addition to Repha, there is a pair of very rhotic vowel-letters and their vowel-signs which I have to include in Romabama:

{iRRi.} ऋ ृ (1 eye-blink), {iRi} ॠ ॄ (2 blk)

They are known as vocalic R , which had led me to think that they are consonants. They are not! They are vowels in every respect.

It is now observed that medials are probably found only in Bur-Myan and Mon-Myan. They may also be present in Pal-Myan. However, I am not certain if it would be found in Pal-Dev as spoken in Nepal. It would be prudent to say that there are no medials in Skt-Dev, and what we usually represent as {kya.} (mono-syllabic) is to be represented as {k~ya.} (disyllabic).

However, it is better to leave {kra} as it is because with the rhotic syllables, mono-syllables and disyllables are indistinguishable, and more importantly not to get into confusion when dealing with Mon-Myan r1c5 which they represent as {ng~ra.} instead of Bur-Myan {nga.} in syllables such as  {k~nga.}. See
Nga'hsw, p047 or pdf 51/259 - MonMyan-indx.htm > MonMyan-NMgToe-Mon-Bur<> 160320
where the hanging akshara, , represents {nga.} and not {ra.}.

There are two other vowels [known as vocalic L] - the lateral vowel-letters, present in Vedic but almost absent in Classical Sanskrit of Panini.

ऌ  ॢ (1 eye-blk), ॡ  ॣ (2 blk)

UKT 120901: I have run out of L letters, because I have assigned small < l > to {la.}, and cap <L> to {La.}. Maybe I will have to use (Alt+0163) for these vowels.

With the problem of killed-approximants in Romabama solved for Repha, we will next go to solve the problem of killed- {la.}. Unlike the killed-{ra.} 'repha', there is no special form and special name for killed-{la.} in Skt-Dev. It is shown as a conjunct in disyllabic words. In Pal-Myan such words are shown as a vertical conjuncts.

UKT 130606: Because of dearth of front vowels in English (no /a/ nor /ɛ/), study of killed approximants changing the nuclear vowel is very difficult. I have only one concrete example to go on: in {} which is well known in Bur-Myan. For English L in the coda, my question is whether it would be appropriate to represent it as {l} -- an idea based on Skt-Dev vowels ऋ & ऌ being treated as a class by themselves.

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Pronunciation in Bur-Myan, and in Pal-Myan
of अकन्या a-kanyā [a-kany] -- Mac01c1

-- UKT 110706, ..., 160320 

Please note I have been on this problem for 5 years, and with my discovery that Bur-Myan Nya'gyi {a.}/ {} is a basic consonant-akshara in its own right, I have to revise my view drastically. I may have to change my view again with my ongoing study of Skt-Dev.

The way in which a word is spelled in Myanmar akshara is indicative of its pronunciation. I cannot say whether it is also true for Devanagari. I have arrived at this conclusion based on an analysis given below by considering the transformation of अकन्या a-kanyā [a-kany] 'no longer a maid' (Mac01c1) to Pal-Myan. First let's see how its antonym कन्या kanyā is formed.

= (क) (न ् य ा) : {ka.n~ya}, or
= (क न ्) (य ा) : {kn-ya}
However, in Pal, viram is not shown, and {kn-ya} has to be shown as conjunct {kn~ya}

The word for 'maid' in Bur-Myan is {ka.a}. Remember in BEPS, it is only in Bur-Myan that we find Nya'gyi {a.} which can be killed to {}. It is a basic consonant-akshara in its own right: it is a Palatal-approximant. It is not a horizontal conjunct as is commonly believed. If it were so, it would break up into 2 Nya'le {~a.} as in Pal-Myan. An example of this break-up is found in Pali-derived word for 'education': {p~a.}. The uninitiated would pronounce this word as pa-nya . However, it must be pronounced as pyin-nya .

If this break up were found in 'maid' the pronunciation would be {k~a}, and it would lose its connection to Skt-Dev कन्या kanyā. 

Go back pronun-Bur-Pal-Myan-note-b

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Pure Land Buddhism

UKT 170114: See Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pure_land 170114

"A pure land is the celestial realm or pure abode of a buddha or bodhisattva in Mahayana Buddhism. The term "pure land" is particular to East Asian Buddhism (Chinese: 淨土, Jngtǔ) and related traditions; in Sanskrit the equivalent concept is called a "buddha-field" (Sanskrit buddhakṣetra). The various traditions that focus on pure lands have been given the nomenclature Pure Land Buddhism. Pure lands are also evident in the literature and traditions of Taoism and Bon."

See: The Indian Roots of Pure Land Buddhism: Insights from the Oldest Chinese Versions of the Larger Sukhāvatīvyūha - by Jan Nattier, Indiana University, publ. date not given
- JNattier-IndianPureLandBuddh<> / Bkp<> (link chk 180628)
"This paper, ... is emulate Professor Nagatomis ... vision of Buddhist history ... for Pure Land Buddhism not in East Asia, but in India."

MASATOSHI NAGATOMI WAS a panoramic thinker. Raised in a Jdo Shinsh family, he chose the distant world of Indian Buddhism as his research field. Educated at Kyoto University, he went on to complete his doctorate at Harvard University, spending time studying in India as well.

UKT note:  "Nagatomi Masatoshi (1926-2000) was Harvards first fulltime Professor of Buddhist Studies."
- https://ealc.fas.harvard.edu/masatoshi-nagatomi  180702

When thinking about Indian Buddhist literature he could call upon analogies from East Asia; when discussing Buddhist rituals in China he could draw upon his knowledge of Tibet. In sum, for him Buddhism was not a regional or sectarian entity but a worldwide and multi-faceted tradition, and no student of his could fail to be impressed by the broad range of his perspective.

Most students of Pure Land Buddhism, by contrast, have approached their topic within a far narrower frame. Generally this form of Buddhism has been treated as an East Asian phenomenon, and indeed it is often studied (with, one should recognize, many valuable results) within the parameters of a single school or sect. This paper, however, is intended as a small attempt to emulate Professor Nagatomis sweeping cross-cultural vision of Buddhist history by examining the evidence for Pure Land Buddhism not in East Asia, but in India.

To understand how Amitbha was viewed by Indian Buddhists, however, requires beginning with a sketch of the circumstances within which scriptures devoted to this figure emerged. I will begin, therefore, with a brief overview of some of the key developments that preceded -- and indeed, may have elicited -- the composition of scriptures devoted to Amitbha [aka Amitabha].

UKT 180704: Amitaba Mantra consists of just three words: Oṃ Amideva Hrīḥ repeated again and again for as many as 108 times. - Based on - https://www.wildmind.org/mantras/figures/amitabha 180704
Listen to Amitaba mantra (with lyrics different from above) set to music from another source in Buddh section of  TIL HD-VIDEO and SD-VIDEO.
- MantraAmitabaBuddha<> / Bkp<> (link chk 180704)
- MantraAmitabaBuddha<)) / Bkp<)) (link chk 180705)

Go back Pure-Land-Buddhism-note-b

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Savitri stanza

UKT 190422: Savitri (stanza) and Gayatri (mantra) are the same: but not exactly.
"They are different expressions of the Supreme Power of God . As such they are opposite faces of the same coin. Gayatri (idolised with nine faces) and Savitri (idolised with five faces) in fact identify the extra-sensory and sensory excellence in human life which are known as Riddhis and Siddhis in yogic parlance. Gayatri and Savitri are inseparable - inherent like heat and light in fire."
- https://www.awgp.org/spiritual_wisdom/gayatri/faq/gayatri_and_savitri_different 190422
I, UKT, opine that, from the two yogic words Riddhi and Siddhi, more specifically R /r/ and S /s/, the latter being a misconception of /θ/ of the Tib-Bur speakers, the difference is only the rhoticity of the phoneme. Since, the Poannars, directed their prayers to the Rising Sun in the morning, as we in Myanmarpr, after the fashion of Buddha-to-be Peacock directing his prayer to the Rising Sun in the morning and Setting Sun in the evening, it is to the same source of Energy (or Power), that we are praying.

UKT 180703: On sāvitrī stanza in A History of Sanskrit Literature, by A A Macdonell, 1900, in TIL HD-PDF and SD-PDF libraries
- AAMacdonell-HistSktLit<> / Bkp<> (link chk 180703)
On p277 of the above, in Ch10 The Epics (c.500-50 BC), we find:

"In turning from the Vedic to the Sanskrit period, we are confronted with a literature which is essentially different from that of the earlier age in matter, spirit, and form. Vedic literature is essentially religious; Sanskrit literature, abundantly developed in every other direction, is profane. [UKT ]

"But, doubtless as a result of the speculative tendencies of the Upanishads, a moralising spirit at the same time breathes though it as a whole. The religion itself which now prevails is very different from that of the Vedic age. For in the new period the three great gods, Brahmā, Vishṇu, and iva are the chief objects of worship. The important deities of the Veda have sunk to a subordinate position, though Indra is still relatively prominent as the chief of a warrior's heaven. Some new gods of lower rank have risen ..."

From the above observation of Macdonell, we know that Vedic has a different religion from that of Sanskrit. I, further speculate that Vedic is less rhotic in accent than Sanskrit. Because of that, I opine that Vedic is Tib-Bur whereas Sanskrit is IE. Pali-Lanka, the hybrid of Magadhi (Tib-Bur) and native language of Sri Lanka (Ceylon), is a mix-up. The so-called Pali-Myan of Burma is more akin to Magadhi, or Old Magadhi itself tainted with Pali-Lanka. To get some insight to the problem, I'm comparing the rhotic accent of Skt-Dev (IE) to the less rhotic accent of Pali-Myan (Tib-Bur).

Go back Savitri-stanza-note-b

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See my note on Laterals and Rhotics in BEPS .

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End of TIL file