Update: 2019-06-25 07:12 PM -0400


Practical Sanskrit Dictionary for Buddhists and Hindus


A Practical Sanskrikt Dictionary, by A. A. Macdonell, 1893,
http://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/scans/MDScan/index.php?sfx=jpg; 1929.
- Nataraj ed., 1st in 2006, 2012.
- https://dsal.uchicago.edu/dictionaries/macdonell/ 190516
The Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Grammar and Dictionary, BHS, vol.2, by F. Edgerton, pp. 627.
- FEdgerton-BHSD<> / Bkp<> (link chk 180627)
The Student's Pali English dictionary , by U Pe Maung Tin, 1920.
- (ref: UPMT-PEDxxx).  Downloaded copies in TIL HD-PDF and SD-PDF libraries:
- UPMT-PaliDict1920<> / bkp<> (link chk 190113)
  Pali-Myanmar Dictionary (in Pal-Myan), by U Hoke Sein,
- (ref: UHS-PMD). The dictionary in printed form is in TIL Research Library.
Latin-English Vocabulary II, by Hans H rberg, 1998
- HHOrberg-LinguaLatina<> / Bkp<> (link chk 190624)

Edited by U Kyaw Tun (UKT) (M.S., I.P.S.T., USA), Daw Khin Wutyi, Daw Thuzar Myint, Daw Zinthiri Han and staff of Tun Institute of Learning (TIL). Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone. Prepared for students and staff of TIL  Research Station, Yangon, MYANMAR 
 - http://www.tuninst.net , www.romabama.blogspot.com 

MC-indx.htm | Top

Contents of this page

UKT 180709:
Because of pronunciation difficulties of nasal endings, I've split up the original p001.htm into:
  {n}/ { n} as p001-1.htm, and
{a.} and its derivatives as p001-2.htm.
It is from Bur-Myan { n } that we get {kn:si:} the special conj { n~ } present in Pal-Myan.

In some Sanskrit dictionaries, the first entry is:
ॐ (AUM) = Primordial Sound
ॐकार (OMkaara) = the syllable om
See: संस्कृत शब्दार्थ - Glossary of Sanskrit Terms (OnlineSktDict) in TIL HD-nonPDF, and SD-nonPDF libraries:
- Anon-GlossSktTerms<>
Devanagari script in TIL HD-PDF and SD-PDF libraries
- Anon-DevScript<> / Bkp<> (link chk 181024)

{OAN) ॐ
{a.}/ {n}/ { n~a.} 
  {n-sha.} अंश (श /ʃ/) 
  {n-shi.} अंशि 
  {n-shu.} अंशु 
{n-ha.} अंह
  {n-Sa.} : ष /S/ - not listed by Macdonell
{n-a.} : स /s/ 

UKT 150429, 170121, 180702:
Skt-Dev speakers mispronounce non-hissing dental-fricative thibilant /θ/ as hissing dental sibilant /s/.
In Pal-Myan, {n} has the same pronunciation as  {n}.: such entries, some with repha, will be found in
p017.htm & p018.htm .
In Skt-Myan, {n} has the pronunciation of {m}.
Remember this is a Sanskrit Dictionary, and I am attempting to give Skt-Myan spellings and their transcriptions in Romabama.
The entries in FE-BHS is in English transcription which can be confusing between various authors of different dictionaries. My solution is to use Devanagari script. However, I'm finding that I'm not up to the task yet (after a few trials on 180703 and I've to get the transcription from other sources.

Contents of this page

UKT notes :
A- and An- used as negation in Skt-Dev and Eng-Lat: but not in Bur-Myan and Npali where /n/ and /m/ are used
Amsakuta-robe: {n-a.keiT in~kn:} अंसकूट  and "Priest King" of Indus-Saraswati civilization:
Light as ray-bundles 

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{OAN} ॐ

UKT 181024: From the transliteration of ॐ (AUM) {OAN}, notice that Sanskrit vowels tend to be more close-sounding compared to Bamah. {OAN} is purely Sanskrit, the Bur-Myan equivalent is {an} 'success' or with emphasis {an:}.
Cultural note: In bygone days, many people with the name or part of the name AUNG {an}, became victims of human sacrifice at the hands of Poannars advising the authorities (kings, ministers, etc.) who were finding difficulty in construction of walls around the cities or building of bridges. Such a person was Ma Aung Hpyu, who was supposed to have been sacrificed when the main gate-post of the Tharawaddy city was erected. Being sacrificed, she became a Ma'nes or {nt} - a favourite of young girls and women who asked her (a rolled reed-mat dressed as a girl with a skirt and blouse, being held aloft by at least two females) questions such as who the future husband might be. It seems she hates males such much that the mat which is possessed and shaking would immediately stop shaking showing that she had left. She is the equivalent of Planchette -  a favourite of the 19th-20th century spiritualists in the West. See:
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spiritualism 181024

ॐ (AUM) {OAN}
Skt: ॐ (AUM) = Primordial Sound - OnlineSktDict
Bur: {OAN} - n. an invocation at the beginning of a mantra - MLC MED2006-634

ॐकार (OMkaara)
= the syllable om - OnlineSktDict

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{a.}/ {n}

UKT 130525, 180709: The front open-vowel {a.} has 4 pitch-registers in Bur-Myan and Mon-Myan taken together. Notice how the {wic~sa.} is used in extra-short and emphatic:

extra-short {a:.} (1/2 eye-blink), creak  {a.} (1 blnk),  modal  {a} (2 blnk),  emphatic  {a:} (2 blnk + emphasis)

In Skt-Myan, there are three vowels: note how {wic~sa.} is used with short vowel.

extra-short {a:.} अः (1/2 blnk),  short  {a.} अ (1 blnk),  {long} आ {a}
and {aa.} which has the same duration as {a:.}

In Eng-Latin, the very short vowel is not realized, and only the short and the long are present.
See how a- and an- is used as negation in my notes.


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p001c1-b00/ p007-004
a- {a.}, and अ an-  {n} /an-/ 

अ [ . a ]
Skt: अ [ . a ] - pn. root used in the inflexion of idam and in some particles: a-tra, a-tha. - Mac001c1
  4) (p. 7) 1. a idam and in some particles: a-tra, a-tha.
BHS: a-, an- , negative prefix: - . prefixed to finite verbs, as rarely in Skt, but rather often in Pali. . in sense described for Pali in CPD (CPD s.v., 7); here not common: - Edgerton001c1

UKT 180708: "Pali in CPD" means:
A Critical Pāli Dictionary Online is maintained by the Data Center for the Humanities at the University of Cologne in cooperation with the Pali Text Society. Going online and searching gives for अ an-  {n}:
an- , [ts.[ negative prefix before vowels = a- (q. v.); sometimes n' ( na) may be substituted: neka [sa. naika] = an-eka; combined with a- we have an-a- (see below).


p001c1-b01/ not online

Skt: अ [ . a- ] - before vowels, neg.px. = un- - Mac001c1

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{n-sha.} : श /ʃ/

Skt-Dev sha श /ʃ/ ; ssa ष /S/ ; sa स /s/ or /θ/
Notice the change /un/ (Skt-Dev) --> /ɪn/ (Pal-Myan):
{n-sha.}/ { n-hya.}
   --> { n~a.} in UHS Def. #1 'part' 
   --> {n-a.} in UHS Def. #2. 'shoulder' 

p001c1-b02/ p007-003 
अंश msa {n-sha.}

अंश [ msa ]
Skt: [ msa ] - m. part, share; N. of a god: in. partly. - Mac001c1
  3) अंश (p. 7) msa part, share;
BHS: aṃśa - m. . (= Pali aṃsa , only in comp,) (part, and so), time (as past, present, future:). . portion in maitra aṃśa portion of affection. ... - Edgerton001c1 
BPal: {n-a.} - UHS-PMD0001

  UKT from UHS: . m. part, share, group, small amount. . m. shoulder

UKT 180630: I am intrigued by the Bur-Myan word {n-sa} 'dice' with 6 faces -- MLC MED2006-627. Each face is "a part of 6".
The spelling {n-sa} could be transformed to {n-sa}. It is related to  {n-a.} and अंश aṃsa.

Macdonell has given अंश aṃsa 'N. of a god'. However, according to http://www.bachpan.com/Meaning-of-Ansha.aspx 130220
it is a modern girl's name. -- UKT130220

BPal:  {n-a} - UHS-PMD0001
  UKT from UHS: f. an open sore with pus issuing from it
Bur: {n-a} - n. astrol degree - MED2010-617

UKT 120218, 180630: Look in PTS dictionary for explanation of Vedic entries. At present my understanding of the situation is: {::tn} of Classical Sanskrit was given as {kn:si:} in Vedic. My problem is:  {::tn} is pronounced as /ʌn/, whereas  {kn:si:} gives /ɪŋ/.


अंश-धात्री aṃśa-dhātrī
BHS: aṃśa-dhātrī - lit. shoulder nurse, one who carries a baby - Edgerton001c1


p001c1-b03/ p007-002

अंशकल्पना [ amsa-kalpan ]
Skt: [ amsa-kalpan ] - f. arrangement of shares [UKT: duties]. - Mac001c1
  2) अंशकल्पना (p. 7) amsa-kalpan arrangement of shares.


p001c1-b04/ not online 

अंशप्रकल्पना [ amsa-prakalpan ] 
Skt: [ amsa-prakalpan ] - f. id. - Mac001c1


p001c1-b05/ p007-001

अंशप्रदान [ amsa-pradna ]
Skt: अंशप्रदान [ amsa-pradna ] - n. distribution of shares. - Mac001c1
  1) अंशप्रदान (p. 7) amsa-pradna distribution of shares.


p001c1-b06/ p007-040

अंशभागिन्् [ amsa-bhgin ]
Skt: अंशभागिन्् [ amsa-bhgin ] - a. having a share. - Mac001c1
  40) अंशभागिन्् (p. 7) amsa-bhgin having a share. 


p001c1-b07/ not online

अंश-भाज् [ amsa-bhg ]
Skt: अंश-भाज् [ amsa-bhg ] - a. id. - Mac001c1


p001c1-b08/ p007-039

अंशभूत [ amsa-bhta ]
Skt: अंशभूत [ amsa-bhta ] - pp. forming a share (of, g.). - Mac001c1
  39) अंशभूत (p. 7) amsa-bhta forming a share (of, g.).


p001c1-b09/ p007-038

अंशहर [ amsa-hara ]
Skt: अंशहर [ amsa-hara ] - a. receiving a portion. - Mac001c1
  38) अंशहर (p. 7) amsa-hara receiving a portion.

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{n-shi.} अंशि

अंशिक -aṃśika
BHS: -aṃśika (cf. . aṃśa, .)
- ifc., belonging to the part of; pertaining to; sometimes with vṛddhi of first syllable of prior member of cpd.; maraṇāṃśika  Mvy 5348, upapattyaṃśika 5346 belonging to (the part of ) death, birth;  - Edgerton001c1


p001c1-b10/ p007-037

अंशिन्् [ ams-in ]
Skt: अंशिन्् [ ams-in ] - a. having a share. - Mac001c1
  37) अंशिन्् (p. 7) ams-in having a share.


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{n-shu.} अंशु /

p001c1-b11/ p007-036

Skt: अंशु [ ams ] - m. Soma plant, -juice; ray; stalk. - Mac001c1
   36) अंशु (p. 7) ams Soma plant, -- juice; ray; stalk.
BHS: अंशु aṃśu (= Skt. अशुक aṃśuka)
- cloth, or garment (less probably thread, - Edgerton001c1
BPal: {n-u.} - UHS-PMD0001
- - UHS-PMD0001
  UKT from UHS: m. cotton strand, beam of light 

See my note on Light-ray-bundles


p001c1-b12/ p007-035

अंशुक [ amsu-ka ]
Skt: अंशुक [ amsu-ka ] - n. leaf; cloth, garment. - Mac001c1
  35) अंशुक (p. 7) amsu-ka leaf; cloth, garment. 


p001c1-b13/ p007-034

अंशुकान्त [ amsuka‿anta ]
Skt: अंशुकान्त [ amsuka‿anta ] - m. hem of a garment. - Mac001c1
  34) अंशुकान्त (p. 7) amsuka̮anta hem of a garment.  


p001c1-b14/ p007-033 

अंशुपट्््ट [ amsu-patta ]
Skt: अंशुकान्त [ amsuka‿anta ] - n. kind of cloth. - Mac001c1
  33) अंशुपट्््ट (p. 7) amsu-patta cloth.


p001c1-b15/ p007-032

अंशुमत्् [ amsu-mt ]
Skt: अंशुमत्् [ amsu-mt ] - a. radiant; m. sun; N. - Mac001c1
  32) अंशुमत्् (p. 7) amsu-mt radiant; m. sun; N.


p001c1-b16/ p007-031

अंशुमालिन्् [ amsu-mlin ]
Skt: अंशुमालिन्् [ amsu-mlin ] - m. sun. - Mac001c1
  31) अंशुमालिन्् (p. 7) amsu-mlin sun. 

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{n-Sa.} : ष /S/ - not listed : Dental-fricative hisser

{n-a.} : स /θ/ (mis-pronounced as hissing-sibilant /s/ )

p001c1-b17/ p007-030

अंस msa
Skt: अंश [ msa ] - m. shoulder. - Mac001c1
  30) अंस (p. 7) msa shoulder. 
BHS: aṃsa-dhātrī - also written as ṃśa-, and in mss, atsa-, lit. 'shoulder nurse', one who carries a baby; - Edgerton001c1b
BPal: {n-a.} - UHS-PMD0001
  UKT from UHS: 2. m. shoulder

UKT 190416: The second part is:
धात्री dhātrī - foster-mother - SpkSkt
See: Is it a Crow, Nurse, or Milk by S H Levitt, 1993 in TIL HD-PDF and SD-PDF dictionaries
- SHLevitt-CrowNurseMilk<> / Bkp<> (link chk 180702)
"an example of Northern Buddhist sources clarifying a point regarding the early Buddhist tradition"


BPal: {n-a.kā-ā-wa.} - UHS-PMD001c1  
  UKT from UHS: n. {n-a.keiT-n~kn 'Amsakuta robe'

UKT 190416: See my note on Amsakuta robe  {n-a.keiT in~kn:}, {n-a.ku-Ta.} अंसकूट  and "Priest King" of Indus-Saraswati civilization and the use of this robe by the Theravada Buddhist monks of Burma (Myanmarpr), and Thailand. Be careful of the English title "Priest King". Don't interpret it as {ra.hn: mn:}. Before you do such interpretations read the story of how ex-king {kwm:hsau mn:} who had now become an Ari-rahan aka {a.ri:kri:} refused his son's offer to take up secular kingship. The ex-king after his death became {hti:hpru-hsan: nt}. The "Priest King" of the ancient Indus-Sarasvati civilization (shown in the inset) might be just a Pope (just as the present-day Pope of Rome) without secular power of ruling kingship.


p001c1-b18/ p007-029

अंसकूट [ amsa-kta ]
Skt: अंसकूट [ amsa-kta ] - m. top of the shoulder; -prishtha, n. ridge of the shoulder. - Mac001c1
  29) अंसकूट (p. 7) amsa-kta top of the shoulder;

Skt: अंसकूट [amsa-kta] - m. top of the shoulder -- Mac001c1
BPal: {n-a.ku-Ta.} - UHS-PMD0001
  UKT from UHS: n. edge of shoulder, {n-a.keiT in~kn:}, monk's robe tied over the left shoulder and wrapped around the wearer's torso.


p001c1-b19/ p007-028

अंसत्र [ msa-tra ] = अ ं स त ् र
Skt: अंसत्र [ msa-tra ] - n. armour. - Mac001c1
  28) अंसत्र (p. 7) msa-tra armour.


p001c1-b20/ p007-027

अंसफलक [ amsa-phalak ]
Skt: अंसफलक [ amsa-phalak ] - n. shoulder-blade. - Mac001c1
  27) अंसफलक (p. 7) amsa-phalak shoulder-blade.


p001c1-b21/ p007-026

अंसल [ amsa-l ]
Skt: अंसल [ amsa-l ] - a. strong, powerful. - Mac001c1
  26) अंसल (p. 7) amsa-l strong, powerful. 


p001c1-b22/ p007-025 

अंसवर्तिन्् [ amsa-vartin ]
Skt: अंसवर्तिन्् [ amsa-vartin ] - a. resting on the shoulder; -vivartin, a. bending towards the shoulder(s); -vypin, a. reaching to the --. - Mac001c1
  25) अंसवर्तिन्् (p. 7) amsa-vartin resting on the shoulder;


p001c1-b23/ not online

अंहति [amh-at ] = अ ं ह त ि
Skt: अंहति [amh-at ] -- f.,  अंहु amh- - n. = mh-as.

Contents of this page

{n-ha.} अंह 

p001c1-b24/ p007-024

अंहस्् [ mh-as ]
Skt: अंहस्् [ mh-as ] - n. distress, need; sin.
  24) अंहस्् (p. 7) mh-as distress, need;


p001c1-b25/ p007-023

अंहुर [ amh-ur ]
Skt: अंहुर [ amh-ur ] - a. distressed; -ran, n. distress.
  23) अंहुर (p. 7) amh-ur distressed;


p001c1-b26/ p007-022

अंह्रि [ amhri ]
Skt: अंह्रि [ amhri ] - m. foot.
22) अंह्रि (p. 7) amhri foot. 

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UKT notes

A- and An- as negation

- UKT 180624, 180720, 181025, 190421:

In Pal-Myan and Skt-Dev, {a.} as a prefix can denote negation. However, in Bur-Myan, the negation is neither a  nor an . The negation prefix is {ma.}, e.g.,

with verbs
{wa:} 'go', {ma.wa:} 'no go'
{aip} 'sleep', {ma.aip} 'no sleep'

with adjectives
{kan:} 'good', {ma.kan:} 'no good'
{lha.} 'pretty', {ma.lha.} 'not pretty'

However, in common usage the above terms have auxiliary endings of {t}, {Bu:}, {n.}, e.g., affirmative statements, commands, etc. :
{kan:t} 'good', {ma.kan:Bu:} 'not good',
{ma.wa:n.} 'don't go'.

Now we have entered the field of Bur-Myan literary grammar and colloquial grammar. Since I still need a good grounding in both grammars, I'll have to stop here, and continue with my story of Bur-Myan akshara.

This negation system of Bur-Myan is different from Pal-Myan. What the Arigyis {a.ri:kri:}  "lit. the Great Aryans" of pre-Anawrahta days might have used was the untainted language of Magadha Mahajanapada {ma-ga.Da. ma.ha za.na.pa.da.}. It came to be highly tainted by Pali-Laka during Anawrahta's religious reforms.

Since, Pali-Lanka was an artificial language developed for Theravada Buddhists in Ceylon (Sri Lanka) from Magadhi (Tib-Bur) language of King Asoka, and native Aus-Asi language, the present day Pali of Myanmarpr is not the original language of Arigyis. The origins of Arigyis may be traced to the more ancient Tagaung Kingdom of King Abhiraza {a.Bi.ra-za mn:} - the fugitive king from Magadha. I've no doubt that the present-day Bur-Myan script and Asokan script are closely related. See also Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tagaung_Kingdom 180720

We can now say that present day Pal-Myan is a Tib-Bur language. For confirmation, I've looked into Nwari the original language of Npal. The negation-prefix is na instead of a, and since ma (bilabial-nasal), and na (dental-nasal) are quite close, we can conjecture that the use of {a.} as a negation can be due to the influence of Sanskrit (Indo-European) on Pali in Lanka.

We must also remember that, Lanka speech, Sinhala, is the language of an island similar to the aboriginal languages of Ancient India which might very well have been Tibeto-Burman similar to Old Magadhi. It might also be an IE, but by being shut off from the northern India by Dravidian languages of southern India, it can also be heavily influenced by Dravidian (Austro-Asiatic which I usually shortened as Aus-Asi).

Dravidian languages are a group of 4 languages - Telugu, Tamil, Kannada and Malayalam - which may have a single parent.
See: Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dravidian_languages 170226
"... the Dravidian languages cannot easily be connected to any other language, and they could well be indigenous to India. [8]" . [Ref.: Avari, Burjor (2007), Ancient India: A History of the Indian Sub-Continent from C. 7000 BC to AD 1200 , Routledge, ISBN  9781134251629]
Also, see Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sinhalese_language 170226

If only we could find either {ma.} or {na.} negation in the speech-script the Arigyis of pre-Anawratha religious reformation must have used we would be certain. However, it could not be and we can only conjecture that Arigyis must have used the same system as used in colloquial or day-to-day Bur-Myan speech.

Go back A-An-negation-note-b

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Amsakuta robe
and its connection to Theravada Buddhist monks

  UKT 130718, 141223, 170123, 180707:

The use of {n-a.keiT in~kn:} 'kind of robe', or {n-a.ku-Ta.} अंसकूट  was clearly prevalent in the ancient Indus-Saraswati civilization. The "Priest King" of that civilization is clearly shown in archaeological artifacts unearthed in Harappan culture of Indus-Saraswati civilization (3300-1200 BC) - some 2000 years before the birth of the Gautama Buddha. Inset pix shows what is popularly held to be the statue of a "Priest King" of Indus civilization: Material: white, low fired steatite, Dimensions: 17.5 cm height, 11 cm width, Mohenjo-daro, DK 1909, National Museum, Karachi, 50.852, Marshall 1931: 356-7, pl. XCVIII . See: https://www.harappa.com/slide/priest-king-mohenjo-daro 160320

Note the small dimensions of the little statue. It is probably the only one, or a few, discovered which could mean that the mode of dress was not wide-spread. It could mean that it was just an object imported from anywhere and kept on a mantelpiece.

This civilization belonged to Bronze-age, and the Pyu culture of Myanmarpr surely would have connections with it. Please note that the dateline shows that it was well before the birth of Gautama Buddha. We can safely say that there were no Buddhists and no Hindus speakers of Classical Sanskrit. The prevailing language would then have to be Vdic or a more ancient language whose script is based on perfect circles.

See also Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prehistory_of_Burma 130718, 180707

The prehistory of Burma (Myanmar) spanned hundreds of millennia to about 200 BCE. Archaeological evidence shows that the Homo erectus had lived in the region now known as Burma as early as 750,000 years ago, and the Homo sapiens about 11,000 BCE, in a Stone Age culture called the Anyathian. Named after the central dry zone sites where most of the early settlement finds are located, the Anyathian period was when plants and animals were first domesticated and polished stone tools appeared in Burma. Though these sites are situated in fertile areas, evidence shows these early people were not yet familiar with agricultural methods. [1]

Now, let's go to the connection with the {n-a.keiT in~kn:} used by both Myanmar and Thai Buddhist monks. Inset pix shows a Thai Theravada Buddhist monk wearing the {n-a.keiT in~kn:} at a temple in Chiang Mai: which was in King Bayinnaung's empire.

From: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bayinnaung 180707

But Bayinnaung, who began his reign as a "king without a kingdom", [30] ended his reign as an "emperor without an empire." [131] [UKT ]

According to [Professor Dr. U] Than Tun, Bayinnaung conquered territories not to colonize them but to gain the loyalty of their rulers. He kept conquered kings and lords in their own positions so long as they remained loyal to him. [Professor U] Tun Aung Chain adds that "the extensive polity was held together not so much by formal institutions as personal relationships" based on the concepts of thissa 'allegiance' and kyezu 'obligation')." [131] Lieberman writes: "... he presented himself as cakkavatti, or World Ruler, par excellence..." [132]

UKT 190416: Both Dr. Than Tun and U Tun Aung Chain, are my personal friends. Knowing them well, I always respect their judgment and opinion in connecting with history of Myanmarpr. Almost all kings of Burma, tried their best to be respected by their subjects not by force of arms. They tried to present themselves as upholders of Theravada Buddhism - loved by their subjects just like the mythical {ma.ha m~ma.ta. mn:} 'elected freely by people'. Their aim is not to glorify themselves with a show of power. I cannot agree with Lieberman's view of "cakkavatti, or World Ruler" which what the Westerner would value.

This was nothing new. The king was simply following the then prevailing Southeast Asian administrative model of solar polities in which the high king ruled the core while semi-independent tributaries, autonomous viceroys, and governors actually controlled day-to-day administration and manpower. [24] As such, the "King of Kings" governed only Pegu and the Mon country himself, leaving the rest of the realm to vassal kings in Ava, Prome, Lan Na, Lan Xang, Martaban, Siam, and Toungoo. [90] [UKT ]

He regarded Lan Na as the most important of all the vassal states, and spent much time there. [90]

From: https://janevala.wordpress.com/2015/05/31/burmese-history-in-chiangmai/ 180707

Perhaps not as many are aware for over 200 year Burmese influence. Burmese rule in the region started 1558 when King Bayinnaung occupied Lanna and subdue it to his vassalage. Many other kingdoms would follow, eventually Bayinnaungs empire would stretch from modern day Bangladesh to Cambodia.

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Light as ray-bundles

UKT 141225, 180630

Both Sun-light and Moon-light are viewed as made up of strands of light. Sun-light gives us energy and warmth, whereas Moon-light gives us peace of mind and coolness.

UKT 180630: I couldn't remember from where I got the pix on 141225. When I search for the pix again, I found it in Ancient Egypt Online, copyright by J Hill, 2010.
#1 - https://www.ancientegyptonline.co.uk/amarnareligion.html 180630
#2 - https://www.ancientegyptonline.co.uk/nefertiti.html 180630
from #1: "During the reign of Akhenaten [husband of Nefertiti] The Aten was installed as the principle god of ancient Egypt, and the worship of many of the traditional gods of ancient Egypt was rejected. The Aten was not a new god but an obscure aspect of the sun god worshipped as early as the Old Kingdom."
from #2: "Nefertiti is one of the most famous women of the ancient world. She was the chief wife of the "heretic" Pharaoh Akhenaten and may have ruled alongside him."
  Personal note: I had studied Ancient History on my own from: Ancient Times: a history of the early world, by James Henry Breasted in 1950s. The book was prescribed as text to Ko (U) Saw Tun - my brother - who was taking History as a subject in Rangoon University. I became captivated by the photograph of sculpture of Queen Nefertiti in the book. I was then an Asst. Lecturer in Chemistry in Rangoon University. I finally came to study every line in the text. I don't remember how many times I must have covered the text - thanks to Nefertiti.
   My interest at present is not in Ancient History but how the Ancients look into light as ray-bundles made up of strands of light.

UKT 180630: Don't laugh at Ancients for viewing Light (e.g. Sun-light and Moon-light) as made up of strands or threads. It is the basis of modern Geometrical Optics, by Leno S. Pedrotti, (publ. date not given).
See - LSPedrotti-GeomOptics<> / Bkp<> (link chk 180630)
"Optics is the cornerstone of photonics systems and applications. ... two main divisions of basic optics: geometrical (ray) optics. ... physical (wave) optics. Geometrical optics will help you understand the basics of light reflection and refraction and the use of simple optical elements such as mirrors, prisms, lenses, and fibers. ..."

The ancients look upon both luminaries, the Sun and Moon, as gods. In Hinduism and Greco-Roman religions, they are personified with all the human traits - both good and bad, and the respective priests weave myths around them. Since opiates (from plants and animals) and alcohol when taken in small quantities can smooth a person's tired mind and bring on sleep, these substances have been identified with the Moon.

Soma is not mentioned. It is spelled as {au:ma.} and its meaning is given in UHS-PMD1073 as the Moon or Moon Nat {la.nt-a:}
Continue reading my note on Soma plant.

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Soma plant

-- UKT 120827, 170123

Refer to:
अंशु amsu {n-shu.}
Skt: m. Soma plant, - juice; ray; stalk. -- Mac001c1
BPal: {n-u.} - UHS-PMD0001
   UKT from UHS: m. thread, ray of light .

UKT 170123: Soma is not mentioned. It is spelled as {au:ma.} and its meaning is given in UHS-PMD1073 as the Moon or Moon Nat {la.nt-a:}

According to Macdonell, the word means the Soma plant. Soma is a RigVedic deity (Dva and Asura are equally revered : Asura are not demonized as in later (non-Vedic) Hindu texts).

UKT 180721: Don't take Soma is a RigVedic deity seriously. The Ponnar {poaN~Na:} 'bramin' take anything and everything of importance to have a life, and anthropomorphise it into males and females worthy of being worshipped.

Soma is third in importance by counting it in RigVeda hymns which totaled 1028 in number. See the Hymns of RigVeda by Ralph T. H. Griffith, Ist ed. 1889 as downloaded pdf TIL HD-Library and its backup in TIL SD-Library:
- THGriffith-RigVedaHymns<> / Bkp<> (link chk 180719)

The first 3 verses to Soma in T H Griffith's are:
[01-091] HYMN XCI Soma.

1. Thou, Soma, art preeminent for wisdom; along the straightest path thou art our leader./
  Our wise forefathers by thy guidance, Indu, dealt out among the Gods their share of treasure./

2. Thou by thine insight art most wise, O Soma, strong by thine energies and all possessing,/
  Mighty art thou by all thy powers and greatness, by glories art thou glorious, guide of mortals.//

3. Thine are King Varuna's eternal statutes, lofty and deep, O Soma, is thy glory./
  All-pure art thou like Mitra the beloved, adorable, like Aryaman, O Soma.//

By counts, the important ones are:
Indra - 289 , Agni - 218, Soma - 123 (most of them in the Soma Mandala),
Vishvadevas - 70, the Asvins - 56, Varuna - 46,
the Maruts - 38, Mitra - 28, Ushas - 21,
Vayu (Wind) - 12, Savitr [of Gayatri Mantra] - 11, the Rbhus - 11,
Pushan - 10. Then the counts on deities drops down to under 10.
-- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rigvedic_deities 120827.

The word 'Indra' simply means the king of the dvas -- not necessarily the 'thunder god' of Hinduism who is a hard drinking vengeful dva who would destroy his real enemies and potential ones by all means including making his dancers seduce them even if they were rishis. The most notorious episode was sending one of his top dancers, Menaka to seduce the rishi Vishwamitra  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Menaka 120830 .

In Bur-Myan Buddhist lore, the king of the dva is Sakka who is taken to be a {Bo:tau} - the equivalent of a Mahatma 'Great Soul'. On the right is an { n:} used for personal safety to invoke the powers of the Sakka himself. Of course, Sakka, a devout follower of the Buddha, is a non-drinker who carries a staff in his right hand instead of thunderbolts.

The three Mahadevas of later Hinduism, the Brahma, Vishnu, and Siva are not mentioned.

The etymology of the word is interesting. "Both Soma [(Skt-Dev: सोम ] and the [ancient Iranian language]  Avestan Haoma are derived from Proto-Indo-Iranian *sauma-. ... The word is derived from an Indo-Iranian root *sav- (Sanskrit sav-/su) "to press", i.e. *sau-ma- is the drink prepared by pressing the stalks of a plant. [4] The root is PIE (Proto-Indo-European) (*sew(h)-) [5]  . -- Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Soma 120830

UKT120830: The above read together with: UHS-PMD1073 {au:ma.} 'Moon or Moon-dva' shows that the drink brings 'coolness' to the mind and body -- not excitement or hallucinations, but sound deep sleep. 

By pressing the parts (flowers, fruits, or stalks) of Soma plant a health drink is produced. Modern scholars mostly from the West think it is an intoxicating drink either alcohol or ephedrine. Whether the Buddhist monks should be allowed to drink Soma or not was one of causes of schisms in the Third Buddhist Synod.

Facts such as the above are the basis of my theory that Vedic may not have been exclusively Hinduism the religion of the Braahmana Poannar {braah~ma.Na. poaN~Na:} - the IE (Indo-European) speakers. It might as well be the pre-Buddhist religion of the Tib-Bur (Tibeto-Burman) speakers which would include the Bur-Myan speakers. And that the Vedic language was a Tib-Bur language.

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