Update: 2016-11-29 04:40 AM -0500


A Practical Sanskrit Dictionary


by A. A. Macdonell, 1893,
http://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/scans/MDScan/index.php?sfx=jpg; 1929.
Nataraj ed., 1st in 2006, 2012.

Edited by U Kyaw Tun (UKT) (M.S., I.P.S.T., USA), Daw Khin Wutyi, Daw Thuzar Myint and staff of Tun Institute of Learning (TIL) . Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone. Prepared for students and staff of TIL Research Station, Yangon, MYANMAR :  http://www.tuninst.net , www.romabama.blogspot.com

To turn this dictionary into a learning tool, the first task is to digitize the original ink-on-paper copy. Macdonell's entries were in 3 columns-per-page from which we had to cut out the individual entries. For this purpose, we use the scanned images from the University of Cologne, and the digitized copy from the University of Chicago. This TIL version is finally checked with the ink-on-paper copy of Nataraj ed., 1st in 2006, 2012 in TIL library.

The TOC is in Akshara order, which is very difficult to follow unless you know the Akshara matrices of vowels and consonants. The intermediary language is Romabama {ro:ma.ba.ma} based on Bur-Myan phonology. An added problem is due to Macdonell's use of the older form of Devanagari script. The Indologists contemporary to Macdonell used an older form of Devanagari script. See in my note on Older Devanagari script .

For reference to Pal-Myan words, we rely on  Pali-Myanmar Dictionary by U Hoke Sein, Min. of Religious Affars, Govt. of Burma, first print 1954, pp1180. 
- U Hoke Sein, Pali-Myanmar Dictionary (in Pal-Myan) (UHS-PMD) ,
- U Hoke Sein, The Universal Burmese-English-Pali Dictionary, (UHS-BEPD)

index.htm | Top

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UKT 150927, 160318, 160417, 161118: Wherever there should have been an entry, but is not entered by Macdonell in Skt-Dev, I intend to fill in with Pal-Myan words. I'm going through my old files moving entries to the new ones, eliminating those old files whose contents have been merged into new ones :
  Vowel-onsets - MCv-indx.htm - (link chk 161124)
beginning with p001-p044-1 - MCv1pp-indx.htm - update 161130
- p001.htm  p002.htm  p003.htm ... . 
- ..., p042.htm p043.htm p044-1.htm - update 161130
and is moving to p044-2-p062c2 - MCv2pp-indx.htm - update 161231  
- p044-2.htm - update 161231 


Vol00:  p001-1.htm -- MC-v00-indx.htm
  UKT 141209 - the above link is for future use.
p00x.htm  p001.htm  p002.htm  p003.htm  p004.htm  p005.htm  p006.htm  p007.htm  p008.htm p009.htm
p010.htm  p011.htm  p012.htm  p013.htm  p014.htm  p015.htm  p016.htm  p017.htm  p018.htm p019.htm
p020.htm  p021.htm  p022.htm  p023.htm  p024.htm  p025.htm  p026.htm  p027.htm  p028.htm p029.htm
p030.htm  p031.htm  p032.htm  p033.htm  p034.htm  p035.htm p036-1.htm p037.htm p038.htm p039.htm
p040.htm p041.htm p042.htm p043.htm p044-1.htm


Effect of coda consonant on the nuclear vowel
Skt-Dev is given in IAST transliteration whereas Romabama gives a transcription. Pronouncing a word according to IAST gives a pronunciation vastly different from that given in Romabama.


Wag-consonants on {a.}
  {ak} - p001.htm ; {ag} - p002.htm ; {ang} - p003.htm
  {ic}  - p004.htm ; {iz}  - p005.htm ;  {i}   - p005.htm
  {T} - p005.htm ; {id} -------------  ; {N}  - p005.htm
  {t}  - p005.htm ; {d} - p009.htm ; {n}  - p011.htm
  {p} - p019.htm ; {b} - p022.htm ; {m} - p024.htm
Awag-consonants on {a.}
  {} - p026.htm ; {ar}  - p027.htm ; {al}  - p028.htm - semiconsonant
    - effect of killed-{wa.} is uncertain - p029.htm but assumed to produce syllables ending in vowels
  {ish}- p032.htm ; {iS} ------------- - fricative-sibilant
  {} -------------  - fricative-thibilant 
  {h} ------------ - Approximant glottal

Wag-consonants on {aa}
  {aak} - p036-2.htm
  {aaN} - p038.htm 
  {aan} - p039.htm


UKT 150220: Though I am sure of the vowel change due to {wag}-consonants, I am having trouble showing the vowel change due to to {awag}-consonants or the equivalents of IPA Approximants and Fricatives. The main cause is the undefined central vowel Schwa /ə/ in Akshara or Abugida system. Since /ə/ is non-ASCII, the only alternative available is // one of the closest to /ə/ in the vowel quadrilateral. We must note that in the Alphabetic system /ə/ is <a> the first vowel of English a, e, i, o, u vowels. In Georgian alphabet (probably a distant relative of the Myanmar akshara due to its circular round glyphs, particularly the letter თ and its sound), <a> is represented  by .
See Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Georgian_language 150220.
For sound files, I rely on http://ilanguages.org/georgian_vocabulary.php 150220.
  Ten: ათი  [ati] <)) ; I heard it as: {a-ti}


UKT notes :

Doggie's Tale - copy-paste
Older form of Devanagari

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UKT notes

Doggie's Tale

-- UKT 130613

Mnemonic The Doggie Tale: 
Little doggie cringe in fear -- ŋ (velar),
  Seeing Ella's flapping ears -- ɲ (palatal)
  And, the Shepard's hanging rear -- ɳ (retroflex).
Doggie so sad he can't get it out
  What's that Kasha क्ष when there's a Kha ख ?
  And when there's Jana ज्ञ what I am to do with Jha झ?
On top of all there're hissers, Sha श /ʃ/ and Ssa ष /s/,
  when I am stuck with Theta स /θ/ !" 

Note to digitizer: you can copy and paste the following:
Ā ā Ē ē Ī ī Ō ō Ū ū
Ḍ ḍ Ḥ ḥ Ḷ ḷ Ḹ ḹ Ṁ ṁ Ṃ ṃ
Ṅ ṅ Ṇ ṇ Ṛ ṛ Ṝ ṝ Ś ś Ṣ ṣ Ṭ ṭ ɕ ʂ
Instead of Skt-Dev ः {wic~sa.} use "colon" :
Avagraha ऽ use apostrophe
Root sign √ ; approx ≅
IAST Dev: च ca छ cha  श ś [ɕ] /ʃ/ ; ष ṣ [ʂ] /s/; स s [s] /θ/ ; ऋ {iRi.} & ॠ {iRi},
  viram ् , rhotic ऋ ृ
Skt-Dev special phonemes: Ksa
Undertie in Dev transcription: ‿ U203F
IPA-, Pali- & Sanskrit nasals: ŋ ṅ ṅ ,  , ɳ ṇ ṇ, n n n , m m m
  Pali- & Skt {::ting}: aṁ , aṃ 
IPA symbols: ɑ ɒ ə ɛ ɪ ɯ ʌ ʊ ʃ ʒ ʧ ʤ θ ŋ ɲ ɳ ɴ ɔ ɹ ʔ /kʰ/ /ː/
  <church> /ʧɜːʧ/ (DJPD16-097)
  <success> /sək'ses/ (DJPD16-515)
  <thin> /θɪn/ (DJPD16-535), <thorn> /θɔːn/ (DJPD16-535)
  circumflex-acute :
  ấ U+1EA5 , ế U+1EBF
  upsilon-vrachy  ῠ 
  small-u-breve  ῠ ŭ

Go back Dog-tale-note-b

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Older form of Devanagari script

- UKT 150708

Macdonell, Monier-Williams and Childers use an older form of Devanagari script.  A full set of vowels and consonants used are presented below.

Go back Old-Dev-note-b

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End of TIL file