Update: 2017-01-23 11:18 PM -0500

TIL

A Practical Sanskrit Dictionary

MCv-indx.htm

by A. A. Macdonell, 1893,
http://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/scans/MDScan/index.php?sfx=jpg; 1929.
Nataraj ed., 1st in 2006, 2012.

Edited, with additions from other sources, by U Kyaw Tun (UKT) (M.S., I.P.S.T., USA) and staff of Tun Institute of Learning (TIL) . Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone. Prepared for students and staff of TIL Research Station, Yangon, MYANMAR :  http://www.tuninst.net , www.romabama.blogspot.com

References: 
A Dictionary of the Pali Language by R. C. Childers (in Pal-Dev) 1874, and
- Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Grammar and Dictionary, by F. Edgerton (1885-1963), vol.1 - BHS-indx.htm.

index.htm | Top
 MC-indx.htm

Contents of this page

Vowels  

Vol00:  -- MC-v00-indx.htm (link chk 170123)
  > {a.} /a/ or // & {n} - p001-1.htm - (link broken on 170123 in anticipation of future update)
  Note: All contents moved to new p001.htm .

All contents moved to new files, and folders removed, beginning with
Vol01: {a.} & {n}, Vol02: {sa.}-row, Vol03: {Ta.}-row, Vol04: {ta.}-row, Vol05: {pa.}-row - update 170131
Vol06a: p026-2.htm to p032-4.htm to cover row#6 approximants,
  {ya.}, {a.}, {ra.}, {la.}, {wa.}. -- MC-v06a-indx.htm - update 161130
  Note: All contents moved to new-folders. And the sub-folders
  & main-folder deleted.
Vol06f: p032-5.htm to p036-2.htm to cover
  {sha.}, {Sa.}, {a.}, {ha.} -- MC-v06f-indx.htm - update 161130
  Note: All contents moved to new-folders. And the sub-folders
  & main-folder deleted.
Vol07: p037.htm to p044-1.htm to cover
  long {a} -- MC-v07-indx.htm - update 161130
  Note: All contents moved to new-folders. And the sub-folders
  & main-folder deleted.
Vol08: p044-3.htm to p047-1.htm to cover
  short {i.}, & long {i}, -- MC-v08-indx.htm - update 161231
  Note: All contents moved to new-folders. And the sub-folders
  & main-folder deleted.
Vol09: p047-2.htm to p056-1.htm to cover {u.}, {u} 
  -- MC-v09-indx.htm - update 170131
Note: All contents moved to new-folders. And the sub-folders
  & main-folder deleted.
Vol10: p056-2.htm to p060-2.htm to cover {iRi.} {iRi}, {} {}, {aw} {au},
  etc., and,
Solution of Two-three tone problem by including Mon-Myan -- MC-v10-indx.htm - update 170131
Note
: All contents moved to new-folders. And the sub-folders
  & main-folder deleted.

 

UKT notes :
Back Vowel

Contents of this page

UKT notes

Back Vowels

- UKT 131227, 140109, 161215 

From: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Back_vowel 140109
"A back vowel is a type of vowel sound used in spoken languages. The defining characteristic of a back vowel is that the tongue is positioned as far back as possible in the mouth without creating a constriction that would be classified as a consonant. Back vowels are sometimes also called dark vowels because they are perceived as sounding darker than the front vowels. [1] [IPA lists]... [eight] unique symbols [for 8 vowels]" .

I have listed only those that are of interest in BEPS:
[UKT: I could not make sense of what a "rounded vowel" was, until it dawned on me that the lips were rounded while pronouncing the vowel. The sensible term would be "lip-round", from which it follows that "unrounded" would then be "lip-spread". ]. My interest is on:

[u] - {u} / {U} , [o] - {o} ,
[ʌ] , [ɔ] , [ɑ] , [ɒ]

Of the above [u] - the short & the long - are well understood, and are covered by this index. The rest are controversial and are covered by the next index.

See also
- Burmese Vowels in Part 1. Orthoepy and orthography Burmese Grammar and Grammatical Analysis 1899  by by A. W. Lonsdale
- BG1899-indx.htm > BG1899-1-indx.htm > ch03-1.htm (link chk 161215)

See my note on back-vowels {u}, {o}, {w} (contrast of {} , and {au}
UKT note 140102: {w} is still under consideration.

  {u.} / {U.} उ : the close back vowel pronounced in English either lip-rounded or lip-spread
(Whenever you are looking for entries in {U.} उ - the close back vowel, also look for entries in {AW} ओ - the open back vowel, because words with contrastive vowels have corresponding words with contrastive meanings, e.g. {OAk~ka.hta.} vs. {AUk~ka.hta.} -- UKT's observation 140205.)

 

UKT 131227 (to TIL editor: go over the following again carefully - I, myself is getting confused): I have come believe that the short vowel of /u/ is /ʊ/ as in English <put> /pʊt/ , and that /ʌ/ is the short vowel of /ɔ/ 'open-O'. The short vowel /ʌ/ is realized in English <but> /bʌt/. I wish someone would check in terms of formants.

Pix on right: Myanmar akshara modified for Mon-Myan. Listen to how Mon-Myan speakers sing their vowels:
- bk-cndl-row#1vow<))
- bk-cndl-row #2vow<))

Secondly, I propose that "killed-w" be used again as was done by generations of Bur-Myan before I was born. Then I would be able to transcribe the common "Hindustani" हिन्दुस्तानी = ह ि न ् द ु स ् त ा न ी  words which we - children in Rangoon - had learned in communicating to the "lancha wallahs". The command "come" which sounds similar to "an" {An:} be transcribed as "auw" . A "killed-w" would be substituted for the killed-{nga.}. It would make the ending sound more "lip-rounded" as {aw} without the nasal ending. It is entirely different from {AU:}.

As a personal note I must mention my personal lancha wallah in Kungyangon, one "Dannu" who took me to school every day before WWII, and another helper in the house, one "Naradu". They went back to India at the outbreak of the war, and were never heard of again. Then there was "Karum Singh" son of "Hazada Singh" . The father "Hazada" was the night soil collector in my father's service. "Karum Singh" was schooled in Kungyangon National High School before the war. He was much older than I, and we were constant companions during the war years. All will be remembered fondly - without a trace of prejudice - in my heart as long as I live.

Thirdly, to get rid of the controversial vowel {AU:} (just for writing Skt-Myan) and use {w} (as the open-mid back vowel) which would be contrastive to {} (open-mid front vowel) - a variation of regular Bur-Myan {} .
Go back back-vow-note-b

Contents of this page

End of TIL file