Update: 2019-01-31 11:12 PM -0500

TIL

A Practical Sanskrit Dictionary

p151.htm

by A. A. Macdonell, 1893,
http://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/scans/MDScan/index.php?sfx=jpg 1929.
Nataraj ed., 1st in 2006, 2012

Edited, with additions from Pali sources, by U Kyaw Tun (UKT) (M.S., I.P.S.T., USA) and staff of Tun Institute of Learning (TIL) . Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone. Prepared for students and staff of TIL Research Station, Yangon, MYANMAR :  http://www.tuninst.net , www.romabama.blogspot.com

MC-indx.htm | Top
MCc1pp-indx.htm

Contents of this page

{pt} /pʌt/
  p150c3-b04
  p151-c1
{pa.ta.}
  p151-c2
{pht} : not a Bur-Myan sound. Our equivalent is more sharp: {pt}
  p151-c3

UKT notes :
Pronunciation of the letter U

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{pt}

After the retroflex p-nasal {pN} that is not known in the West, we are now with {pt} /pʌt/ the sound of which is well known in English with a caveat.
   English has two vowels /ʊ/ and /ʌ/ represented by the same letter of the Latin alphabet <u> realized in : <put> /pʊt/  and <but> /bʌt/ . See my note for more of pronunciation of the letter U .

p150c3-b04  &  p151c1-b01/ not online

[1. PAT], I. P. (E. also )
-- pta , fly (also fig.); descend; set (sun); alight; throw oneself upon or into (ac., lc.); fall down, at the feet (lc.) of (g.); fall, into (ac.),on ( lc. or upari with g.); fall from=be deprived of (heaven), to (ac., lc.); go down to hell (lc. or adbah); fall morally; lose rank or caste; fall upon (gaze); happen (misfortune); get into (lc.): pp. patita, fallen; - on (lc., -) , from (-); deprived of caste; fallen, among, got into ( lc. -); cs.V. patya, P.fly; wing; A. strike down; ptya, P. () cause to fly; hurl, cast at (lc.,); throw (dice); let fly; cause to descend, bring down (axe, staff) on (g. upari, or lc.): dash (the fingers) into (lc.); inflict (panishment) on (lc.); shed, evoke (tears); pour out (water); cast down from (ab.); throw oneself down; strike off (head); dash out (teeth); overthrow; thrown down; cast, into (ac., lc.); divide in two (dvedha); cause to enter, put into (lc.); set (fire) to; place upon (lc.); apply a measuring line (stra) ; direct (the gare) towards (lc.); hurl, cast (a curse etc.) at (lc.); cause to fall rain, bring trouble on; cause to go down to hell (lc.); cause to lose its value, depreciate in price (arthatah); seduce to (lc.); introduce, set going pp. ptits; des. pipatisha, pitsa, P. be about to fly. ati, fly past; neglect; go beyond, not come under (a conception or category). anu, fly along to (ac.); fly after, follow, pursue (also fig.); cs. drag down with one to hell. abhi, fly up to rush towards or at; fall or get into (ac.)..

   

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p151-c1

p151c1-b01/ not online

[2. PAT] IV. .
-- ptya , (V.) be lord of, have power over, possess (ac. in.); share in, be associated with (lc.); be of use or serve for (d.); serve as, be anything. abhi . possess.

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{pa.ta.}

p151c1-b02/ p091

पत pata [ pat-a ]
-- m. flight (only --): -ga, m. [moving by flight], winged creature, bird: -rga, -‿svara, m. lord of birds, ep. of Garuda.
पत   pat-a flight (only --): -ga, m. [moving by flight], winged creature, bird: -rga, -̮svara, m. lord of birds, ep. of Garuda.

 

p151c1-b03/ p091

पतंग patanga [ patam-g ]
-- a. flying; m. bird; winged insect; grasshopper, butterfly; esp. moth; sun: -knta, (pp.) m. sun-stone; -grma, m. N. of a village.
 पतंग   patam-g flying; m. bird; winged insect; grasshopper, butterfly; esp. moth; sun: -knta, (pp.) m. sun-stone; -grma, m. N. of a village.

 

p151c1-b04/ p091

पतंगम patangama [ patam-gama ]
-- m. moth.
पतंगम   patam-gama moth.

 

p151c1-b05/ p091

पतंगर patangara [ patamga-r ]
-- a. bird-like.
 पतंगर   patamga-r bird-like.

 

p151c1-b06/ p091

पतंगवृत्ति patangavrtti [ patamga-vritti ]
-- f. behaviour of the moth, height of folly; a. behaving like a moth, extremely foolish.
 पतंगवृत्ति   patamga-vritti behaviour of the moth, height of folly; a. behaving like a moth, extremely foolish.

 

p151c1-b07/ not online

[patagali]
-- m. N. of a grammarian (the celebrated author of Mahbhshya) and of a philosopher (founder of the Sṅkhya system).

 

p151c1-b08/ p091

पतत् patat [ pat-at ]
-- pr. pt. flying; m. bird.
 पतत्   pat-at flying; m. bird. 

 

p151c1-b09/ p091

पतत्र patatra [ pta-tra ]
-- n. wing; feather.
पतत्र   pta-tra wing; feather.

 

p151c1-b10/ p091

पतत्रिन् patatrin [ patatr-in ]
-- a. winged, flying; m. bird; arrow.
 पतत्रिन्   patatr-in winged, flying; m. bird; arrow.

 

p151c1-b11/ po91

पतद्ग्रह patadgraha [ patad-graha ]
-- m. (catching what falls), spittoon.
 पतद्ग्रह   patad-graha (catching what falls), spittoon.

 

p151c1-b12/ p091

पतन patana [ pt-ana ]
-- n. flying, flight; flying or falling down, descent, fall, from (ab.), into (lc. or --); casting oneself (into, --), prostration (at, --); hanging down, flaccidity (of the breasts); fall, ruin; getting into (lc.): -sla, a. accustomed to fall down.
 पतन   pt-ana flying, flight; flying or falling down, descent, fall, from (ab.), into (lc. or --); casting oneself (into, --), prostration (at, --); hanging down, flaccidity (of the breasts); fall, ruin; getting into (lc.): -sla, a. accustomed to fall down.

 

p151c1-b13/ p091

पतनीय pataniya [  patan-ya ]
-- a. leading to a loss of caste; n. crime producing loss of caste.
पतनीय   patan-ya leading to a loss of caste; n. crime producing loss of caste.

 

p151c1-b14/ p091

पतय pataya [ pat-ya ]
-- cs. of √1. pat, P. fly along; . strike down. , fly to. vi, P. open (int.).
पतय   pat-ya √1. pat, P. fly along; . strike down. , fly to. vi, P. open (int.).

 

p151c1-b15/ p091

पताका pataka [ patk ]
-- f. flag, banner: -m labh, carry off the palm among (lc.); episode in a drama; -‿amsuka, n. flag; -danda, m. flag staff.
पताका   patk flag, banner: -m labh, carry off the palm among (lc.); episode in a drama; -̮amsuka, n. flag; -danda, m. flagstaff.

 

p151c1-b16/ p091

पताकिन् patakin [ patk-in ]
-- a. bearing a flag; m. ensign-bearer; flag; car: -, f. army.
पताकिन्   patk-in bearing a flag; m. ensign-bearer; flag; car: -, f. army. 

 

p151c1-b17/ p091

पति pati [ pt-i ]
-- m. owner, master, lord, ruler; husband.
पति   pt-i owner, master, lord, ruler; husband. 
( end p151c1 )

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p151-c2

p151c2-b00/ p091

पतिंवरा patiṃvara [ patim-var ]
-- f. one who chooses her own husband.
पतिंवरा   patim-var one who chooses her own husband.

 

p151c2-b01/ not online

[pati-ka]
-- -- a. husband; -ghni a. f. husband-slaying

 

p151c2-b02/ p091

पतित patita [ pat-ita ]
-- pp. √1. pat; n. flight: -vritta, pp. living as an outcast; -svitr ka, a. having neglected the Svitr, i. e. having omitted investiture with the sacred cord; -sthita, pp. lying on the ground; -‿utthita, pp. shipwrecked and rescued.
पतित   pat-ita √1. pat; n. flight: -vritta, pp. living as an outcast; -svitrka, a. having neglected the Svitr, i. e. having omitted investiture with the sacred cord; -sthita, pp. lying on the ground; -̮utthita, pp. shipwrecked and rescued.

 

p151c2-b03/ p091

पतित्व patitva [ pati-tv ]
-- n. matrimony, wedlock; -darsana-llasa, a. desirous of seeing her husband; -devat, a. f. making a god of --, idolizing her husband; -dharma, m. duty to a husband; -prn, a. f. whose life is her husband; -laṅghana, n. conjugal infidelity in a wife; -llasa, a. longing for her hus band; devoted to her husband; -loka, m. world or abode of the husband (after death); -vamsya, a. belonging to the husband's family; -vatn, a. f. having a husband; ɴ. married woman, wife; -vrata, n. fidelity to a husband: , a. f. faithful or devoted to her husband: -maya, a. consisting in a faithful wife; -suk, f. mourning for a husband; -sthna, n. husband's place; -sthnya, a. belonging to or being in the husband's place; m. husband's representative.
पतित्व   pati-tv matrimony, wedlock; -darsana-llasa, a. desirous of seeing her husband; -devat, a. f. making a god of --, idolizing her husband; -dharma, m. duty to a husband; -prn, a. f. whose life is her husband; -laṅghana, n. conjugal infidelity in a wife; -llasa, a. longing for her husband; devoted to her husband; -loka, m. world or abode of the husband (after death); -vamsya, a. belonging to the husband's family; -vatn, a. f. having a husband; n. married woman, wife; -vrata, n. fidelity to a husband: , a. f. faithful or devoted to her husband: -maya, a. consisting in a faithful wife; -suk, f. mourning for a husband; -sthna, n. husband's place; -sthnya, a. belonging to or being in the husband's place; m. husband's representative.

 

p151c2-b04/ p091

पत्तन pattana [ pat-tana ]
-- n. town.
पत्तन   pat-tana town.

 

p151c2-b05/ p091

पत्ति patti [ pat-t ]
-- m. pedestrian; foot-soldier: -karman, n. business of the infantry.
 पत्ति   pat-t pedestrian; foot-soldier: -karman, n. business of the infantry.

p151c2-b06/ p091

पत्‍त्र pattra [ pat-tra ]
-- n. wing; feather (also of an arrow); vehicle (car, horse, or camel); (plumage of a tree), leaf, petal; leaf prepared for writing on (-m ropaya=put on paper); letter, document; foil of metal; ornamental leaf painted with (--): -ka(ik)=pattra -- a.; -kkhedya, a. having its feathers plucked out; n. a kind of artistic skill (?); -pati, m. ep. of Garuda; -puta, m. n.: i-k, f. leaf rolled up into a funnel-shape; -bhaṅga, m. streaks painted with musk and other fragrant substances on the face or parts of the body; -ratha, m. (riding on wings), bird: -‿indra, m. lord of birds, ep. of Garuda: -ketu, m. having Garuda as his badge, Vishnu; -rekh, f.=-bhaṅga; -lat, f. id.; N.; -le kh, f. id.; N.; -vha, m. (borne on wings), bird; arrow; -viseshaka, m. (?) leaf-like painted mark; -veshta, m. kind of earring; -ska, n. vegetable with leaves; -‿l, f.= -bhaṅga; -‿hra, m. pl. feeding on leaves.
 पत्‍त्र   pat-tra wing; feather (also of an arrow); vehicle (car, horse, or camel); (plumage of a tree), leaf, petal; leaf prepared for writing on (-m ropaya=put on paper); letter, document; foil of metal; ornamental leaf painted with (--): -ka(ik)=pattra -- a.; -kkhedya, a. having its feathers plucked out; n. a kind of artistic skill (?); -pati, m. ep. of Garuda; -puta, m. n.: i-k, f. leaf rolled up into a funnel-shape; -bhaṅga, m. streaks painted with musk and other fragrant substances on the face or parts of the body; -ratha, m. (riding on wings), bird: -̮indra, m. lord of birds, ep. of Garuda: -ketu, m. having Garuda as his badge, Vishnu; -rekh, f.=-bhaṅga; -lat, f. id.; N.; -lekh, f. id.; N.; -vha, m. (borne on wings), bird; arrow; -viseshaka, m. (?) leaf-like painted mark; -veshta, m. kind of earring; -ska, n. vegetable with leaves; -̮l, f.= -bhaṅga; -̮hra, m. pl. feeding on leaves.

 

p151c2-b07/ p091

पत्‍ित्रका patitraka [ pattr-ik ]
-- f. leaf for writing on; letter, note; document.
पत्‍ित्रका   pattr-ik leaf for writing on; letter, note; document.

 

p151c2-b08/ p091

पत्‍ित्रन् patitran [ pattr-in ]
-- a. winged; feathered, with (--); m. bird; arrow.
पत्‍ित्रन्   pattr-in winged; feathered, with (--); m. bird; arrow. 

 

p151c2-b09/ p091

पत्‍त्रोर्ण pattrorna [ pattra‿rna ]
-- n. bleached silk; cloth or garment of bleached silk.
पत्‍त्रोर्ण   pattra̮rna bleached silk; cloth or garment of bleached silk. 

 

p151c2-b10/ p091

पत्नी patni [ pt-n- ]
-- f. mistress, lady; wife; female of animals: -ka, -- a. id.; -vat, a. possessed of a wife or wives; accompanied by his wife; -sấla, n., , f. shed on the sacrificial ground for the wives and domestic rites of the sacrificers.
पत्नी   pt-n- mistress, lady; wife; female of animals: -ka, -- a. id.; -vat, a. possessed of a wife or wives; accompanied by his wife; -saNla, n., , f. shed on the sacrificial ground for the wives and domestic rites of the sacrificers.

 

p151c2-b11/ p091

पत्मन् patman [ pt-man ]
-- n. path, course.
पत्मन्   pt-man path, course.

 

p151c2-b12/ not online

पत्य patya [ PATYA ]
-- v. 2. PAT.
पत्य   PATYA 2. PAT.

 

p151c2-b13/ p091

पत्वन् patvan [ pt-van ]
-- a. (r-) flying; n. flight.
पत्वन्   pt-van (r-) flying; n. flight.

 

p151c2-b14/ not online

[patsu-tah]
-- ad. at the feet: -si , a. lying at the feet

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{pht}

{pht} is not a Bur-Myan sound: our pronunciation is more sharp: {pt} /pʌt/ for transcriptions from English, or as MLC (Myanmar Language Commission) would have it: /pʌʔ/ with a glottal stop by residents of the Irrawaddy valley for everyday colloquial speech.

p151c2-b15/ not online

[PATH]
-- cs. api-pthaya , P. bring into a path (ac.)

 

p151c2-b16/ not online

( p151c2end )
( p151c3-top  )

 

 

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p151-c3

p151c3-b01/ p091

पथ patha [ path-a ]
-- m. way, road, path (--).
पथ   path-a way, road, path (--).

 

p151c3-b02/ p091

पथातिथि pathatithi [ patha‿atithi ]
-- m. traveller.
पथातिथि   patha̮atithi traveller.

 

p151c3-b03/ p091

पथिक pathika [ pathi-ka ]
-- m. wanderer, traveller: -srtha, m. company of travellers.
पथिक   pathi-ka wanderer, traveller: -srtha, m. company of travellers.

 

p151c3-b04/ p091

पथिकृत् pathikrt [ pathi-krt ]
-- a. preparing the way; -mat, a. containing the word 'pth;'  -rk shi, a. guarding the paths.
पथिकृत्   pathi-krt preparing the way; -mat, a. containing the word ʻpth;ʼ -rkshi, a. guarding the paths.

 

p151c3-b05/ p091

पथोपदेशक pathopadesaka [ patha‿upadesaka ]
-- m. guide (Pr.).
पथोपदेशक   patha̮upadesaka guide (Pr.).

 

p151c3-b06/ p091

पथ्य pathya [ path-ya ]
-- a. (relating to or fit for the way or progress of a thing), customary, regular; proper, suitable; salutary; advantageous; tilda;, f. path, way: -revt, bounteous path, personified as genius of plenty.
पथ्य   path-ya (relating to or fit for the way or progress of a thing), customary, regular; proper, suitable; salutary; advantageous; ẫ, f. path, way: -- revt, bounteous path, personified as genius of plenty.

 

p151c3-b07/ p091

पथ्यशन pathyasana [ pathi‿asana ]
-- n. victuals for the journey; -‿sin, a. eating wholesome diet; -‿odana, m. id.
पथ्यशन   pathi̮asana victuals for the journey; -̮sin, a. eating wholesome diet; -̮odana, m. id.

UKT: p151c3-b07 moved to next file.

 

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UKT notes

Pronunciation of letter U

From: English Pronunciation Guide: Vowel based on Pronunciation Guide, Learn to Speak English Part 1 and English Pronouncing Dictionary by Daniel Jones , 16th ed., ed. P. Roach, Cambridge Univ. Press, 2003 (DJPD16.
http://www.tuninst.net/EngPronGuid/LSE1-EPG-vow/EPG-vow.htm#Vowel_Sounds_with_U 120623

From: DJPD16-555

p555. The vowel letter [u] has several strong pronunciations linked to spelling. 'Short' pronunciations include /ʌ/ and /ʊ/.

UKT: One of the first problem faced by a Myanmar ESL learner is pronouncing the letters [ut] in <put> /pʊt/ and <but> /bʌt/. The corresponding sounds in Burmese-Myanmar are {awt} /ʊt/ and {bt}/{bat} /ʌt/. The problem in Romabama is to represent /ʊt/ and /ʌt/. My suggestion is to represent /ʊ/ with /uu/ or /u/, and /ʌ/ with // (080121):
this would allow me to write English <but> as {bt}, <cut> as {ct}
and English <put> as {pwut}/{pwat}, <Tun> as {htun:}/{htuun:}/{htwan:}.

'Long' pronunciations include /uː/ and /juː/. In 'short' pronounced /ʌ/, the [u] is generally followed by a consonant letter which ends the word, or a double consonant before another vowel. Words containing /ʊ/ which end with a consonant sound often have two consonant letters finally, a notable exception being <put> /pʊt/, e.g.:

<tub> /tʌb/ {tpb} or {tb}
<tubby> /ˈtʌb.i/ {tp-bi}
<bull> /bʊl/ {bu:l}
<bully> /ˈbʊl.i/ {bu:li}

UKT: (see also pronunciation of letter <a>)
Because ʌ is not an ASCII letter, but is, I am proposing to use the latter in Romabama -- 080206
This would amount to saying that is a checked vowel and is followed by a killed {wag}-akshara. On the other hand, u is a free vowel which is not followed by a consonant, though it may be followed by an {a.wag}-akshara, {ya.} {ra.} {la.} {wa.} {a.} {ha.}
While keeping in mind that there are no spellings with {ba.t} and {la.t} in Bur-Myan, if we are to transcribe <tub> and <bull> to Bur-Myan, we would get {tb} and {bu:l}

The 'long' pronunciations usually mean the [u] is followed by a single consonant letter and then a vowel, e.g.:

<tube> /tjuːb/ (US) /tuːb/
<tubing> /ˈtjuː.bɪŋ/ (US) /ˈtuː-/
<supervise> /ˈsuː.pə.vaɪz/ (US) /-pɚ-/

UKT: It is interesting to note that in British English aka RP (Received Pronunciation), <u> influences both the onset-consonant and coda-consonant. The "influence" on the onset, amounts to {ya.ping.}-medial formation. As an example, in Myanmar, the English word <new> is pronounced as {nyu:} following the British English instead of {nu:} if we were to follow the US English aka General American.

In word initial position, the 'long' pronunciation is almost always pronounced /juː/, e.g.:

<unique> /juːˈniːk/
<useful> /ˈjuːs.fəl/

However, there are exceptions to these guidelines, e.g.:

<study> /ˈstʌd.i/
<sugar> /ˈʃʊg.əʳ/ (US) /-ɚ/
<truth> /truːθ/

When [u] is followed by [r], the strong pronunciation is one of several possibilities:
/jʊə , jɔː (US) jʊr/ ,
/ʊə , ɔː (US) ʊr/ ,
/ɜː (US) ɝː/ , or
/ʌ (US) ɝː/ , e.g.:

<cure> /kjʊəʳ , kjɔːʳ/ (US) /kjʊr/
<plural> /ˈplʊə.rəl , ˈplɔː-/ (US) /ˈplʊr.əl/
<burn> /bɜːn/ (US) /bɝːn/
<hurry> /ˈhʌr.i/ (US) /ˈhɝː.i/

In weak syllables

The vowel letter [u] is realised as one of /jə/, /jʊ/, /ə/ or /ʊ/ in weak syllables, e.g.:

<failure> /ˈfeɪ.ljəʳ/ (US) /ˈfeɪl.jɚ/
<accurate> /ˈk.jə.rət , -jʊ/ (US) /-jɚ.ət, -jʊ.rət/
<status> /ˈsteɪ.təs/ (US) /-stt̬əs/
<July> /ʤʊˈlaɪ/

It may also result in a syllabic consonant, e.g.:

<hopeful> /ˈhəʊp.fəl , -fʊl/ (US) /ˈhoʊp-/

Go back letter-U-note-b

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End of TIL file