Update: 2019-02-02 11:17 PM -0500

TIL

A Practical Sanskrit Dictionary

p127.htm

by A. A. Macdonell, 1893,
http://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/scans/MDScan/index.php?sfx=jpg 1929.
Nataraj ed., 1st in 2006, 2012

Edited, with additions from Pali sources, by U Kyaw Tun (UKT) (M.S., I.P.S.T., USA), Daw Khin Wutyi, Daw Thuzar Myint and staff of Tun Institute of Learning (TIL) . Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone. Prepared for students and staff of TIL Research Station, Yangon, MYANMAR : http://www.tuninst.net , www.romabama.blogspot.com

MC-indx.htm | Top
MCc1pp-indx.htm

Contents of this page

 

p127.htm was lost, and so this page is a new construct. On downloading http://dsal.uchicago.edu/dictionaries/macdonell/ 120618 , only the mess-up p125 was given. I have to sort out the contents of p.127 from the mess-up of p125 - p127. The <next page> gave p.128. -- 120618

{dyu} /dju/
  p126c3-b17
  p127-c1
{dra.}
  p127-c2
{dra}
{dru.}
  p127-c3
{dru}
{drau:}
{drau}
{dwa.}

orphan: दौश्््चर्म्य   daus-karm-ya skin-disease.

UKT notes :
Dravida Kingdom The Dravidian peoples
Pacāla {pi~sa-la.}

Contents of this page

{dyu} /dju/

p126c3-b17/ p084

द्यूत [ dy-t ]
= (द ् य ू) (त)
-- n. gambling (for, lc., -- ): often fig. ( end p126c3 )
(p127c1-top  )
of the hazard of battle; booty: -kara, m. gambler; -kra, m. id.; -krit,m. id.; -dsa, m., , f. slave won at play; -dharma, m. laws concerning gambling; -vartman, n. method of gambling; -vritti, m. professional gambler, keeper of a gaming-house; -sl, f. gaming-house; -sadana, n. id.; -samga, m. gambling assembly.
द्यूत   dy-t gambling (for, lc., --): often fig. of the hazard of battle; booty: -kara, m. gambler; -kra, m. id.; -krit, m. id.; -dsa, m., , f. slave won at play; -dharma, m. laws concerning gambling; -vartman, n. method of gambling; -vritti, m. professional gambler, keeper of a gaming-house; -sl, f. gaming-house; -sadana, n. id.; -samga, m. gambling assembly.

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p127-c1

p127c1-b01/ p084

द्यून [ dy-na ]
-- pp. of √div.
 द्यून   dy-na √div.

 

p127c1-b02/ p084

द्यो [ dy ]
= द ् य ो
-- m. f. sky; day: v. ���� div.
 द्यो   dy sky; day: v. div.

 

p127c1-b03/ p084

द्योत [ dyot-a ]
-- m. brilliance: -ka, a. shining; illuminating; displaying; expressing, expressive of (g., -- ); significant: -tva, n. abst. ɴ.
 द्योत   dyot-a brilliance: -ka, a. shining; illuminating; displaying; expressing, expressive of (g., --); significant: -tva, n. abst. n.

 

p127c1-b04/ p084

द्योतन [ dyt-ana (or ) ]
-- a. flashing; illuminating; n. shining; showing, displaying.
 द्योतन   dyt-ana (or ) flashing; illuminating; n. shining; showing, displaying.

 

p127c1-b05/ p084

द्योतनि [ dyot-an ]
-- f. brilliance, light.
 द्योतनि   dyot-an brilliance, light.

 

p127c1-b06/ p084

द्योतनिका [ dyotan-ik ]
-- f. explanation.
 द्योतनिका   dyotan-ik explanation.

 

p127c1-b07/ p084

द्योतमान [ dyota-mna ]
-- pr. pt. shining.
 द्योतमान   dyota-mna shining.

 

p127c1-b08/ p084

द्योतिन् [ dyot-in ]
-- a. shining; signifying.
 द्योतिन्   dyot-in shining; signifying.

 

p127c1-b09/ p084

द्योतिष्पथ [ dyotish-patha ]
-- m. path of the stars, upper air.
द्योतिष्पथ   dyotish-patha path of the stars, upper air.

 

p127c1-b10/ p084

द्योतिस् [ dyot-is ]
n. light; star (=gyotis).
 द्योतिस्   dyot-is light; star (=gyotis).

 

p127c1-b11/ p084

द्योत्य [ dyot-ya ]
-- fp. (to be) expressed or designated.
 द्योत्य   dyot-ya (to be) expressed or designated.

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{dra.}

p127c1-b12/ p084

द्रङ्ग [ draṅga ]
-- m., , f. town.
 द्रङ्ग   draṅga town.

 

p127c1-b13/ p084

द्रढय [ dradha-ya ]
-- den. P. fasten, strengthen; confirm; restrain.
 द्रढय   dradha-ya P. fasten, strengthen; confirm; restrain. 

 

p127c1-b14/ not online

[dradh-ika]
-- m. N. of a man

 

p127c1-b15/ p084

द्रढिमन् [ dradh-i-man ]
-- m. firmness; resolution; confirmation; -ishtha, spv. (of dridha) very firm.
 द्रढिमन्   dradh-i-man firmness; resolution; confirmation; -ishtha, spv. (of dridha) very firm.

 

p127c1-b16/ p084

द्रधस् [ drdh-as ]
-- n. garment.
 द्रधस्   drdh-as garment.

 

p127c1-b17/ p084

द्रप्स [ drap-s ]
-- m. [flowing: from drap, cs. of √dr, run], drop; spark; moon (drop in the sky); banner.
द्रप्स   drap-s [flowing: from drap, cs. of √dr, run], drop; spark; moon (drop in the sky); banner. 

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p127c1-b18/ not online

[DRAM] I. P.
-- drma , run or wander about; intv. dandramya , id.

 

p127c1-b19

[dramma] (δραχμή)
-- a coin = sixpence

 

p127c1-b20/ p084

द्रव [ drav- ] {dra.wa.}
=  (द ् र) (व) 
-- a. running; fluid; feeling, tender; dripping or overflowing with (-- ); m. swift motion, flight; fluidity; fluid, juice; -ana, n. running; melting.
द्रव   drav- running; fluid; feeling, tender; dripping or overflowing with (--); m. swift motion, flight; fluidity; fluid, juice; -ana, n. running; melting.

 

p127c1-b21/ p084

द्रवत् [ drav-t (pr. pt. of √dru) ]
-- ad. swiftly.
 द्रवत्   drav-t (pr. pt. of √dru) swiftly.

 

p127c1-b22/ p084

द्रवता [ drava-t ]
-- f., -tva, n. wetness; fluidity; fusibility; -tva-ka, n. fluidity; fusibility; -dravya, n. fluid matter; -maya, a. fluid.
 द्रवता   drava-t wetness; fluidity; fusibility; -tva-ka, n. fluidity; fusibility; -dravya, n. fluid matter; -maya, a. fluid.

 

p127c1-b23/ not online

[drava-ya]
-- . run, flow

 

p127c1-b24/ p084

द्रवर [ drava-r ]
-- a. running swiftly.
 द्रवर   drava-r running swiftly.

 

p127c1-b25/ not online

द्रविड [dravida] {dra.wi.a.}
-- m. N. of a country on the west coast of the Deccan; son of Vrtya or degraded Kshatriya: pl. the inhabitants of the Dravida country
 

See my notes on Dravida Kingdom in the days of Mahabharata, and the present day Dravidian peoples .

p127c1-b26/ p084

द्रविण [ drv-ina ]
= द ् र व ि ण
-- n. movable goods, property; wealth, money; strength, might.
द्रविण   drv-ina movable goods, property; wealth, money; strength, might.

 

p127c1-b27/ p084

द्रविणराशि [ dravina-rsi ]
-- m. heap of money or valuables; -‿adhipati, m. lord of treasures, Kubera; -‿svara, m. possessor of wealth.
 द्रविणराशि   dravina-rsi heap of money or valuables; -̮adhipati, m. lord of treasures, Kubera; -̮svara, m. possessor of wealth.

 

p127c1-b28/ p084

द्रविणोद dravino-d, ˚दस् -ds, ˚दा [ -d&asharp; ]
-- a. bestowing wealth.
 द्रविणोद   -daN bestowing wealth.

 

p127c1-b29/ p084

द्रवित्नु  [ drav-i-tn ]
-- a. swift.
द्रवित्नु   drav-i-tn swift.

 

p127c1-b30/ not online

[drav-bh]
-- become fluid

 

p127c1-b31/ p084

द्रव्य [ 1. drav-ya ]
-- a. arboreal (v. dru).
 द्रव्य   1. drav-ya arboreal (v. dru). 

 

p127c1-b32/ p084

द्रव्य [ 2. drav-ya ]
-- n. [fp. movable: √dru] object, thing; substance, matter; property; gold; implement; fit object: -tva, n. sub stantiality; -krisa, a. of slender means, poor; ( end p127c1 ) ( p127c2-top )
 -gta, n. kind of substance; -prakriti, f. pl. minister, realm, fortresses, treasure and army; -maya, a. substantial, material: -mtra, n., , f. gold; -yaga, a. offering material sacrifices; -vat, a. inherent in matter; wealthy; -vriddhi, f. increase of wealth; -suddhi,f. purification of defiled objects.

द्रव्य   2. drav-ya movable: √dru] object, thing; substance, matter; property; gold; implement; fit object: -tva, n. substantiality; -krisa, a. of slender means, poor; -gta, n. kind of substance; -prakriti, f. pl. minister, realm, fortresses, treasure and army; -maya, a. substantial, material: -mtra, n., , f. gold; -yaga, a. offering material sacrifices; -vat, a. inherent in matter; wealthy; -vriddhi, f. increase of wealth; -suddhi, f. purification of defiled objects.

 

 

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p127-c2

p127c2-b01/ p084

द्रव्यागम -- [ dravya‿gama ]
-- m. acquisition of property; -‿tmaka, a. substantial, material; -‿ srita, pp. connected with matter.
 द्रव्यागम   dravya̮gama acquisition of property; -̮tmaka, a. substantial, material; -̮srita, pp. connected with matter.

 

p127c2-b02/ not online

द्रष्टव्य [ drash-tvya ]
-- fp. to be seen, visible; that must be seen; to be recognised; to be regarded as (nm.); to be investigated or tried (suit).

 

p127c2-b03/ not online

[drash-tr]
-- one who sees (also = 2 prs. sg. ft. without copula); one who examines, tries, or decides (a suit); judge

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{dra}

p127c2-b04/ not online

[1. DR] II. P.
-- dr-ti , run; cs. drpaya , cause to run; intv. daridr (run about), be in distress, be poor. abhi-pra , run or hasten towards.vi , run in different directions, run away; pr. pt. vidrna , vanished, gone; embarrassed, being at a loss what to do.

 

p127c2-b05/ not online

[2. DR] II. P.
-- dr-ti , IV. drya , sleep. ni , P. . fall asleep, slumber; pr.pt. nidrna , sleeping: pp. nidrita , id.

 

p127c2-b06 / p084

द्राक् [ drk ]
-- ad. [n. of dr‿ak, running to wards], instantly.
 द्राक्   drk dr̮ak, running towards], instantly.
 

p127c2-b07/ p084

द्राक्ष [ drksha ] / {draak~Sa.} --> {draak~hka.}?
= द ् र ा क ् ष 
-- a. made of grapes.
 द्राक्ष   drksha made of grapes.

 

p127c2-b08/ p084

द्राक्षा [ drksh ]
-- f. vine; grape: -rasa, m. grape-juice.
 द्राक्षा   drksh vine; grape: -rasa, m. grape-juice.
 

 

p127c2-b09/ p084

द्राघय [ drgha-ya ]
-- den. P. prolong; delay.
 द्राघय   drgha-ya P. prolong; delay.

 

p127c2-b10/ p084

द्राघिमन् [ drgh-i-mn ]
-- m. length; -ishtha, spv., -yas, cpv. of drgha.
 द्राघिमन्   drgh-i-mn length; -ishtha, spv., -yas, cpv. of drgha.

 

p127c2-b11/p084

द्रावण [ drv-ana ]
-- a. putting to flight; n. id.
 द्रावण   drv-ana putting to flight; n. id.

 

p127c2-b12/ p084

द्रावयत्सख [ drvayt-sakha ]
-- a. speeding his companion, i. e. his rider.
 द्रावयत्सख   drvayt-sakha speeding his companion, i. e. his rider.

 

p127c2-b13/ not online

[drv-ayi-tri]
-- m. who causes to run

 

p127c2-b14/ p084

द्रावयित्नु [ drv-ay-i-tn ]
-- a. melting.
 द्रावयित्नु   drv-ay-i-tn melting.

 

p127c2-b15/ p084

द्राविड [ drvida ] {dra-wi.a.}
-- a. () Dravidian; m. country of the Dravidians: pl. the Dravidians; ,f. Dravidian woman.
 द्राविड   drvida () Dravidian; m. country of the Dravidians: pl. the Dravidians; , f. Dravidian woman. 

See my note on Dravidian peoples . Note the name can also be spelled with a short vowel as {dra.wi.a.}, which shows that Sanskrit, similar to English, does not pay much attention to the vowel-lengths. This is very different from Bur-Myan, a pitch-register language, where the different vowel-lengths in form of registers (creak, modal, &  emphatic), have different meanings. -- UKT120619

 

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{dru.}

p127c2-b16/ not online

[DRU] I. P.
-- drva , run, hasten; flee; run at, assail; melt (also fig.): pp. druta , q. v.; cs. drvya , cause to run, put to flight; cause to flow, melt. ati , hasten past or across (ac.). adhi, ascend ( a mountain). anu, run after, pursue; accompany; run through, repeat rapidly, apa, run away. abhi, hasten towards; run at, assial. , hsten towards (ac.) ud, run up or out; repeat rapidly. upa, hasten towards; assail, attack: pp. assailed, attacked, afflicted, by (in.,-); distressed, prati upa, rush upon (ac.). samupa, run at , pursue;  assail. pari, run round. pra, run forward, haste away, flee; hasten towards; rush upon (ac.); escape safely to (ac.). vi, disperse, flee; burst: pp. run away, fled; destroyed; burst; unsteady; distraught; cs. put to flight, sam, run together.

 

 

p127c2-b17/ p084

द्रु [ dr- ]
-- m. n. [splitting: √dri] wood; wooden implement; *m. tree; branch.
  द्रु   dr- [splitting: √dri] wood; wooden implement; *m. tree; branch.

 

p127c2-b18/ p084

द्रुग्ध -- [ drug-dh ]
-- pp. of √druh.
 द्रुग्ध   drug-dh √druh.

 

p127c2-b19/ p084

द्रुघण [ dru-ghan ]
-- m. [wooden striker], (wooden) club; -ghn, f. wood-chopper.
 द्रुघण   dru-ghan [wooden striker], (wooden) club; -ghn, f. wood-chopper.

 

p127c2-b20/ p084

द्रुत [ dru-t ]
= द ् र ु त
-- pp. run away, fled; swift; rapidly uttered; melted, liquid; wet with (-- ): -m, ad. quickly, instantly, -taram, ad. more quickly; as quickly as possible.
 द्रुत   dru-t run away, fled; swift; rapidly uttered; melted, liquid; wet with (--): -m, ad. quickly, instantly, -taram, ad. more quickly; as quickly as possible. 
( end p127c2 )

Orphan:
द्युत् [ 3. dyt ] = द ् य ु त ्
-- f. splendour.

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p127-c3

p127c3-b00/ p084

द्रुतगति [ druta-gati ]
-- a. swift-paced, hasty; -tara-gati, a. moving faster; -tva, n. melting, emotion; -pada, n. ad. with swift steps, hastily; n. a metre (swift-paced); -vilamb ita, n. a metre (fast and slow).
द्रुतगति   druta-gati swift-paced, hasty; -tara-gati, a. moving faster; -tva, n. melting, emotion; -pada, n. ad. with swift steps, hastily; n. a metre (swift-paced); -vilambita, n. a metre (fast and slow).

 

p127c3-b01/ p084

द्रुति [ dru-ti ]
-- f. melting, emotion.
द्रुति   dru-ti melting, emotion. 

 

p127c3-b02/ p084

द्रुपद [ dru-pad ]
-- n. wooden column, post; m. N. of a king of the Pklas [UKT: Pacāla पञ्चाल = प ञ ् च ा ल ; , f. N. of a verse in the TB. (II, vi, 6, 3).
 द्रुपद   dru-pad wooden column, post; m. N. of a king of the Pklas; , f. N. of a verse in the TB. (II, vi, 6, 3).

See my note on Panchala aka Pacāla / {pi~sa-la.}
Note: The English-transcription Panchala had led me astray until I found the alternate spelling Pacāla . This in turn brings up another Bur-Myan word 'black magic'. See MED2006-272

 

p127c3-b03/ p084

द्रुम [ dru-ma ]
-- m. tree: -maya, a. wooden; -vat, a. abounding in trees, wooded; -‿agra, m. n. tree-top.
 द्रुम   dru-ma tree: -maya, a. wooden; -vat, a. abounding in trees, wooded; -̮agra, m. n. tree-top.

 

p127c3-b04/ p084 

द्रुमाय [ drum-ya ]
-- den. . pass for a tree.
 द्रुमाय   drum-ya . pass for a tree.

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p127c3-b05/ not online

[DRUH] IV. P. (E. also )
-- druhya ,  hurt, seek to injure, offend (ac., d., g., lc.); * vie with : pp. drugdha , one who injures or ...

 

 

p127c3-b06/ p084

द्रुह् [ drh ]
-- a. (nm. dhruk) injuring, betraying (-- , g.); m. f. injurer, avenger, fiend; f. injury.
 द्रुह्   drh dhruk) injuring, betraying (--, g.); m. f. injurer, avenger, fiend; f. injury.

 

p127c3-b07/ p084

द्रुहिण [ druhina ]
-- m. ep. of Brahma, Vishnu, Siva.
 द्रुहिण   druhina Brahma, Vishnu, Siva.

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{dru}

p127c3-b08/ not online

[DRU] IX. P. (V.)
-- dr-n , hurl, cast

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{drau:}

p127c3-b09/ p084

द्रोग्धव्य [ drog-dhvya ]
-- fp. n. injury should be done to (d., lc.); -dhri, m. injurer, ill wisher, foe.
द्रोग्धव्य   drog-dhvya injury should be done to (d., lc.); -dhri, m. injurer, illwisher, foe.

 

p127c3-b10/ p084

द्रोण [ drna ]
-- m. n. trough, tub; a measure of capacity (= 4 dhakas); m. kind of cloud abounding in water (like a trough); N. of the preceptor of the Kurus and Pndavas in the art of war; N. of a Brhman.
 द्रोण   drna trough, tub; a measure of capacity (=4 dhakas); m. kind of cloud abounding in water (like a trough); N. of the preceptor of the Kurus and Pndavas in the art of war; N. of a Brhman.

UKT note: The name of the Brahmin, who was entrusted to distribute the Buddha's relics was Dona [a Pali name?]. He was also a preceptor to many of the rulers of the kingdoms who came to claim for their portions. Note the similarity in names.
   See for similar articles in http://www.ancient-buddhist-texts.net/Maps/Map-9-Relics.htm
-- UKT 120620

 

p127c3-b11/ p084

द्रोणकलश [ drona-kalas ]
-- m. wooden Soma vat; -vrish ti, f. rain as from a trough; -‿sa, m. trough-mouth, kind of demon of disease.
 द्रोणकलश   drona-kalas wooden Somavat; -vrishti, f. rain as from a trough; -̮sa, m. trough-mouth, kind of demon of disease.

 

p127c3-b12/ p084

द्रोणिका [ dron-ik ]
-- f. trough; -, f. id., bath; valley.
 द्रोणिका   dron-ik trough; -, f. id., bath; valley. 

 

p127c3-b13/ p084

द्रोह [ droh-a ]
-- m. injury, treachery, perfidy: -para, a. full of enmity, malignant; -bhva, m. malice; -vritti, a. acting maliciously, malevolent.
 द्रोह   droh-a injury, treachery, perfidy: -para, a. full of enmity, malignant; -bhva, m. malice; -vritti, a. acting maliciously, malevolent.

 

p127c3-b14/ p084

द्रोहिन् [ droh-in ]
-- a. injuring; malicious, perfidious (with g. or -- ).
 द्रोहिन्   droh-in injuring; malicious, perfidious (with g. or --).

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{drau}

p127c3-b15/ p084

द्रौपदी [ draupad ]
-- f. pat. of Krishn, [UKT: polyandrous] wife of the five Pndus; e-ya, m. pl. the sons of Draupad.
 द्रौपदी   draupad Krishn, wife of the five Pndus; e-ya, m. pl. the sons of Draupad. 

UKT: Polygamy was allowed in Ancient India. Draupadi had one son each by each of the five brothers. Even at present it is still practiced in certain areas. See Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Polyandry_in_India 120620
-- UKT120620

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{dwa.}

On nasalization we get {dwn}.

p127c3-b16/ p084

द्व [ dv ] {dwa.}
= द ् व
-- du. two; api, both; dvayoh, in both genders=m. f., or in both numbers=sg. and pl. (lex.).
 द्व   dv two; api, both; dvayoh, in both genders=m. f., or in both numbers=sg. and pl. (lex.).

 

p127c3-b17/ p084

द्वंद्व [ dva-m-dv ]
-- n. pair, couple, man and wife, male and female; pair of opposites (heat and cold, etc.); quarrel; contest; duel; doubt; copulative or aggregative compound (in which the members are connected in sense with and): -m, in. by twos, in pairs.
 द्वंद्व   dva-m-dv pair, couple, man and wife, male and female; pair of opposites (heat and cold, etc.); quarrel; contest; duel; doubt; copulative or aggregative compound (in which the members are connected in sense with and): -m, in. by twos, in pairs.

 

p127c3-b18/ p084

द्वंद्वचर [ dvamdva-kara ]
-- a. living in pairs; m. ruddy goose (v. kakravka); -bhva, m. discord; -sas, ad. in pairs; -samprahra, m. duel with (saha).
 द्वंद्वचर   dvamdva-kara living in pairs; m. ruddy goose (v. kakravka); -bhva, m. discord; -sas, ad. in pairs; -samprahra, m. duel with (saha).

 

p127c3-b19/ p084

द्वंद्विन् [ dvamdv-n ]
-- a. forming a pair; contradictory.
 द्वंद्विन्   dvamdv-n forming a pair; contradictory.

 

p127c3-b20/ not online

[dvamdv-bh]
-- pair; join battle; be irresolute regarding (lc.)

 

p127c3-b21/ p084

द्वय [ dvay- ]
-- a. (&isharp;) twofold, of two sorts, double; , f. pair; two things; n. id. (--  a. f. ); duplicity; masculine and feminine gender (gr.).
  द्वय   dvay- () twofold, of two sorts, double; , f. pair; two things; n. id. (-- a. f. ); duplicity; masculine and feminine gender (gr.).
( end p127c3 )

 

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UKT notes

Dravida Kingdom

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dravida_Kingdom 120619

During the time of Mahabharata Dravida was mentioned as one of the kingdoms in southern India. Its territories include the southern part of modern day Andhra Pradesh and the northern part of Tamil Nadu. Sometimes the name Dravida is used to denote all the southern kingdoms (like Chola, Pandya and Kerala) collectively and sometimes as a separate kingdom.

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The Dravidian peoples

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dravidian_peoples 120619

Dravidian people or peoples or is a term used to refer to the diverse groups of people who natively speak languages belonging to the Dravidian language family. Populations of speakers of around 220 million are found mostly in Southern India. Other Dravidian people are found in parts of central India, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Nepal and Pakistan. The most populous Dravidian people are the Telugus, Tamils, Kannadigas and the Malayalis. Smaller Dravidian communities with 15 million speakers are the Tuluvas, Gonds and Brahui.

UKT 120619: I am curious about the difference between Hindi and Tamil. The following is an answer posted on http://au.answers.yahoo.com/question/index?qid=20071009233445AAN8GfW 120619
   "Tamil and Hindi languages are from India. The only common factor is India, rest everything is different. Hindi is mostly spoken in north India and Tamil is south India. ..."

UKT 120619: The following are the graphemes (representing the phonemes) of the bilabial consonants:
   Hindi-Devanagari: प pa फ pha ब ba भ bha म ma
   Tamil script:           ப pa  --             --           --             ம ma
You will notice that there are only 2 graphemes in Tamil for 5 of Hindi. The two languages are mutually non-understandable. My question is: how in the days of Mahabharata were the fighters who spoke different mutually unintelligible languages understanding and fighting on two opposing sides? Were the ordinary fighters just led into battle by their leaders to kill each other without knowing what they were fighting and dying for? And on both sides the leaders were claiming that they stood for Dharma aka justice. Of course, there would be the unsupportable argument that everyone spoke a common language such as Vedic. I am sure no one would claim that the common language was Sanskrit. I wait for input from my peers.
You should continue reading: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dravidian_languages 120619

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Panchala

UKT: At this time my interest is only in the Vedic period well before Gautama Buddha was born. According to Glass Palace Chronicle, King Abiraza after being defeated in northern India had to flee to safety in northern Myanmar and had founded the kingdom of Tagaung. From whom was he fleeing from? It could be the king of Pacāla.
Excerpt from Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Panchala 120620

Panchala (Skt-Dev: पञ्चाल, Pacāla) is an ancient region of northern India, which corresponds to the geographical area around the Ganges River and Yamuna River, the upper Gangetic plain in particular. This would encompass the modern-day states of Uttarakhand and Uttar Pradesh. During the ancient times, it was home to a confederacy, the Panchalas and in c. 6th century BCE, it was considered as one of the solasa (sixteen) mahajanapadas.

Panchala during the Vedic period

Panchala was the second "urban" center of Vedic civilization, as its focus moved east from the Punjab, after the focus of power had been with the Kurus in the early Iron Age. This period is associated with the Painted Grey Ware culture, arising beginning around 1100 BCE, and declining from 600 BCE, with the end of the Vedic period. The Shaunaka and Taittiriya Vedic schools were located in the area of Panchala.

The ruling confederacy, the Panchalas, as their name suggests, probably consisted of five clans - the Krivis, the Turvashas, The Keshins, the Srinjayas and the Somakas. Each of these clans is known to be associated with one or more princes mentioned in the Vedic texts - the Krivis with Kravya Panchala, the Turvashas with Sona Satrasaha, the Keshins with Keshin Dalavya, the Srinjayas with Sahadeva Sarnjaya and the Somakas with Somaka Sahadevya. The names of the last two clans, the Somakas and the Srinjayas are also mentioned in the Mahabharata and the Puranas. King Drupada, whose daughter Draupadi was married to the Pandavas belonged to the Somaka clan.[1] However, the Mahabharata and the Puranas consider the ruling clan of the northern Panchala as an offshoot of the Bharata clan and Divodasa, Sudas, Srinjaya, Somaka and Drupada (also called Yajnasena) were the most notable rulers of this clan.[2]

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