Update: 2018-12-03 06:48 PM -0500

TIL

A Practical Sanskrit Dictionary

p124.htm

by A. A. Macdonell, 1893, http://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/scans/MDScan/index.php?sfx=jpg ;
1929, http://dsal.uchicago.edu/dictionaries/macdonell/ 110416 , 110611 

downloaded and edited by U Kyaw Tun (UKT) (M.S., I.P.S.T., USA) and staff of Tun Institute of Learning (TIL) . Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone. Prepared for students and staff of TIL  Computing and Language Center, Yangon, MYANMAR :  http://www.tuninst.net , http://www.softguide.net.mm

MC-indx | Top
 MC-v05-indx.htm

Contents of this page

{dRRi.} दृ  : highly rhotic
  p124-c1
{dRi.ga.}
{dRi.a.}
{dRi.ta.}
{dRi.pa.}
{dRi.sha.}
  p124-c2
{dRi.shi.}
{dRi.sa.} : sibilant 
  p124-c3
{dRRi} दॄ 
{d}
{d-ya.}
{d-wa.}

UKT notes :
Deva {d-wa.} for comparison to Nat {nt} : How much did the Ancient Romans know?
Harappan culture
Savitri - a name of Gāyatrī Mantra

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(p124c1-top )

 

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{dRi.}

p124-c1

p124c1-b01/ p083

दृक्छत्‍त्र drkchattra [ drik-khattra ]
-- n. eye-lid; -patha, m. range of the eye: -m i, become visible; -pta, m. glance.
 दृक्छत्‍त्र   drik-khattra eye-lid; -patha, m. range of the eye: -m i, become visible; -pta, m. glance.
 

p124c1-b02/ p083

दृक्ष drksa [ drik-sha (--) ]
-- a. -looking, -like.
 दृक्ष   drik-sha (--) -looking, -like.

 

p124c1-b03/ p083

दृक्संगम drksangama [ drik-samgama ]
-- n. sg. sight of and meeting with (g.).
 दृक्संगम   drik-samgama sight of and meeting with (g.). 

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{dRi.ga.}

p124c1-b04/ p083

दृगन्त drganta [ drig-anta ] m. outer corner of the eye; -gokara, m. range of vision, horizon; -bhak ti, f. amatory glance; -rudh, a. obstructing the gaze.
दृगन्त
   drig-anta outer corner of the eye; -gokara, m. range of vision, horizon; -bhakti, f. amatory glance; -rudh, a. obstructing the gaze.

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{dRi.a.}

p124c1-b05/ p083

दृढ drdha [ dridha ]
-- pp. √drimh; n. firm or immovable object; fastness; -krin, a. persevering.
 दृढ   dridha √drimh; n. firm or immovable object; fastness; -krin, a. persevering.

 

p124c1-b06/not online

[dridhatari-kri]
-- confirm

 

p124c1-b07/ p083

दृढता drdhata [ dridha-t ]
-- f. firmness (-vapushi, robust health); firm adherence to (lc.); perseverance; -tva, n. id.: -m gam, prove firm.
दृढता   dridha-t firmness (-- vapushi, robust health); firm adherence to (lc.); perseverance; -tva, n. id.: -m gam, prove firm. 

 

p124c1-b08/ p083

दृढदस्यु drdhadasyu [ dridha-dasyu ]
-- m. N. of an ancient sage; -dhanvan, a. having a stiff bow; -dhriti, a. strong-willed; -prahri-t, f. hardness of hitting; -bhakti, a. firm in devotion to (lc.); -mati, a. firmly resolved; -mushti, m. tight fist; a. close-fisted.
 दृढदस्यु   dridha-dasyu -dhanvan, a. having a stiff bow; -dhriti, a. strong-willed; -prahri-t, f. hardness of hitting; -bhakti, a. firm in devotion to (lc.); -mati, a. firmly resolved; -mushti, m. tight fist; a. close-fisted.

UKT Search: Drdhadasyu - an ancient sage
   dṛḍha-dasyu [ dRDhadasyu ] -- m. N. of an old sage,
also named Idhmavāha ( son of Dṛḍha-cyuta, above ) cf. Kād. cf. BhP. ( cf. dṛhasyu )
-- http://sanskrita.org/wiki/index.php/dRDha?setlang=es 120412

 

p124c1-b09/ p083

दृढय drdhaya [ dridha-ya ]
-- den. P. establish; confirm.
 दृढय   dridha-ya P. establish; confirm.

 

p124c1-b10/ p083

दृढवपुस् drdhavapus [ dridha-vapus ]
-- a. of robust health; -vrata, a. constant to one's vow; of unswerving purpose; firmly insisting on (lc.), faithfully devoted to (--).
 दृढवपुस्   dridha-vapus of robust health; -vrata, a. constant to one's vow; of unswerving purpose; firmly insisting on (lc.), faithfully devoted to (--).

 

p124c1-b11/ p083

दृढायुध drdhayudha [ dridha‿yudha ]
-- a. having a hard missile.
 दृढायुध   dridha̮yudha having a hard missile.

 

p124c1-b12/ p083

दृढीकरण drdhikarana [ dridh-karana ]
-- n. confirmation; -kra, m. id.
 दृढीकरण   dridh-karana confirmation; -kra, m. id.

 

p124c1-b13/ not online

[dridhi-kri]
-- fortify; bind firmly; confirm; -bh , become firm

 

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{dRi.ta.}

p124c1-b14/ p083

दृति drti [ dr-ti ]
-- m. (f.) water-carrier's skin; bellows; hose.
 दृति   dr-ti skin; bellows; hose.

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{dRi.pa.}

p124c1-b15/ not online

[DRIP] IV. P.
-- dripya , become mad ; be crazy, extravagant, or arrogant : pp. dripta ,  extravagant, wild, arrogant ; -tara , ...  

 

 

p124c1-b16/ not online

[DRIBH] VI. P.
-- dribh , make into tufts, string together. sam , pp. ...

 

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{dRi.sha.}

p124c1-b17 & p124c2-top/ not online

[DRIS]
-- pr. base pasya , I. see, behold, observe; visit, wait upon; look at; look on (int.); recognize (by, in.); ...

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p124-c2

p124c2-b01/ p083

दृश्drs  [ drs (nm. drik) ]
-- a. seeing, beholding; f. N. id. (d. dris, for beholding); eye; view, theory; -- a. look, appearance.
 दृश्   drs (nm. drik) seeing, beholding; f. N. id. (d. dris, for beholding); eye; view, theory; -- a. look, appearance.

 

p124c2-b02/ p083

दृश drsa [ dris-a ]
-- m. (, f.) sight, look, appearance (--).
दृश   dris-a (, f.) sight, look, appearance (--).

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{dRi.shi.}

p124c2-b03/ p083

दृशि drsi [ dris-i ]
-- f. seeing, beholding; faculty of seeing, intuition, vision: d. drisye=inf. for beholding.
 दृशि   dris-i seeing, beholding; faculty of seeing, intuition, vision: d. drisye=inf. for beholding.

 

p124c2-b04/ p083

दृशिमत् drsimat [ drisi-mat ]
-- a. seeing.
 दृशिमत्   drisi-mat seeing.

 

p124c2-b05/ p083

दृशीका drsika [ dris-k ]
-- f. appearance.
 दृशीका   dris-kaN appearance.

 

p124c2-b06/ p083

दृश्य drsya [ dris-ya ]
-- fp. visible, to (in., g., --); to be looked at; worthy to be seen, splendid: -t, f., -tva, n. visibility.
 दृश्य   dris-ya visible, to (in., g., --); to be looked at; worthy to be seen, splendid: -t, f., -tva, n. visibility.

 

p124c2-b07/ p083

दृश्वन् drsvan [ dris-van ]
-- a. having seen, conversant with (--).
 दृश्वन्   dris-van having seen, conversant with (--). 

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{dRi.Sa.} : sibilant

p124c2-b08/ p083

दृषत्कण drsatkana [ drishat-kana ] m. pebble.
 दृषत्कण   drishat-kana pebble.

 

p124c2-b09/ p083

दृषद् drsad [ drishd ]
-- f. rock, large stone; (nether) millstone.
 दृषद्   drishd rock, large stone; (nether) millstone.

 

p124c2-b10/ p083

दृषदश्मन् drsadasman [ drishad-asman ]
m. upper (smaller) millstone; -upala, n. sg. & du., , f. du. the two millstones, -a‿ulkhala, n. millstone and mortar.
 दृषदश्मन्   drishad-asman upper (smaller) millstone; -upala, n. sg. & du., aN, f. du. the two millstones, -a̮ulkhala, n. millstone and mortar.

 

p124c2-b11/ p083

दृषद्वती drsadvati [ drishad-vat- ]
-- f. (Rocky), N. of a river.
 दृषद्वती   drishad-vat- (Rocky), N. of a river.

 

p124c2-b12/ p083

दृषन्नौ drsannau [ drishan-nau ]
-- f. boat of stone.
 दृषन्नौ   drishan-nau boat of stone.

 

p124c2-b13/ p083

दृष्ट drsta [ drish-ta ]
-- pp. √dris; n. perception: -kar man, a. whose deeds have been seen, tried practically; -tva, n. having been seen, occurrence; -dosha, a. whose sins have been exposed; formerly convicted; recognised as sinful (action); -nashta, pp. having appeared and disappeared immediately after: -t, f. abst. n.; -prva, a. seen before; -pratya ya, a. convinced by ocular evidence (lit. having seen-conviction); -sruta, pp. seen and (or) heard; -sra, a. of tried strength.
 दृष्ट   drish-ta √dris; n. perception: -karman, a. whose deeds have been seen, tried practically; -tva, n. having been seen, occurrence; -dosha, a. whose sins have been exposed; formerly convicted; recognised as sinful (action); -nashta, pp. having appeared and disappeared immediately after: -t, f. abst. n.; -prva, a. seen before; -pratyaya, a. convinced by ocular evidence (lit. having seen-conviction); -sruta, pp. seen and (or) heard; -sra, a. of tried strength.

 

p124c2-b14/ p083

दृष्टादृष्ट drstadrsta [ drishta‿adrishta ]
-- pp. visible and invisible; relating to this life and the next; -‿anta, m. (non plus ultra of experience), model, pattern; precedent; illustration; example; a. serving as a pattern; -‿artha, a. whose object or aim is clear; serving as a model; having ascertained the true state of (g.).
 दृष्टादृष्ट   drishta̮adrishta visible and invisible; relating to this life and the next; -̮anta, m. (non plus ultra of experience), model, pattern; precedent; illustration; example; a. serving as a pattern; -̮artha, a. whose object or aim is clear; serving as a model; having ascertained the true state of (g.).

UKT note: "non plus ultra" is a Latin phrase meaning "nothing further beyond" or the 'ultimate' -- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Latin_phrases_N 120412 

 

p124c2-b15/ p083

दृष्टि drsti [ drsh-ti ]
-- f. seeing, looking at (g.), be holding; vision, eyesight; intelligence; eye; pupil of the eye; glance, look; regard; opinion: -m d, direct the gaze towards (lc.).
 दृष्टि   drsh-ti seeing, looking at (g.), beholding; vision, eyesight; intelligence; eye; pupil of the eye; glance, look; regard; opinion: -m d, direct the gaze towards (lc.).

 

p124c2-b16/ p083

दृष्टिक्षेप drstiksepa [ drishti-kshepa ] m. rolling the eyes, looking about; -gokara, m. range of vision; -dna, n. bestowal of a look, showing oneself; -nipta, m. cast of a look, glance; -patha, m. range of vision; -pta, m. cast of a
 दृष्टिक्षेप   drishti-kshepa rolling the eyes, looking about; -gokara, m. range of vision; -dna, n. bestowal of a look, showing oneself; -nipta, m. cast of a look, glance; -patha, m. range of vision; -pta, m. cast of a look, glance: na tasya drishtipte=do not show yourself to him; -pradna, n.=-dna; -prasda, m. favour of a glance: -m kri, deign to look at one; -mandala, n. pupil of the eye; -mat, a. having eyes; intelligent, wise; -mrga, m. range of vision, horizon; -vikshepa, m. moving the eyes about, looking around.
( end of p124c2 ) (p124c3-top )
look, glance: na tasya drishtipte=do not show yourself to him; -pradna, n.=-dna; -prasda, m. favour of a glance: -m kri, deign to look at one; -mandala, n. pupil of the eye; -mat, a. having eyes; intelligent, wise; -mrga, m. range of vision, horizon; -vikshepa, m. moving the eyes about, looking around.

 

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p124-c3

p124c3-b01/ p083

दृष्टोत्साह drstotsaha [ drishta‿utsha ]
-- a. whose steady advance is seen.
 दृष्टोत्साह   drishta̮utsha whose steady advance is seen.

 

p124c3-b02/ p083

दृष्ट्यगोचर drstyagocara [ drishti‿agokara ]
-- a. being beyond the range of vision.
 दृष्ट्यगोचर   drishti̮agokara being beyond the range of vision.

 

p124c3-b03/ p083

दृह् drh [ DRIH ]
-- v. �ߢ�� RIMH.
 दृह्   DRIH DRIMH.

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p124c3-b04/ not online

UKT note: The following is formed from the long vowel of the pair, दृ & दॄ  .

{dRi}

दॄ [DRI] P, (.) IX.
-- drin , burst, rend, tear ; ...

 

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{d}

UKT: The similarity between Bur-Myan and Skt-Dev is the differentiation of {d} & {d:}. However, the online Skt-Dev speakers seem to be pronouncing these two sounds the same or almost the same.
   It must be emphasized that Pal-Myan has only {d} and no {d:}. This has prompted me to suggest that Bur-Myan might be older than the Pali of SriLanka. In fact I am beginning to suspect that Bur-Myan might be directly linked to the ancient Vedic before the incursion of the Dravidian speakers from the south or the Indo-Iranian (or Indo-European) speakers from the north-west.
   If so we can speculate [pure speculation] that the ancient Pyus {pyu} or some other ancient peoples of Myanmar might be related to Naga-worshippers who were present in the upper reaches of the ancient Saraswati river -- the Harappan culture : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cemetery_H_culture 120414.
   It has been suggested that the mythical Nagas were humans worshipping the {na.ga:}.
-- UKT 120414

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p124c3-b05 / p083

{d-ya.}

देय deya [ d-ya ]
-- fp. to be given; -bestowed in marriage; -granted; -delivered; -restored, -paid: -h panthh, way must be made for (g.); atithitvena sakty deyam, n. impl. one should give according to one's ability in regard to hospitality; n. gift; impost; wages.
 देय   d-ya to be given; -- bestowed in marriage; -- granted; -- delivered; -- restored, -- paid: -h panthh, way must be made for (g.); atithitvena sakty deyam, n. impl. one should give according to one's ability in regard to hospitality; n. gift; impost; wages. 

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p124c3-b06/ p083 

{d-wa.}

देव deva [ dev- ]
-- a. () heavenly, divine (also fig.); celestial, deity, god, divinity (sts. of malevolent beings); (god among men=) priest, Brhman; king, prince; --, chief among; voc. Sire, please your Majesty; , f. goddess; Svitr; Durg; queen, princess.
 देव   dev- () heavenly, divine (also fig.); celestial, deity, god, divinity (sts. of malevolent beings); (god among men=) priest, Brhman; king, prince; --, chief among; voc. Sire, please your Majesty; , f. goddess; Svitr; Durg; queen, princess.

Who are the देव deva? The English translation is "god", however the Bur-Myan translation is {nt} a term applied to personages you worship out of fear such as the king, or for protection. It is stated that in days before the 11th century the northern people of Myanmarpr at Pagan were worshipping {na.ga:}. See on my notes on Deva and Savitri (Savitr - mentioned 11 times as counted by Ralph T.H. Griffith (1888)) [pdf pages, 2.59MB, by Griffith has been downloaded and is in ~~Lib-Skt.

They also worshiped {nt}, the chief being the Lord of the Great Mountain (referring to Mount Popa) who was a physically powerful blacksmith who was unjustly put to death by the king. Now let's look at the oldest literature of Veda, the RigVedic. Who were the देव deva (and the female counterparts) worshipped? See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rigvedic_deities 120826. The following are some of them:
See my notes on: Indra (mentioned 289 times), Agni (mentioned 218 times), Durga (not mentioned),  (Savitr - mentioned 11 times). (Counted by Ralph T.H. Griffith (1888)).

 

p124c3-b07/ not online

[deva-rishi]
-- rishi among the gods, divine saint

 

p124c3-b08/ not online

[dva-ka]
-- -- a.= deva ; i. f. N. of Krishna's mother

 

p124c3-b09/ p083

देवकन्यका devakanyaka [ deva-kanyak ]
-- f. celestial maiden; -kany, f. id.; -karma-krit, a. perform ing a divine rite; -karman, n. divine rite; -kalasa, m. N.; -krya, n. divine rite; concern or errand of the gods.
 देवकन्यका   deva-kanyak celestial maiden; -kany, f. id.; -karma-krit, a. performing a divine rite; -karman, n. divine rite; -kalasa, m. N.; -krya, n. divine rite; concern or errand of the gods.

 

p124c3-b10/ p083 

देवकीनन्दन devakinandana [ devak-nandana ]
-- m. met. of Krishna; -snu, m. id.
 देवकीनन्दन   devak-nandana Krishna; -snu, m. id.

 

p124c3-b11/ p083

देवकुल devakula [ deva-kula ]
-- n. temple; ()-krita, pp. made by the gods; -kritya, n.=deva-krya; -kshetra, n. divine territory; -khta, pp. dug by the gods=hollowed out by nature; -gan, m. host of gods; -ganik, f. courtesan of the gods, Apsaras; -giri, m. mountain of the gods, N. of a mountain-range; -gupta, pp. protected by the gods; m. N.; -gurn, m. preceptor of the gods; ep. of Kasyapa and of Brihaspati; -grih, m. n. house of the gods, temple; royal palace.
देवकुल   deva-kula temple; ()-krita, pp. made by the gods; -kritya, n.=deva-krya; -kshetra, n. divine territory; -khta, pp. dug by the gods=hollowed out by nature; -gan, m. host of gods; -ganik, f. courtesan of the gods, Apsaras; -giri, m. mountain of the gods, N. of a mountain-range; -gupta, pp. protected by the gods; m. N.; -gurn, m. preceptor of the gods; ep. of Kasyapa and of Brihaspati; -grih, m. n. house of the gods, temple; royal palace.

 

p124c3-b12/ p083

देवच्छन्द devatagara [ deva-kkhanda ] m. pearl necklace of 81 strings; -ga, a. god-begotten; -gan, m. (gnly. pl.) divine host; host of demons or (esp.) serpents; -g, a. god-begotten, -born; -gt, n. race or class of gods.
 देवच्छन्द   deva-kkhanda pearl necklace of 81 strings; -ga, a. god-begotten; -gan, m. (gnly. pl.) divine host; host of demons or (esp.) serpents; -gaN, a. god-begotten, -- born; -gt, n. race or class of gods.

 

p124c3-b13/ not online

[dev-t]
-- f. divinity, divine power; deity; sacred image. . in. ad. in the capacity of a god or gods; among or to the gods.

 

p124c3-b14/ p083

देवतागार devatat [ devat‿brev;gra ]
-- n. temple, chapel; -griha, n. id.
 देवतागार   devat̮ă̂gra temple, chapel; -griha, n. id.

 

p124c3-b15/ p083

देवतात् devatat [ dev-tt ]
-- f. divine worship; -host.
देवतात्   dev-tt divine worship; -- host.

 

p124c3-b16/ p083

देवतामय devatamaya [ devat-maya ]
-- a. () containing all the gods; -‿yatana, n. temple; -‿arkana, n. worship of the gods.
 देवतामय   devat-maya () containing all the gods; -̮yatana, n. temple; -̮arkana, n. worship of the gods. 
( end p124c3 )

 

 
   दुष्कृति   -n sinning; m. miscreant, sinner.
  
   दुर्दम   dur-dama hard to control; -damya, fp. id.; -darsa, a. hard to be seen by (in., g.); unsightly, loathsome; -darsana, a. id.; -das, f. hard lot, misfortune; -dnta, pp. ill-tamed, untamed, unbridled; m. Hard-totame, N. of a lion; -dina, n. dull or rainy day; clouded sky; rainy weather; rain, shower; a. cloudy, dull; -divasa, m. dull or rainy day.
 
   दुष्कृतकर्मन्   dushkrita-karman evildoer; -krin, a. doing evil deeds; -̮tman, a. evil-minded, wicked.
   दुष्कर्मन्   dush-karman misdeed; m. illdoer; -kyastha-kula, n. wretched caste of scribes; -kula, n. base family; a. sprung from a base family; -krt, a. doing ill-deeds; m. evil-doer; (dsh)-krita, pp. ill-done, wrong, wicked; n. () misdeed, sin, guilt.
   दुष्कर   dush-kara hard to do, accomplish, or perform; -- endure; difficult; unusual, extraordinary; hard to (inf.); -m yadi, (with ind. or pot.) hardly, scarcely; -m (kriyate) yad, it is no light thing if --: -karman, a. doing what is hard, very clever; -karma-krin, a. id.; -sdhana, n. means of overcoming difficulties.
   दुष्˚   dush- (=dus-) bad, ill, hard, un-, dis-.
  
   दुश्््चर   dus-kara hard to traverse; inaccessible; hard to pass (time); difficult to practise: -tva, n. difficulty of practising; -karita, pp. behaving ill, doing ill deeds; n. (ds-), ill-conduct, misdeed, folly; -krman, a. having a skin disease; -kritra, a. illconducted; -krin, a. id.; -kikits, f. wrong medical treatment; -kikitsita, pp. hard to cure; -kikitsya, fp. id.: -tva, n. difficulty of curing; -kitta, a. dejected, sad; -ketas, a. ill-disposed; -kesht, f. bad conduct, perverseness; -keshtita, pp. n. id.: pl. ill-doings; -kyavan, a. hard to overthrow, immovable; -kyva, a. id.; -khid, a. hard to destroy.
  
   दुःसंलक्ष्य   duh-samlakshya hard to perceive; -samskra, m. pl. bad habits; -saṅga, m. bad inclination; -samkra, a. hard to traverse, impervious; -samkintya, fp. hard to conceive.
   दुस्थ   -sthita duh-.
   दुस्तर   dus-tara hard to cross, get over, or overcome, invincible; -tarana, a. () id.; -tarkya, fp. hard to guess; -tyaga, a. hard to abandon or renounce: -t, f. abst. n.
   दुस्˚   dus- (=dush-) bad; wrong; hard.
   दुःषम   duh-shma bad year; -shtuta, n. wrong treatment of the stotra; -shvpnya, n. bad dream, uneasy sleep.
   दुष्मन्त   dushmanta Dushyanta.
   दुष्परिग्रह   dush-parigraha hard to retain; -parihntu, a. hard to remove; -parihara, a. hard to avoid; -pra, a. hard to cross; -- perform; -prshni-graha, a. having a bad enemy in the rear, -grha, a. id.; -pra, a. hard to fill; -- satisfy; -prakriti, f. low nature; a. base; -prakriy, f. trifling dignity; -praga, a. stupid: -tva, n. stupidity; -pranta, pp. led astray; n. indiscretion; -pradharsha, a. hard to assail; -prabhagana, m. hurricane; -prayukta, pp. badly or wrongly employed; -pravda, m. slander; -pravritti, f. bad news; -pravesa, a. hard to enter; -prasaha, a. hard to endure, irresistible; -prasda, a. hard to appease: -na, a. id.; -prasdhana, a. hard to manage (person); -prasdhya, fp. id.; -prpa, a. hard to attain; -preksha, a., -preksha- nya, fp. hard to see; unpleasant to look at; -prekshya, fp. id.
   दुष्टि   dush-ti corruptness.
   दुष्टात्मन्   dushta̮tman ill-disposed, malevolent; -̮antartman, a. id.
   दुष्ट   dush-ta √dush; m. bad man, rogue; n. transgression, guilt: -karitra, a. doing evil; m. evil-doer; -krin, a., m. id.; -ketas, a. malevolent; -t, f. wickedness; defilement; -tva, n. wickedness; wrongness; -dur- gana, m. depraved rogue; -budhi, a. ill-affected toward; -bhva, a. ill-disposed; -vk, a. defaming, libellous; -hridaya, a. wickedhearted.
   दूरक्ष्य   d-rakshya hard to guard.
   दूरआधी   dr-dh with thoughts far away.
   दूर   d-r distant, remote; long; far (from, ab., g.); n. distance (of time and space): -- and -m, far away; high up; deep; highly, very, altogether; -m kri, distance, surpass (ac.); -m tyag (and similar verbs)=avoid carefully; in. (e-na), far away; from afar; by far; ab. from afar; far from (ab.); remotely =thoroughly (examine); lc. in the distance, far, far away.
   दून   d-na √du.
   दूत्य   dty office of an envoy, message.
   दूती   dt female messenger; go-between, procuress.
   दूतिका   dt-ik female messenger; gobetween: -- vk, speech betraying (--).
   दूत   d-t messenger, envoy: -ka, m. id.; -karman, n. condition or function of a messenger or envoy; -tva, n. office of a messenger or envoy; -mukha, a. having messengers as his mouthpiece.
   दूढी   ddh [dur-dh] ill-disposed.
   दुह्   duh-a milking, yielding (--).
   दुःस्थ   duh-stha faring ill, badly off, wretched, sad; -sthita, pp. id.; -sthiti, f. bad plight; -sparsa, a. hard or unpleasant to touch; -sprisa, a. id.; -smara, a. unpleasant to remember; -svapna, m. bad dream: -darsana, n. bad vision in sleep.
   दुःसंधान   duh-samdhna hard to put together, unite, or reconcile; -sampda, a. hard to reach; -- manage; -saha, a. hard to bear, unendurable; irresistible: -tara, cpv. more dangerous still (poison); -sdhya, fp. hard to accomplish; -- get the better of; -- restore.
   दूष   dsh-a defiling (--); -aka, a. (ik) destroying; disfiguring; sullying; falsifying; seducing, violating; corrupting, defiling; transgressing; -ik, f. rheum of the eyes.
   दूर्वा   duNrv millet-grass (panicum dactylon).
   दूरोह   -n hard to ascend.
   दूरोदारचरित्र   dra̮udra-karitra being a stranger to noble conduct.
   दूरेचर   dre-kara distant; ()-bh, a. shining afar; ()-heti, a. whose missile reaches far.
   दूरेअन्त   dr-anta ending afar off.
   दूरागत   dra̮gata come from a distance; -̮apeta, pp. far removed=not to be thought of, out of the question: -tva, n. abst. n.; -̮loka, m. distant view: e sthita, pp. to be seen only from afar.
   दूरपार   dra-pra whose other bank is distant; -prasrin, a. far-reaching; -bandhu, a. far from one's kin; -bhva, m. distance; -vartin, a. being far away, distant; going far beyond; -samstha, a. being at a distance; far-removed; -srya, a. having the sun a long way off, remote from the sun; -stha, a. standing at a distance or aloof; being far off: -tva, n. distance; -sthita, pp. being far off, distant.
   दूरदर्शन   dra-darsana to be seen only at a distance by (g.); -darsin, a. far-seeing; -patha, m. long way: -m gata, being a long way off; -pta, m. distant flight; fall from a great height; -ptin, a. flying far; far-shooting.
   दूरद   d-rada difficult to scratch, hard.
   दूरत्व   dra-tva distance, remoteness.
   दूरतस्   dra-ts from afar; far off or away, not at hand: -- tyag (and verbs of cognate meaning), keep at a distance; cast altogether aside; -to bh, keep aloof.
 
  
   दूष्य   2. dsh-ya tent; cotton.
   दूष्य   1. dsh-ya liable to be spoiled, ruined, or polluted; m. reprehensible person.
   दूषी   -k rheum of the eye.
   दूषिन्   dsh-in polluting, deflowering (--).
   दूषि   dsh-i destroying (--).
   दूषय   dsh-ya P. (E. also .) spoil, destroy; falsify; defile, deflower, dishonour; pronounce to be wrong, blame; accuse; intimidate: pp. dshita, calumniated; exposed; blemished by (--). ud, calumniate. pra, spoil; defile; calumniate, abuse. prati-pra, pp. defiled. sam, spoil, defile; expose to shame, disgrace.
   दूषण   dsh-ana () destructive, injurious; defiling, dishonouring (g. or --); m. N. of a Rkshasa; n. destroying, undoing, ruining; defiling, seducing; adulterating; slandering, detracting; refutation; blemish, fault; guilt, sin: -vdin, m. opponent (in an argument).
 
  
   दूरग   dra-ga extending far; distant; -gata, pp. gone far away; -gamana, n. going far away; -gmin, a. id.
  
   दूरतर   dra-tara at a great distance; lc. at some distance from (ab.).
   दूर्वावत्   drv-vat joined with drv grass.
  

 

 

 

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UKT notes

Deva

-- UKT120826, 120917

How are Deva and Nat related to the Celtic gods? I am interested in this relationship because there seem to be some parallels between the Bur-Myan Nat-worship & casting of {in:}, and that of the Celts and their "magic" embedded in Wicca religion. Of course, there are parallels between the Deva and the Nat. My study will be confined to the Iron Age of the three cultures, and is still fragmentary at this stage. It will be a long time before I can come to conclusion.
   Since the Ancient Romans worshipping the old Roman gods and/or Judeo-Christian god were responsible for the destruction and reconstruction of the previous cultures in Europe and else-where, it might be helpful to know the state of their world's knowledge. An ancient source is

The Natural History (Latin: Naturalis Histori) is an encyclopedia published circa AD 7779 by Pliny the Elder. It is one of the largest single works to have survived from the Roman Empire to the modern day and purports to cover the entire field of ancient knowledge, based on the best authorities available to Pliny. He claims to be the only Roman ever to have undertaken such a work and prays for the blessing of the universal mother:[1]

Hail to thee, Nature, thou parent of all things! and do thou deign to show thy favour unto me, who, alone of all the citizens of Rome, have, in thy every department, thus made known thy praise.

The work became a model for all later encyclopedias in terms of the breadth of subject matter examined, the need to reference original authors, and a comprehensive index list of the contents. The work is dedicated to the emperor Titus, son of Pliny's close friend, the emperor Vespasian, in the first year of Titus's reign. It is the only work by Pliny to have survived and the last that he published, lacking a final revision at his sudden and unexpected death in the AD 79 eruption of Vesuvius.

 

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rigvedic_deities 120826

There are 1028 hymns in the Rigveda, most of them dedicated to specific deities.

Indra, a heroic god, slayer of Vrtra and destroyer of the Vala, liberator of the cows and the rivers; Agni the sacrificial fire and messenger of the gods; and Soma the ritual drink dedicated to Indra are the most prominent deities.

Invoked in groups are the Vishvedevas (the "all-gods"), the Maruts, violent storm gods in Indra's train and the Ashvins, the twin horsemen.

There are two major groups of gods, the Devas and the Asuras. Unlike in later Vedic texts and in Hinduism, the Asuras are not yet demonized, Mitra and Varuna being their most prominent members. Aditi is the mother both of Agni and of the Adityas or Asuras, led by Mitra and Varuna, with Aryaman, Bhaga, Ansa and Daksha.

Surya is the personification of the Sun, but Savitr, Vivasvant, the Ashvins and the Rbhus, semi-divine craftsmen, also have aspects of solar deities. Other natural phenomena deified include Vayu, (the wind), Dyaus and Prithivi (Heaven and Earth), Dyaus continuing Dyeus, the chief god of the Proto-Indo-European religion, and Ushas (the dawn), the most prominent goddess of the Rigveda, and Apas (the waters).

Rivers play an important role, deified as goddesses, most prominently the Sapta Sindhu and the Sarasvati River.

Yama is the first ancestor, also worshipped as a deity, and the god of the underworld and death.

Vishnu and Rudra, the prominent deities of later Hinduism (Rudra being an early form of Shiva) are present as marginal gods.

The names of Indra, Mitra, Varuna and the Nasatyas are also attested in a Mitanni treaty, suggesting that the some of the religion of the Mitannis was very close to that of the Rigveda.

UKT: More in the Wikipedia article.

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Harappan culture

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cemetery_H_culture 120414
   UKT: Though I have taken the excerpt below from Wiki 'Cemetery-H-culture', I have titled my note as the Harappan culture to suit the taste of the Bur-Myan readers. -- 120414
Read also: Indus Valley Tradition Painted Grey Ware Copper Hoard Culture

The Cemetery H culture developed out of the northern part of the Indus Valley Civilization around 1900 BCE, in and around western Punjab region located in present-day India and Pakistan. It was named after a cemetery found in "area H" at Harappa.

The ancient city of Harappa was greatly destroyed under the British Raj, when bricks from the ruins were used as track ballast in the making of the Lahore-Multan Railroad. ... The Indus Valley Civilization (also known as Harappan culture) has its earliest roots in cultures such as that of Mehrgarh, approximately 6000 BCE. The two greatest cities, Mohenjo-daro and Harappa, emerged circa 2600 BCE along the Indus River valley in Punjab and Sindh.[4]  -- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Harappa 120414

The Cemetery H culture is part of the Punjab Phase, one of three cultural phases that developed in the Localization Era of the Indus Valley Tradition.[1] It is considered to be part of the Late Harappan phase.

The distinguishing features of this culture include[2]:

The Cemetery H culture also "shows clear biological affinities" with the earlier population of Harappa.[4]

The archaeologist Kenoyer noted that this culture "may only reflect a change in the focus of settlement organization from that which was the pattern of the earlier Harappan phase and not cultural discontinuity, urban decay, invading aliens, or site abandonment, all of which have been suggested in the past."[5]

Remains of the culture have been dated from about 1900 BCE until about 1300 BCE. Together with the Gandhara grave culture and the Ochre Coloured Pottery culture, it is considered by some scholars a nucleus of Vedic civilization.

UKT cotinues:
The contemporary culture in Mediterranean is the Cycladic civilization (also known as Cycladic culture or The Cycladic period) is an Early Bronze Age culture of the Cyclades, Greece, in the Aegean Sea, spanning the period from approximately 3000 BC-2000 BC. -- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cycladic_civilization 120918

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Savitri 

From Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Savitri 120413
returns many links, three of which are:
#1. Sāvitrī, a name of the Gayatri Mantra dedicated to Savitr
#2. Savitri, a Hindu character from the story of Savitri and Satyavan in the epic Mahabharata
#3. Savitri is Brahma's consort. Gayatri is another consort of Brahma.

#1. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gayatri_Mantra 120413

The Gāyatrī Mantra is a highly revered mantra, based on a Vedic Sanskrit verse from a hymn of the Rigveda (3.62.10), attributed to the rishi Viśvāmitra. The mantra is named for its vedic gāyatrī metre.[1] As the verse can be interpreted to invoke the deva Savitr, it is often called Sāvitrī.[2] Its recitation is traditionally preceded by oṃ and the formula bhūr bhuvaḥ svaḥ, known as the mahāvyāhṛti ("great utterance").

The Gayatri Mantra is repeated and cited very widely in vedic literature,[3] and praised in several well-known classical Hindu texts such as Manusmṛti,[4] Harivamsa,[5] and the Bhagavad Gita.[6][7] The mantra is an important part of the upanayanam ceremony for young males in Hinduism, and has long been recited by Brahmin males as part of their daily rituals. Modern Hindu reform movements spread the practice of the mantra to include women and all castes and its use is now very widespread.[8][9]

 

#2. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Savitri_and_Satyavan 120413

The oldest known version of the story of Savitri and Satyavan is found in "The Book of the Forest" of the Mahabharata.

The story occurs as a multiple embedded narratives in the Mahabharata as told by Markandeya. When Yudhisthira asks Markandeya whether there has ever been a woman whose devotion matched Draupadis, Markandeya replies by relating this story:

The childless king of Madra, Asvapati [UKT: Did Wiki make a spelling mistake? See below for two other spellings: Ashwapati or Aśwapati (अश्‍वपति) ], lives ascetically for many years and offers oblations to Sun God Savitr. His consort is Malavi. He wishes to have a son for his lineage. Finally, pleased by the prayers, God Savitr appears to him and grants him a boon: he will soon have a daughter. The king is joyful at the prospect of a child. She is born and named Savitri in honor of the [Sun] god. Savitri is born out of devotion and asceticism, traits she will herself practice.

Savitri is so beautiful and pure, she intimidates all the men in the vicinity. When she reaches the age of marriage, no man asks for her hand, so her father tells her to find a husband on her own. She sets out on a pilgrimage for this purpose and finds Satyavan, the son of a blind king named Dyumatsena, who after he had lost everything including his sight, lives in exile as a forest-dweller.

Savitri returns to find her father speaking with Sage Narada who announces that Savitri has made a bad choice: although perfect in every way, Satyavan is destined to die one year from that day. In response to her fathers pleas to choose a more suitable husband, Savitri insists that she will choose her husband but once. After Narada announces his agreement with Savitri, Ashwapati acquiesces.

UKT: Who is Ashwapati?
   "Ashwapati or Aśwapati (अश्‍वपति) is the appellation of many kings in Hindu mythology. It means 'Lord of horses.' It was an appelation comparable to that of the knight or Ritter in Europe.
-- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ashwapati 120413

Savitri and Satyavan are married, and she goes to live in the forest. Immediately after the marriage, Savitri wears the clothing of a hermit and lives in perfect obedience and respect to her new parents-in-law and husband.

Three days before the foreseen death of Satyavan, Savitri takes a vow of fasting and vigil. Her father-in-law tells her she has taken on too harsh of a regimen, but Savitri replies that she has taken an oath to perform these austerities, at which Dyumatsena offers his support.

The morning of Satyavans predicted death, Savitri asks for her father-in-laws permission to accompany her husband into the forest. Since she has never asked for anything during the entire year she has spent at the hermitage, Dyumatsena grants her wish.

They go and while Satyavan is splitting wood, he suddenly becomes weak and lays his head in Savitris lap. Yama himself, the god of Death, comes to claim the soul of Satyavan. Savitri follows Yama as he carries the soul away. When he tries to convince her to turn back, she offers successive formulas of wisdom. First she praises obedience to Dharma, then friendship with the strict, then Yama himself for his just rule, then Yama as King of Dharma, and finally noble conduct with no expectation of return. Impressed at each speech, Yama praises both the content and style of her words and offers any boon, except the life of Satyavan. She first asks for eyesight and restoration of the kingdom for her father-in-law, then a hundred sons for her father, and then a hundred sons for herself and Satyavan. The last wish creates a dilemma for Yama, as it would indirectly grant the life of Satyavan. However, impressed by Savitri's dedication and purity, he offers one more time for her to choose any boon, but this time omitting "except for the life of Satyavan". Savitri instantly asks for Satyavan to return to life. Yama grants life to Satyavan and blesses Savitri's life with eternal happiness.

Satyavan awakens as though he has been in a deep sleep and returns to his parents along with his wife. Meanwhile at their home, Dyumatsena regains his eyesight before Savitri and Satyavan return. Since Satyavan still does not know what happened, Savitri relays the story to her parents-in-law, husband, and the gathered ascetics. As they praise her, Dyumatsenas ministers arrive with news of the death of his usurper. Joyfully, the king and his entourage return to his kingdom.[1]

 

#3. Savitri is Brahma's consort. Gayatri is another consort of Brahma.
UKT: My problem is to find the relationship of Savitri and Saraswati who is also supposed to be the wife of Brahma. The following is from: http://www.hindu-blog.com/2011/05/goddess-savitri.html 120413

Goddess Savitri is a manifestation of Goddess Saraswati, the Hindu goddess of learning and arts. As Savitri, She is the consort of Hindu God Brahma. A story in the Puranas suggests why Goddess Saraswati appeared as Goddess Savitri. Brahma once wanted to conduct a yajna. But he had no wife as per Vedic rule a man without a wife could not conduct a yajna. So Brahma requested Goddess Saraswati to be his spouse and sit by the side of him in the yajna.

Saraswati agreed to be the consort of Brahma and said that she will appear in the form of Savitri to be the consort.

Thus Saraswati appeared as Goddess Savitri to be the divine consort of Brahma.

UKT: More in the article.

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