Update: 2019-02-02 11:19 PM -0500

TIL

A Practical Sanskrit Dictionary

p121.htm

by A. A. Macdonell, 1893,
http://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/scans/MDScan/index.php?sfx=jpg 1929.
Nataraj ed., 1st in 2006, 2012

Edited, with additions from Pali sources, by U Kyaw Tun (UKT) (M.S., I.P.S.T., USA), Daw Khin Wutyi, Daw Thuzar Myint and staff of Tun Institute of Learning (TIL) . Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone. Prepared for students and staff of TIL Research Station, Yangon, MYANMAR : http://www.tuninst.net , www.romabama.blogspot.com

MC-indx.htm | Top
MCc1pp-indx.htm

Contents of this page

 

{di-pa.}
  p121-c1
{du.}
{d:} दुः duh : Note to html editor: bookmark as {du13}
  p121-c2 
{dur} : repha
  p121-c3

Orphan:
दोषावस्तर् dosavastar [ dsh-vastar ]
-- m. vc. illuminer of gloom (RV.).

UKT notes
Visvedeva
Generally repha in Skt-Dev is changed into same consonant-conjunct in Pal-Myan. However there are exceptions. An example is given below:

दीर्घ dirgha [ drgh ] =  द ी र ् घ --> {diir~Ga.}
Skt: -- a. long (in space and time): -m, ad.; m. long vowel. -- Mac121c1
Pal: {di-Ga.}
- - UHS-PMD0473

UKT from UHS: mfn. long (length), tall (height), long (duration). m. snake

Two-three tone problem of back vowel /u/ and {du.wicsa} दुः duh 
- though I have come across this orthography while doing
http://www.tuninst.net/SED-TIL/SED-con-r4/du1/du1-084b2-3.htm 120410 (e.g. Skt: दुःख (duHkha) 'sorrow' - OnlineSktDict, and Skt: दुःख duhkha 'suffering' - SpkSkt ), I had not paid close attention because I was pressed for time. I had simply pointed its similarity to Pal: dukkha (UPMT-PED112) and {doak~hka.} - - UHS-PMD0472 . This is the first-time I am paying attention to this problem. -- UKT120410

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{di-pa.}

p120c3-b16/ p082 

दीपपादप dipapadapa [ dpa-pdapa ]
-- m. lamp (stand); ( end p120c3 ) (p121c1-top  )
-bhgana, n. lamp; -ml, f. row of lamps; -mlik, f. id.; -varti, f. lamp-wick.
 दीपपादप   dpa-pdapa lamp (stand); -bhgana, n. lamp; -ml, f. row of lamps; -mlik, f. id.; -varti, f. lamp-wick.

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p121-c1

p121c1-b01/ p082

दीपालोक dipaloka [ dpa‿loka ]
-- m. lamp-light; -‿vali, f. row of lamps.
 दीपालोक   dpa̮loka lamp-light; -̮vali, f. row of lamps.

 

p121c1-b02/ p082

दीपिका dipika [ dp-ik ]
-- f. lamp; often -- in titles of books: -dhrin, f. female lamp-bearer.
 दीपिका   dp-ik lamp; often -- in titles of books: -dhrin, f. female lamp-bearer.

 

p121c1-b03/ p082

दीपिन् dipin [ dp-in ]
-- a. inflaming, kindling (--).
 दीपिन्   dp-in inflaming, kindling (--).

 

p121c1-b04/ p082

दीप्तकिरण diptakirana [ dpta-kirana ]
-- a. hot-rayed.
 दीप्तकिरण   dpta-kirana hot-rayed.

 

p121c1-b05/ p082

दीप्तांशु diptaṃsu [ dpta‿amsu ]
-- a. id.; m. sun; -‿aksha, a. () having flaming eyes; m. N. of an owl.
दीप्तांशु   dpta̮amsu sun; -̮aksha, a. () having flaming eyes; m. N. of an owl.

 

p121c1-b06/ p082

दीप्ति dipti [ dĩp-ti ] f. radiance; brilliance, grace; N. of a god ( one of the Visvedevas ) [ विश्वेदेवाः viśve-devāḥ ].
 दीप्ति   dp-ti radiance; brilliance, grace; N. of a god (one of the Visvedevas).

See my note on Visvedeva (Skt: विश्वेदेवाः viśve-devāḥ "all-gods") are the various Vedic gods taken together as a whole.
 

p121c1-b07/ p082

दीप्तिमत् diptimat [ dpti-mat ]
-- a. radiant, brilliant.
 दीप्तिमत्   dpti-mat radiant, brilliant.

 

p121c1-b08/ p082

दीप्तौजस् diptaujas [ dpta‿ogas ]
-- a. of fervent energy; hot-blooded.
दीप्तौजस्   dpta̮ogas of fervent energy; hot-blooded.

 

p121c1-b09/ p082

दीप्र dipra [ dp-ra ]
-- a. shining, radiant.
 दीप्र   dp-ra shining, radiant. 

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p121c1-b10/ p082

दीर्घ dirgha [ drgh ] {diir~Ga.}
=  द ी र ् घ
Skt: -- a. long (in space and time): -m, ad.; m. long vowel. -- Mac121c1
दीर्घ   drgh long (in space and time): -m, ad.; m. long vowel. 
Pal: {di-Ga.}
- - UHS-PMD0473

UKT from UHS: mfn. long (length), tall (height), long (duration). m. snake

p121c1-b11/ p082

दीर्घकर्ण dirghakarna [ drgha-karna ]
-- m. Long-ear, N. of a cat; -klam, ac. ad. for a long time; -gaṅ gha, m. Long-shanks, N. of a Yaksha; -gvin, a. long-lived; -tapas, m. N. of a Rishi; () tamas, m. N. of a sage; -t, f. length; -tva, n. id.; -tkshna-mukha, a. () having a long and pointed mouth; -darsi-t, f. far-sightedness, providence; -darsin, a. far-seeing; -nidr, f. long sleep; sleep of death; -bhu, a. long-armed; -mukha, a. () long-mouthed, long-beaked; -rva, m. Long-yell, N. of a jackal; -rosha, a. whose wrath lasts long, bearing a lingering grudge: -t, f. abst. n.; -roshana, a. id.; -lokana, a. long-eyed; -sriṅga, a. long-horned; -srt, a. audible afar; far-famed; -sattr, n. Soma sacrifice of long duration; a. engaged in a --; -sattrn, a. id.; -samdhya, a. praying long at the Samdhys: -tva, n. long continuance of prayer at the Samdhys; -stra, a. (long-threaded), dilatory, procrastinating: -t, f. dilatoriness, procrastination [UKT: putting things off due to laziness]; -strin, a. id.
 दीर्घकर्ण   drgha-karna Long-ear, N. of a cat; -klam, ac. ad. for a long time; -gaṅgha, m. Long-shanks, N. of a Yaksha; -gvin, a. long-lived; -tapas, m. N. of a Rishi; ()tamas, m. N. of a sage; -t, f. length; -tva, n. id.; -tkshna-mukha, a. () having a long and pointed mouth; -darsi-t, f. far-sightedness, providence; -darsin, a. far-seeing; -nidr, f. long sleep; sleep of death; -bhu, a. long-armed; -mukha, a. () long-mouthed, long-beaked; -rva, m. Long-yell, N. of a jackal; -rosha, a. whose wrath lasts long, bearing a lingering grudge: -t, f. abst. n.; -roshana, a. id.; -lokana, a. long-eyed; -sriṅga, a. long-horned; -srt, a. audible afar; far-famed; -sattr, n. Soma sacrifice of long duration; a. engaged in a --; -sattrn, a. id.; -samdhya, a. praying long at the Samdhys: -tva, n. long continuance of prayer at the Samdhys; -stra, a. (long-threaded), dilatory, procrastinating: -t, f. dilatoriness, procrastination; -strin, a. id.

 

p121c1-b12/ p082

दीर्घाक्ष dirghaksa [ drgha‿aksha ]
-- a. long-eyed.
 दीर्घाक्ष   drgha̮aksha long-eyed.

 

p121c1-b13/ p082

दीर्घाधी dirghadhi [ drgh-dh ]
-- a. of far-reaching care.
दीर्घाधी   drghaN-dh of far-reaching care.

 

p121c1-b14/ p082

दीर्घायु dirghayu [ drgha‿yu ]
-- a. long-lived: -tv, n. longevity; ayus, a. long-lived.
दीर्घायु   drgha̮yu long-lived: -tv, n. longevity; a◡́yus, a. long-lived.

 

p121c1-b15/ p082

दीर्घिका dirghika [ drgh-ik ]
-- f. oblong pond.
 दीर्घिका   drgh-ik oblong pond.

 

p121c1-b16/ not online

[drgh-kri]
-- lengthen; prolong

 

p121c1-b17/ p082

दीर्घोच्छ्वासम् dirghocchvasam [ drgha‿ukkhvsam ]
-- ad. with a deep sigh.
 दीर्घोच्छ्वासम्   drgha̮ukkhvsam with a deep sigh.

 

p121c1-b18/ p082

दीवन divana [ dv-ana ]
-- n. playing with dice.
दीवन   dv-ana playing with dice.

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{du.}

Two-three tone problem of back vowel /u/

Skt-Dev:   दु du (short),  दू dū (long), दुः duh (?)
Bur-Myan: {du.} (creak), {du} (modal), {du:} (emphatic)

Since Skt-Dev must have been spoken in ancient Myanmar of Pagan period, or even before that, during the time of King Abiraja in Tagaung (before the birth of Gautama Buddha in India), the syllable दुः duh would have been pronounced by the local population.
   Phonemically would I say Skt-Dev दुः duh is the same as Bur-Myan {du:} (emphatic) ? What is the influence of Skt-Dev visarga ः on pronunciation? I am not even sure how to call {du.}-wicsa. Tentatively, I will call this by its generic-name "{du.}-wicsa". Moreover how would I, a modern Tib-Bur speaker pronounce it?
   I am proposing to represent Skt-Dev orthographies such as दुः with 'acute diacritics', i.e. {d:} (alt+0250). I am waiting for input from my peers. -- UKT120411

 

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p121c1-b19/ not online

दु [DU], V.P.
-- duno , IV. (P.) , dya , burn; be pained, be consumed with sorrow or remorse; tr. duno , burn, cause pain to, torment, afflict : pp. ...

 

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{d:} दुः duh

p121c1-b20/ p082 

दुःकृत duhkrta [ duh-krita ]
-- pp., v. dush-krita.
 दुःकृत   duh-krita dush-krita.

 

p121c1-b21/ p082

दुःख duhkha [ duh-kh ]  {d:hka.}
Skt: -- a. unpleasant, fraught with hardship, wretched; n. pain, hardship, misery, suffering: -m, in., ab., -, with difficulty, scarcely, hardly, reluctantly; -m s, stand sorrow fully. -- Mac121c1
 दुःख   duh-kh unpleasant, fraught with hardship, wretched; n. pain, hardship, misery, suffering: -m, in., ab., -, with difficulty, scarcely, hardly, reluctantly; -m s, stand sorrowfully. 
Skt: दुःख (duHkha) 'sorrow' - OnlineSktDict
Skt: दुःख duhkha 'suffering' - SpkSkt
BPal: {doak~hka.}
- - UHS-PMD0472

UKT from UHS: mfn. suffering, being despised, being hurt. n. financial straits, physical suffering. adj. being despised.

 

p121c1-b22/ p082

दुःखकर duhkhakara [ duhkha-kara ]
-- a. afflicting (g.); -gata, n. adversity, misfortune; -graha, a. hard to comprehend; -kkhedya, fp. hard to destroy; -gvin, a. living in distress; -tara, cpv. more unpleasant or distressing; n. greater affliction, hardship, or evil; -t, f. discomfort, distress,
 दुःखकर   duhkha-kara afflicting (g.); -gata, n. adversity, misfortune; -graha, a. hard to comprehend; -kkhedya, fp. hard to destroy; -gvin, a. living in distress; -tara, cpv. more unpleasant or distressing; n. greater affliction, hardship, or evil; -t, f. discomfort, distress, affliction; -duhkha, n. in. with great difficulty; -prya, a. abounding in woe; -bhgin, a. having misfortune for one's lot, unfortunate; -bhg, a. id. 
( end p121c1 ) (p121c2-top )
affliction; -duhkha, n. in. with great difficulty; -prya, a. abounding in woe; -bhgin, a. having misfortune for one's lot, unfortunate; -bhg, a. id.

 

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p121-c2

p121c2-b01/ p082

दुःखमोह duhkhamoha [ duhkha-moha ]
-- m. despair.
 दुःखमोह   duhkha-moha despair.

 

p121c2-b02/ p082

दुःखय duhkhaya [ duhkha-ya ]
-- den. P. afflict, distress (ac.).
 दुःखय   duhkha-ya P. afflict, distress (ac.).

 

p121c2-b03/ p082

दुःखयन्त्र duhkhayantra [ duhkha-yantra ]
-- n. torture; -yoga, m. infliction of pain; -vega, m. violent pain; -sla, a. whose character is difficult to deal with, hard to please, exacting; -sparsa, a. unpleasant to the touch; -han, a. destroying misery.
 दुःखयन्त्र   duhkha-yantra torture; -yoga, m. infliction of pain; -vega, m. violent pain; -sla, a. whose character is difficult to deal with, hard to please, exacting; -sparsa, a. unpleasant to the touch; -han, a. destroying misery.

 

p121c2-b04/ not online

[duhkh-ayi-tri]
-- m. afflictor

 

p121c2-b05/ p082

दुःखाकर duhkhakara [ duhkha‿kara ]
-- m. multitude of afflictions.
 दुःखाकर   duhkha̮kara multitude of afflictions.

 

p121c2-b06/ p082

दुःखाकुल duhkhakula [ duhkha‿kula ]
-- a. sorrowful; -‿anta, m. end of suffering; final liberation.
 दुःखाकुल   duhkha̮kula sorrowful; -̮anta, m. end of suffering; final liberation.

 

p121c2-b07/ not online

[duhkh-kri]
-- cause pain to, afflict, distress

 

p121c2-b08/ p082

दुःखाय duhkhaya [ duhkh-ya ]
-- den. . feel pain; be afflicted.
 दुःखाय   duhkh-ya . feel pain; be afflicted.

 

p121c2-b09/ p082

दुःखार्त duhkharta [ duhkha‿rta ]
-- a. distressed.
दुःखार्त   duhkha̮rta distressed.

 

p121c2-b10/ p082

दुःखित duhkhita [ duhkh-ita ]
-- pp. suffering, afflicted, distressed.
 दुःखित   duhkh-ita suffering, afflicted, distressed.

 

p121c2-b11/ p082

दुःखिता duhkhita [ duhkhi-t ]
-- f. suffering, affliction, distress.
 दुःखिता   duhkhi-t suffering, affliction, distress.

 

p121c2-b12/ p082

दुःखिन् duhkhin [ duhkh-in ]
-- a. suffering; afflicted.
 दुःखिन्   duhkh-in suffering; afflicted.

 

p121c2-b13/ p082

दुःखीय duhkhiya [ duhkh-ya ]
-- den. P. suffer pain, be harassed.
दुःखीय   duhkh-ya P. suffer pain, be harassed.

 

p121c2-b14/ p082

दुःखोपघात duhkhopaghata [ duhkha‿upaghta ]
-- m. violent pain; -‿upakarya, a. hard to get on with, difficult to please; -upasamana, n. alleviative of pain, anodyne.
 दुःखोपघात   duhkha̮upaghta violent pain; -̮upakarya, a. hard to get on with, difficult to please; -upasamana, n. alleviative of pain, anodyne.

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p121c2-b15/ p082

दुकूल dukula [ dukla ]
-- m. a plant; n. kind of cloth; garment made of this cloth.
 दुकूल   dukla cloth; garment made of this cloth.

 

p121c2-b16/ p082

दुग्ध dugdha [ dug-dh ]
-- pp. √duh; n. milk; sap.
 दुग्ध   dug-dh √duh; n. milk; sap.

 

p121c2-b17/ p082

दुग्धद dugdhada [ dugdha-da ]
-- a. yielding milk; -‿abdhi, m. ocean of milk.
 दुग्धद   dugdha-da yielding milk; -̮abdhi, m. ocean of milk.

 

p121c2-b18/ p082

दुघ dugha [ dugh-a ]
-- a. milking, yielding (--); dgh, f. milch cow.
 दुघ   dugh-a milking, yielding (--); dgh, f. milch cow.

 

p121c2-b19/ p082

दुच्छुना ducchuna [ dukkhn ]
-- f. calamity; demon.
 दुच्छुना   dukkhn calamity; demon.

 

p121c2-b20/ p082

दुधि dudhi [ ddhi ]
-- a. impetuous, wild.
 दुधि   ddhi impetuous, wild.

 

p121c2-b21/ p082

दुधुक्षु dudhuksu [ du-dhuk-shu ]
-- des. a. wishing to milk.
 दुधुक्षु   du-dhuk-shu wishing to milk.

 

p121c2-b22/ p082

दुध्र dudhra [ dudhr ]
-- a. impetuous, wild.
 दुध्र   dudhr impetuous, wild.

 

p121c2-b23/ p082

दुध्रुक्षु dudhruksu [ du-dhruk-shu ]
-- a. wishing to hurt, treacherously inclined.
 दुध्रुक्षु   du-dhruk-shu wishing to hurt, treacherously inclined.

 

p121c2-b24/ p082

दुन्दुभ dundubha [ dundubha ]
-- m. kind of aquatic animal.
 दुन्दुभ   dundubha aquatic animal.

 

p121c2-b25/ p082

 दुन्दुभि dundubhi [ dundubh ]
-- m. f. (kettle) drum; , f. id.: i‿ght, m. drummer.
 दुन्दुभि   dundubh (kettle) drum; , f. id.: i̮ght, m. drummer.

 

p121c2-b26/ p082

दुर् dur [ dr ]  {dur}
-- f. door.
 दुर्ग   dur-g hard to pass, impassable, inaccessible (to or owing to, --); m. N.; , f. N. of Siva's wife; N. of a princess; m. n. difficult road; place inaccessible owing to (--); shunned spot; difficulty, danger; n. unevenness, height; fastness, stronghold.

 

p121c2-b27/ p082

दुरतिक्रम duratikrama [ dur-atikrama ]
-- a. hard to get over, overcome, or escape from; -atyaya, a. id.; -adhiga, a. hard to attain; -adhigama, a. id.; hard to be learned; -adhyaya, a. hard to obtain; -adhyavasya, m. foolish under taking; -anushtheya, fp. hard to carry out.
 दुरतिक्रम   dur-atikrama hard to get over, overcome, or escape from; -atyaya, a. id.; -adhiga, a. hard to attain; -adhigama, a. id.; hard to be learned; -adhyaya, a. hard to obtain; -adhyavasya, m. foolish undertaking; -anushtheya, fp. hard to carry out.

 

p121c2-b28/ p082

दुरन्त duranta [ dur-anta ]
-- a. whose end is hard to find, endless; ending badly: -deva, m. god of what is hard to end, Ganesa; -apavda, m. slander; -abhiprya, a. evil-intentioned; -abhibhava, a. hard to overcome or surpass; -abhimnin, a. unpleasantly arrogant; -abhiraksha, a. difficult to guard; -abhisamdhi, m. evil in tent; -avagama, a. hard to understand; -ava gha, a. hard to penetrate; -avagraha, a. hard to check, irresistible; -avabodha, a. hard to understand; -avaroha, a. hard to descend
 दुरन्त   dur-anta whose end is hard to find, endless; ending badly: -deva, m. god of what is hard to end, Ganesa; -apavda, m. slander; -abhiprya, a. evil-intentioned; -abhibhava, a. hard to overcome or surpass; -abhimnin, a. unpleasantly arrogant; -abhiraksha, a. difficult to guard; -abhisamdhi, m. evil intent; -avagama, a. hard to understand; -avagha, a. hard to penetrate; -avagraha, a. hard to check, irresistible; -avabodha, a. hard to understand; -avaroha, a. hard to descend to; -avpa, a. hard to obtain, acquire, fulfil, or realise.
(end p121c2 ) (p121c3-top )
to; -avpa, a. hard to obtain, acquire, fulfil, or realise.

 

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p121-c3

p121c3-b01/ p082 

दुराकृति durakrti [ dur-kriti ]
a. mis-shapen, deformed, ugly; -kranda, a. having bad friends, friendless; -gama, m. dishonest acquisition; -kara, a. () hard to practise; difficult to treat or cure; -kra, m. bad conduct or custom; a. ill-behaved, of bad conduct, impious; -tma-t, f. wickedness, baseness; -tman, a. evil-minded, wicked, base, impious; -tma vat, a. id.; -dhara, a. hard to check, irresistible; hard to obtain; hard to guard; - dhrsha, a. hard to attack; dangerous; -na ma, a. hard to bend (bow); -pa, a. hard to come up with; hard to attain; -rdhya, fp. hard to conciliate; hard to worship; -ruha, a. hard to climb; -ropa, a. hard to string; -roha, a. hard to climb or ascend to: -t, f. abst. n.; -lakshya, fp. hard to perceive; -lamba, a. hard to gain a footing on; -lam bha, a. hard to grasp; -loka, a. hard to perceive; -vara, a. hard to close or protect; -vaha, a. hard to conduct to (--); -vra, a. hard to close; difficult to check; -vsin, a. having bad quarters; -v, a. hard to pass (v. l. duryya).
 दुराकृति   dur-kriti mis-shapen, deformed, ugly; -kranda, a. having bad friends, friendless; -gama, m. dishonest acquisition; -kara, a. () hard to practise; difficult to treat or cure; -kra, m. bad conduct or custom; a. ill-behaved, of bad conduct, impious; -tma-t, f. wickedness, baseness; -tman, a. evil-minded, wicked, base, impious; -tmavat, a. id.; -dhara, a. hard to check, irresistible; hard to obtain; hard to guard; -dhrsha, a. hard to attack; dangerous; -nama, a. hard to bend (bow); -aNpa, a. hard to come up with; hard to attain; -rdhya, fp. hard to conciliate; hard to worship; -ruha, a. hard to climb; -ropa, a. hard to string; -roha, a. hard to climb or ascend to: -t, f. abst. n.; -lakshya, fp. hard to perceive; -lamba, a. hard to gain a footing on; -lambha, a. hard to grasp; -loka, a. hard to perceive; -vara, a. hard to close or protect; -vaha, a. hard to conduct to (--); -vra, a. hard to close; difficult to check; -vsin, a. having bad quarters; -aNv, a. hard to pass (v. l. duraNyya).

 

p121c3-b02/ p082

दुराशय durasaya [ dur-saya ]
-- a. having evil thoughts; -s, f. vain --, false hope; despair of (lc.); -sis, a. having evil wishes or intentions; -sada, a. hard to approach, dangerous to molest; hard to find; difficult to accomplish.
 दुराशय   dur-saya having evil thoughts; -s, f. vain --, false hope; despair of (lc.); -sis, a. having evil wishes or intentions; -sada, a. hard to approach, dangerous to molest; hard to find; difficult to accomplish.

 

p121c3-b03/ p082

दुरित durita [ dur-it ] (pp.)
-- n. faring ill, distress, harm; misdeed, foul means, sin; a. difficult, evil, bad.
 दुरित   dur-it faring ill, distress, harm; misdeed, foul means, sin; a. difficult, evil, bad.

 

p121c3-b04/ p082

दुरितात्मन् duritatman [ durita‿tman ]
-- a. ill-disposed.
 दुरितात्मन्   durita̮tman ill-disposed.

 

p121c3-b05/ p082

दुरीक्ष duriksa [ dur-ksha ]
-- a. hard to see: -t, f. abst. n.; -sa, m. evil master; -ha, a. ill intentioned.
 दुरीक्ष   dur-ksha hard to see: -t, f. abst. n.; -sa, m. evil master; -ha, a. illintentioned.

 

p121c3-b06/ p082

दुरुक्त durukta [ dur-ukt ]
-- pp. spoken falsely, rashly, or offensively (n. word --); harshly addressed; n. false, rash, or offensive word; -ukti, f. harsh or offensive word; -ukkheda, a. hard to exterminate; -uttara, a. hard to overcome; -utsaha, a. hard to bear; -resist; -udhara, a. hard to utter; -udvaha, a. hard to bear; -upakra, a. hard to approach, dangerous to molest; hard to deal with; -upadishta, pp. badly instructed; -upadesa, m. bad advice; -upapda, a. hard to bring about or manage; difficult to prove; -upalaksha, a. hard to perceive; -upasarpin, a. approaching incautiously.
 दुरुक्त   dur-ukt spoken falsely, rashly, or offensively (n. word --); harshly addressed; n. false, rash, or offensive word; -ukti, f. harsh or offensive word; -ukkheda, a. hard to exterminate; -uttara, a. hard to overcome; -utsaha, a. hard to bear; -- resist; -udhara, a. hard to utter; -udvaha, a. hard to bear; -upakra, a. hard to approach, dangerous to molest; hard to deal with; -upadishta, pp. badly instructed; -upadesa, m. bad advice; -upapda, a. hard to bring about or manage; difficult to prove; -upalaksha, a. hard to perceive; -upasarpin, a. approaching incautiously.

 

p121c3-b07/ p082

दुरूह duruha [ dur-ha ]
-- a. hard to comprehend.
 दुरूह   dur-ha hard to comprehend.

 

p121c3-b08/ p082

दुरोण durona [ duron ]
-- n. house, dwelling.
 दुरोण   duron house, dwelling.

 

p121c3-b09/ p082

दुरोदर durodara [ durodara ]
m. dice-player; die; n. game of dice.
 दुरोदर   durodara dice-player; die; n. game of dice. 

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{dur} : repha

p121c3-b10/ not online

दुर्ग durga [ dur-g ]
-- a. hard to pass, impassable, in accessible (to or owing to, --); m. N.; , f. N. of Siva's wife; N. of a princess; m. n. difficult road; place inaccessible owing to (--); shunned spot; difficulty, danger; n. un evenness, height; fastness, stronghold.

See my note on Goddess Durga -- the first Hindu goddess introduced to me at Ramakhishna Society in Thompson St., East Rangoon. I was still in my pre-teens.

 

p121c3-b11/ not online

[durga-ghta]
-- m. N. of a fortress

 

p121c3-b12/ p082

दुर्गत durgata [ dur-gata ]
-- pp. faring ill, being in a bad way or in distress, poor: -t, f. ill plight, misery, poverty.
 दुर्गत   dur-gata faring ill, being in a bad way or in distress, poor: -t, f. ill plight, misery, poverty.

 

p121c3-b13/ p082

दुर्गति durgati [ dur-gati ]
-- a. id.; f. distress, misfor tune, poverty.
 दुर्गति   dur-gati distress, misfortune, poverty.

 

p121c3-b14/ p082

दुर्गदेश durgadesa [ durga-desa ]
-- m. impassable region.
 दुर्गदेश   durga-desa impassable region.

 

p121c3-b15/ p082

दुर्गन्ध durgandha [ dur-gandha ]
-- m. bad smell; a. malodorous: -t, f. bad odour; -gandhi, a. ill smelling, stinking.
 दुर्गन्ध   dur-gandha bad smell; a. malodorous: -t, f. bad odour; -gandhi, a. illsmelling, stinking.

 

p121c3-b16/ p082

दुर्गपति durgapati [ durga-pati ]
-- m. commander of a for tress; -pla, m. id.
 दुर्गपति   durga-pati commander of a fortress; -pla, m. id.  ( end of p121c3 )

 

   दोषावस्तर्   dsh-vastar illuminer of gloom (RV.).
     दुर्   dr door.

 

 

 

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UKT notes

Visvedeva  विश्वेदेवाः viśve-devāḥ

UKT: Do not get confused because of the colon-like double dot and the English-plural <s>.
From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Visvedevas 120408

The Visvedevas (Skt: विश्वेदेवाः viśve-devāḥ "all-gods") are the various Vedic gods taken together as a whole. In the Rigveda a number of hymns are addressed to them, including (according to Griffith) 1.89, 3.54-56, 4.55, 5.41-51, 6.49-52, 7.34-37, 39, 40, 42, 43, 8.27-30, 58, 83 10.31, 35, 36, 56, 57, 61-66, 92, 93, 100, 101, 109, 114, 126, 128, 137, 141, 157, 165, 181.

RV 3. 54.17 addresses them as headed by Indra,

This is, ye Wise, your great and glorious title, that all ye Deities abide in Indra. (trans. Griffith)

The dichotomy between Devas and Asuras is not evident in these hymns, and Devas are invoked together with Asuras such as Mitra and Varuna.

In later Hinduism, they form one of the nine ganadevatas (along with the Adityas, Vasus, Tushitas, Abhasvaras, Anilas, Maharajikas, Sadhyas, and Rudras). [UKT ]

UKT: The <s> at the end of the names seems to be the English-plural <s> and will be removed in due course. -- UKT120408

According to the Vishnu Purana, they were the sons of Vishvā, a daughter of Daksha, enumerated as follows: 1. Vasu 2. Satya 3. Kratu 4. Daksha, 5. Kala 6. Kama 7. Dhrti 8. Kuru 9. Pururavas 10. Madravas, with two others added by some, 11. Rocaka or Locana, 12. Dhvani Dhuri .

Sometimes it is unclear whether a reference to vishve-devas refers to all Devas collectively, as in the Rigveda, or to the specific group as enumerated in the Puranas.

According to Manu (iii, 90, 121), offerings should be made daily to the Visvedevas. These privileges were bestowed on them by Brahma and the Pitri as a reward for severe austerities they had performed on the Himalaya.[1]

The Visvedevas are the most comprehensive gathering of gods. They answer to the concern that no divinity should be omitted from praise.[2]

UKT: End of Wiki stub.

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