Update: 2018-06-20 01:07 PM -0400


A Practical Sanskrit Dictionary


by A. A. Macdonell, 1893, http://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/scans/MDScan/index.php?sfx=jpg ;
1929, http://dsal.uchicago.edu/dictionaries/macdonell/ 110416 , 110611 

Edited, with additions from Pali sources, by U Kyaw Tun (UKT) (M.S., I.P.S.T., USA) and staff of Tun Institute of Learning (TIL) . Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone. Prepared for students and staff of TIL Research Station, Yangon, MYANMAR :  http://www.tuninst.net , www.romabama.blogspot.com 

MC-indx.htm | Top


Contents of this page

Caveat: Don't be impatient going over old or grouped files. The process is a necessity.

{ta.Sa.} / {tiS} : (Tib-Burman) <--> {tiS} (IE), is automatic. 

{ta-ta.} : {taat} vs. {tt}
{ta-ma.} / {taam} vs. {tm}

UKT 170820: Notice the nuclear-vowel changes in {tak}, {tt}, {taat}. The vowel change is not obvious in IAST which is a transliteration. But in Romabama, which is a transcription, it is obvious.

----- on line 180614 : p108.htm - search for तलातल



UKT notes:
Betel bearers - the most beautiful marriageable girls of the village
Tampadipa - the country of copper
Tandava - the vigorous dance form of Nataraj {lau:ka.nt}
--- - the time- or rhymn-keeper of the Universe. Identifying him with
--- with Hindu Shiva is just the work of Ponnar {poaN~Na:}
Tannaptra - the Devas agree not to quarrel
Tattvic philosophy : Trika system - Kashmir Shaivism

UKT 170820: Some old books and articles have come to my attention while surfing the net:
- RCTemple-JIndianAntiquVol22<> 1893 / Bkp<> (link chk 170823)

Contents of this page



UKT 171117: Files with grouped entries or free entries in a separate folder and are not under TIL Bk-cndl-index :
  p060-3.htm  p061.htm
  p105.htm p106.htm p107.htm
Files with grouped entries intact, and still under Bk-cndl-index
  p108.htm , p109.htm , etc.


grc1-b00 (group of 1)

p108c1-b01/ p075-007
तर्हि [ t-rhi ]
-- ad. at that time; then, there upon; in that case (esp. with impv. or inter. prn.): corr. ked, yatra, yad, yad, yadi, yarhi.
7) तर्हि (p. 75) t-rhi at that time; then, thereupon;


तर्हि [ t-rhi ]
Skt: तर्हि  [ t-rhi ] - ad. at that time; then, there upon; -- Mac108c1
Skt: तर्हि  [ ta + rhi ] - adv. . at that time. . then, therefore --Benfey
BPal: {ta.hin} - UHS-PMD0436c2
  UKT from UHS: loc. at that location, to that location 


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grc1-b01 (group of 1)

p108c1-b02/ p075-006
तल [ tala ]
-- m. n. surface, plane; sole (foot), palm (hand); flat space below; -- often not to be translated: lc.=at, on, under (-- or g.); -tas, ad. from the bottom; -prahra, m. slap; blow with the paw; -loka, m. lower regions.
6) तल (p. 75) tala surface, plane; sole (foot), palm (hand); flat space below;


तल [ tala ]
Skt: तल [ tala ] - m. n. surface, plane; sole (foot), palm (hand); flat space below; - Mac108c1
BPal: {ta.la.} - UHS PMD0436c1
  UKT from UHS: n. plane, flat of the palm, substrate, bottom surface, example


grc1-b02 (group of 1)

p108c1-b02/ p075-005
तलव [ talav ]
-- m. musician: -kra, m. pl. N. of a school of the Sma-veda: -‿upanishad, f. T. of an Upanishad.
5) तलव (p. 75) talav musician:

See Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Samaveda 171115
"The Samaveda सामवेद, sāmaveda, from sāman "song" and veda "knowledge", is the Veda of melodies and chants. [1]

grc1-b03 (group of 1)

p108c1-b03/ p075-004
तलातल [ tala‿atala ]
-- n. N. of a hell (bottomless at the bottom).
4) तलातल (p. 75) tala̮atala (bottomless at the bottom).


grc1-b04 (group of 2)

p108c1-b04/ p075-003
तलिन [ tal-ina ]
-- a. thin, slender; covered with (--).
3) तलिन (p. 75) tal-ina thin, slender;


p108c1-b05/ p075-002
तलिम [ tal-ima ]
-- n. floor.
2) तलिम (p. 75) tal-ima floor. 


grc1-b05 (group of 1)

p108c1-b06/ p075-001
तल्प [ talpa ]
-- m. couch, bed: -m adhi-gam, have sexual intercourse with (--); turret; -ga, a. having sexual intercourse with (--); violating the bed of (--); -ga, a. born in the nuptial couch.
1) तल्प (p. 75) talpa couch, bed:


grc1-b06 (group of 3)

p108c1-b07/ p075-028
तल्पल [ talpa-la ]
-- m. fleshy ridge on an elephant's back.
28) तल्पल (p. 75) talpa-la fleshy ridge on an elephant's back.


p108c1-b08/ p075-027
तल्पीकृत [ talp-krita ]
-- pp. turned into a bed.
27) तल्पीकृत (p. 75) talp-krita turned into a bed.


p108c1-b09/ p075-026
तल्प्य [ tlp-ya ]
-- a. belonging to the bed; born in the nuptial bed.
26) तल्प्य (p. 75) tlp-ya belonging to the bed;

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grc1-b07 (group of 2)

p108c1-b10/ p075-025
तवस् [ tav-s ]
-- a. strong, bold; m. strength, courage.
25) तवस् (p. 75) tav-s strong, bold;


p108c1-b11/ p075-024
तविष [ tav-ish- ] --> {ta.wi.Sa.}
-- a. powerful.
24) तविष (p. 75) tav-ish- powerful.


grc1-b08 (group of 2)

p108c1-b12/ p075-023
तविषी [ tv-ish- ] --> {ta.wi.Si}
-- f. strength, might, courage.
23) तविषी (p. 75) tv-ish- strength, might, courage. 


p108c1-b13/ p075-022
तविषीय [ tavish-y ]
-- den. . be strong or bold.
22) तविषीय (p. 75) tavish-y . be strong or bold.


grc1-b09 (group of 2) 

p108c1-b14/ p075-021
तविष्य [ tavish-y ]
-- den. be strong or impetuous.
21) तविष्य (p. 75) tavish-y be strong or impetuous.


p108c1-b15/ p075-021
तवीयस् [tv-yas], - तव्यस् taviyas tav-iyas, [ tv-yas ]
- cpv. of tavas.
20) तवीयस् (p. 75) tv-yas tavas.


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{ta.Sa.} / {tiS} : (Tib-Burman) <--> {tiS} (IE), is automatic. 

UKT 170822, 171108: Inability of the IE speakers (as a specific case, Father Sangermano, who wrote The Burmese Empire a hundred years ago in 1833) to hear and pronounce Bur-Myan {a.}- {} /θ/, and have to substitute with {Sa.}- {S} /s/ is always a problem transliteration between Pali and Sanskrit. However, since the Father was based in Rangoon, the Burmese scholars, who were helping him would be of Mon descent, and since in Mon-Myan, {a.} is pronounced as /s/, the Father would have to be excused. The following (notice the position of the viram: त ् स = त्स  vs. त स ् = तस् 
(Tib-Burman) <--> {tiS} (IE), is automatic. 

तस् [tas] {ti}
= त स ्  (Tib-Burman) <--> त्स {tiS) = त ् स [ tas ]
- i. 4. Par. . to wane, . to cast, v.r. . to cast aloft -- Benfey


grc1-b10 (group of 1)

p108c1-b16/ not online
तष्टृ [tash-tri] taṣṭṛ
= त ष ् ट ृ
-- m. artificer, carpenter


grc1-b11 (group of 3)

p108c1-b17/ p075-019
तस्कर [ ts-kara ] = {ta.~ka.ra.} --> {ta.Ska.ra.}
-- m. [(a) tas-kara, taking hence, stealing], thief, robber: -t, f., -tva, n. thieving, theft, robbery.
19) तस्कर (p. 75) ts-kara [(a)tas-kara, taking hence, stealing], thief, robber:

तस्कर [ ts-kara ] --> {ta.Ska.ra.}
Skt: तस्कर [ ts-kara ] - m. thief, robber: - Mac108c1
Pal: {tak~ka.ra.} - UHS PMD0427c1
  UKT from UHS - m. thief 


p108c1-b18/ p075-018
तस्कराय [ taskar-ya ]
-- den. . behave like a thief or robber.
18) तस्कराय (p. 75) taskar-ya . behave like a thief or robber.


p108c1-b19/ p075-017
तस्मात् [ t-smt ]
-- (ab. m. n.) ad. therefore (corr. yad or yasmt).
17) तस्मात् (p. 75) t-smt therefore

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grc1-b12 (group of 2)


p108c1-b20/ p075-016
ताक्ष्ण [ tkshn ] = त ा क ् ष ् ण
-- a. () belonging to a carpenter.
16) ताक्ष्ण (p. 75) tkshn () belonging to a carpenter.

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p108c1-b21/ p075-015
ताच्छील्य [ tk-khl-ya ] = त ा च ् छ ी ल ् य
-- n. regular habituation to or practice of that.
15) ताच्छील्य (p. 75) tk-khl-ya regular habituation to


grc1-b13 (group of 1)

p108c1-b22/ p075-014
ताजिक [ tgika ]
-- m. Persian.
14) ताजिक (p. 75) tgika Persian.

UKT 171108: The language of Tajikistan is Tajik which has been considered by a number of writers and researchers to be a variety of Persia. The Sanskrit word ताजिक [ tgika ] 'Persian' is probably derived from this relation.
Based on https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tajikistan & https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tajik_language 171108


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grc1-b14 (group of 3)

p108c1-b23/ p075-013
ताड [ td-a ]
-- a. striking (--); m. blow; -aka, m. homicide; -ak, f. N.
13) ताड (p. 75) taNd-a striking (--);


p108c1-b24/ p075-012
ताडङ्क [ tdaṅka ]
-- m. kind of ear-ring.
12) ताडङ्क (p. 75) tdaṅka ear-ring.


p108c1-b25/ p075-011
ताडन [ td-ana ]
-- a. striking; wounding; n. striking; blow; hammering (of gold as a test); -anya, fp. to be struck (gnly. -- with instrument, rarely with object); -ayitri, m. striker of (g.).
11) ताडन (p. 75) td-ana striking; wounding;


grc1-b15 (group of 2)

p108c1-b26/ 075-010
ताडाग [ tdga ]
-- a. belonging to ponds.
10) ताडाग (p. 75) tdga belonging to ponds.


p108c1-b27/ not online
ताड्य [td-ya]
Skt: ताड्य [td-ya] -- to be struck; to be chastised with blows. - Mac108c1
Skt: ताड्य tāḍya - adj. to be beaten or chastised - SpkSkt


grc1-b16 (group of 1)

p108c1-b28/ p075-063
ताण्डव [ tndava ] = त ा ण ् ड व -> {taaN~a.wa.}
- n. (?) frantic dance; i-ta, pp. dancing, fluttering.
63) ताण्डव (p. 75) tndava (?) frantic dance;

UKT 171108: See my note on Tandava aka Tāṇḍavam - the violent dance of Nataraj {lau:ka.nt} 'now identified with Shiva'.


grc1-b17 (group of 1)

p108c1-b29/ not online
ताण्ड्य [tndya]
Skt: ताण्ड्य [tndya]  - m. pat. N. of teacher; n. N. of a Brhmana. - Mac108c1
Skt: ताण्ड्य - m. patronymic of a teacher. n. equals  -brāhmaṇa- - SktDict: MWilliams


Contents of this page

{ta-ta.} : {taat} vs. {tt} /

UKT 170820: Notice the nuclear-vowel changes in {tak}, {tt}, {taat}. The vowel change is not obvious in IAST which is a transliteration. But in Romabama - the transcription, it is obvious.


grc1-b18 (group of 2)

p108c1-b30/ not online
तात् [tt]
-- (ab. of ta) ad. thus, in this wise (V.)


p108c1-b31/ p075-049
तात  [ tta ]
-- m. father: voc. dear (addressing elders, superiors, children, or pupils).
49) तात (p. 75) tta father:

UKT 171109: We find the same usage in Bur-Myan of Ava period, for example in ThanWara Pyo by Shin Maha' Ratthasara  where the teacher - the old minister - addressing his young charge the prince as {a.hpa.}. I've checked it also with my good friend U (Dr.) Tun Tint of MLC.


grc1-b19 (group of 1) 

p108c1-b32/ p075-009
तात्कर्म्य [ tt-karm-ya ]
-- n. homogeneousness of occupation; -klika, a. () lasting the same length of time; happening instantly; -klya, n. simultaneousness.
9) तात्कर्म्य (p. 75) tt-karm-ya homogeneousness of occupation;

( end p108c1 )

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grc2-b00 (group of 1)  

p108c2-b01/ p075-008
तात्त्विक [ tttv-ika ]
-- a. real; possessing the true doctrine (of the Jains).
8) तात्त्विक (p. 75) tttv-ika real;

See my note on Tattvic philosophy : Trika system


grc2-b01 (group of 1)

p108c2-b02/ p075-044
तात्पर्य [ tt-par-ya ]
-- n. addiction or devotion to a thing; chief aim (with lc. of object); true purport (of a speech or work); a. in tended: -tas, ad. with a view to this; -nir- naya, m. determination of the purport.
44) तात्पर्य (p. 75) tt-par-ya addiction or devotion to a thing;


grc2-b02 (group of 1)

p108c2-b03/ p075-043
तात्स्थ्य [ ttsth-ya ]
-- n. being contained therein.
43) तात्स्थ्य (p. 75) ttsth-ya being contained therein.


grc2-b03 (group of 2)

p108c2-b04/ p075-042
तादर्थ्य [ tdarth-ya ]
-- n. being meant for that, end, object; reference (in. with this view); identity of meaning.
42) तादर्थ्य (p. 75) tdarth-ya being meant for that, end, object;


p108c2-b05/ p075-041
तादात्म्य [ tdtm-ya ]
-- n. identity, w. (in., lc.,--).
41) तादात्म्य (p. 75) tdtm-ya identity,


grc2-b04 (group of 2)

p108c2-b06/ p075-040
तादृक्ष [ t-driksha ]
-- a. such.
40) तादृक्ष (p. 75) t-driksha such.


p108c2-b07/ p075-039
तादृग्गुण [ tdrig-guna ]
-- a. of such qualities; such; -rpa, a. of such form or kind: -vat, a. of such beauty; -vidha, a. such; being in this condition.
39) तादृग्गुण (p. 75) tdrig-guna of such qualities; such;


grc2-b05 (group of 2)

p108c2-b08/ not online
-- a. (nm. m. f. such a one:


p108c2-b09/ p075-038
तादृश [ tdrs-a ]
-- a. () such.
38) तादृश (p. 75) tdrs-a () such.


grc2-b06 (group of 2)

p108c2-b10/ p075-037
ताद्रूप्य [ td-rp-ya ]
-- n. identity; truth.
37) ताद्रूप्य (p. 75) td-rp-ya identity;


p108c2-b11/ p075-036
ताद्विध्य [ td-vidhya ]
-- n. the being such.
36) ताद्विध्य (p. 75) td-vidhya the being such.

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{ta-na.} / {taan} vs. {tn}

See my note on Nasal codas : the true nasals and semi-nasals
in my note on Nasal codas : the true nasals and semi-nasals on p106.htm (link chk 170818)

gr2-b07 ( group of 2)

p108c2-b12/ p075-035
तान [ tn-a ]
-- m. thread, fibre; quaver, musical note; n. extent.
35) तान (p. 75) tn-a thread, fibre;


p108c2-b13/ p075-034
तानव [ tnav-a ]
-- n. meagreness; smallness, slenderness: -krit, a. diminishing=surpassing (--).
34) तानव (p. 75) tnav-a meagreness;


grc2-b08 (group of 1)

p108c2-b14/ p075-033
तानूनप्त्र [ tnnaptr-a ]
-- n. ritual oath within vocation of Tannapt when the gya is touched by the sacrificer and the priests.
33) तानूनप्त्र (p. 75) tnnaptr-a ritual oath with invocation of Tannapt

See my note on Tanunapat - the Devas agree not to quarrel
तानूनप्त्र tānūnaptra = त ा न ू न प ् त ् र  - n. used in that ceremony - SpkSkt


grc2-b09 (group of 2)

p108c2-b15/ p075-032
तान्तव [ tntava ]
-- a. () made of threads; n. woven cloth; m. son.
32) तान्तव (p. 75) tntava () made of threads;


p108c2-b16/ p075-079
तान्त्र [ tntra ]
-- n. (stringed) instrumental music.
79) तान्त्र (p. 75) tntra (stringed) instrumental music.

UKT 171115: Those who would like to know of Sahampati Brahma should see:
http://www.palikanon.com/english/pali_names/sa/sahampati.htm 171115
"When the Buddha was at the Ajapālanigrodha, hesitating as to whether or not he should preach the Dhamma [of Four Noble Truths, Principle of Anatta, etc.], Sahampati Brahma appeared before him and begged of him to open to the world the doors of [escape from Samsara] Immortality. The Buddha agreed to this urgent request (Vin.i.5f.;S.i.137f)" 
See also Wikipedia on Samsara: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sa%E1%B9%83s%C4%81ra_(Buddhism) 171115
UKT 171115: The word "Immortality" is an oxymoron, when you have to die first to become immortal.


grc2-b10 (group of 2)

p108c2-b17/ p075-077
तान्त्रिक [ tntrika ]
-- a. (, ) completely versed in a system, specialist; taught in a Tantra.
77) तान्त्रिक (p. 75) tntrika (, ) completely versed in a system,


p108c2-b18/ p075-078
तान्वङ्ग [ tnvaṅga ]
-- m. pat. descendant of Tanvaṅga.
78) तान्वङ्ग (p. 75) tnvaṅga descendant of Tanvaṅga.

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grc2-b11 (group of 1)

p108c2-b19/ p075-031
ताप [ tp-a ]
-- m. heating (gold as a test); heat; pain, torment (mental and bodily); -aka, a. burning; purifying; tormenting, distressing; -ana, a. () burning, tormenting (--); m. sun; n. burning; mortification; N. of a hell; -anya, a. golden: -‿upanishad, f. T. of various Upanishads.
31) ताप (p. 75) tp-a heating (gold as a test);

UKT 180619: Gold and its alloys (such as an alloy of gold - Au, and copper - Cu) on extreme heating would melt. On exposure of the molten mass to air or oxygen, if the mass had been pure gold, the surface of the molten liquid remains shining. If copper or any other base metal had been present a layer of oxides would appear on the surface of the molten liquid as a slag making the surface dull. However, if the admixture had been a noble metal, such as silver - Ag, or platinum - Pt, no slag would appear.
  A hermit, who had done austerities, and had wrongly imagined that he had become so pure and noble as gold, and enter into a raging fire, would simply burn and die. Yet, there are stories (hard to believe) that he would jump out of the fire cleansed of all impurities in the form a {zau-gyi} capable of super-human feats.
  However, there are instances of such miracles as staring at the midday sun without becoming blind as could be seen of such practitioners in Myanmarpr, which you can sometimes see on the platform of the Shwedagon Pagoda in Yangon. I, myself, had witness such persons, and the majority of Burmese-Buddhist would simply pass them by!


grc2-b12 (group of 1)

p108c2-b20/ p075-030
तापयिष्णु [ tp-ay-ishn ]
-- a. burning; tormenting.
30) तापयिष्णु (p. 75) tp-ay-ishn burning; tormenting.



grc2-b13 (group of 1}

p108c2-b21/ p075-029
तापस [ tpas- ] {ta-pa.a.}
-- a. () practising penance; relating to religious penance; m., -, f. ascetic, hermit; -ya, n. status of ascetics.
29) तापस (p. 75) tpas- () practising penance; relating to religious penance; m., -, f. ascetic, hermit; -ya, n. status of ascetics. 


तापस [ tpas- ] {ta-pa.a.}
Skt: तापस [ tpas- ] - a. () practising penance; relating to religious penance; - Mac108c2
Pal: {ta.pa~i} =
- - UHS-PMD0433c2
  UKT from UHS: mfn. one who is austere. m.  rishi, monk


grc2-b14 (group of 2)

p108c2-b22/ not online
-- N. of a tree


p108c2-b23/ p075-059
तापिन् [ tp-in ]
-- a. causing pain; exciting (--): -, f. T. of various Upanishads.
59) तापिन् (p. 75) tp-in causing pain; exciting (--): -, f. T. of various Upanishads.


grc2-b15 (group of 1)

p108c2-b24/ p075-058
ताप्य [ tp-ya ]
-- m. n. sulphuret of iron.
58) ताप्य (p. 75) tp-ya sulphuret of iron. 


Contents of this page

{ta-ma.} / {taam} vs. {tm}

grc2-b16 (group of 3)

p108c2-b25/ p075-057
ताम [ tm-a ]
-- m. longing, yearning.
57) ताम (p. 75) tm-a longing, yearning.


p108c2-b26 / p075-056
तामरस [ tmarasa ]
-- n. day lotus; , f. lotus pond.
56) तामरस (p. 75) tmarasa day lotus; , f. lotus pond.


p108c2-b27/ p075-055
तामस [ tmas-a ]
-- a. () dark; relating to the quality tamas, connected with error or ignorance; m. N. of a Manu.
55) तामस (p. 75) tmas-a () dark; relating to the quality tamas, connected with error or ignorance; m. N. of a Manu.


grc2-b17 (group of 2)

p108c2-b28/ p075-054
तामि [tâmi]
-- तामी tami तामी [ tm ], f. suspension of the breath till exhaustion.
54) तामि (p. 75) tm suspension of the breath till exhaustion.


p108c2-b29/ p075-053
तामिस्र [ tmisra ]
-- a. (with paksha) or m. dark fortnight (from full till new moon); m. Rkshasa; N. of a hell; wrath (one of the five forms of Avidy).
53) तामिस्र (p. 75) tmisra paksha) or m. dark fortnight (from full till new moon); m. Rkshasa; N. of a hell; wrath (one of the five forms of Avidy). 


grc2-b18 (group of 1)

p108c2-b30/ p075-052
ताम्बल [ tmbala ]
-- m. kind of hemp; a. () hempen.
52) ताम्बल (p. 75) tmbala hemp; a. () hempen.


Contents of this page


{ta-ma.}/ {tm} vs. {taam}

See my note on Nasal codas : the true nasals and semi-nasals


grc3-b00 (group of 2)

p108c3-b00/ p075-051
ताम्बूल [ tmbla ]
-- n. betel; , f. id. (-dala, n. betel-leaf); -karaṅka, m. betel-box: -vhin, f. female bearer of a betel-box; -dyaka, m. betel-bearer; -dyin, m. id.: -, f.; -dhara, m. id.; -vall, f. betel; -vhaka, m. betel bearer; -vtik, f. areca-nut rolled up in a betel-leaf: -‿adhikra, m. office of betel carrier.
51) ताम्बूल (p. 75) tmbla betel; , f. id. (-dala, n. betel-leaf); -karaṅka, m. betel-box: -vhin, f. female bearer of a betel-box; -dyaka, m. betel-bearer; -dyin, m. id.: -, f.; -dhara, m. id.; -vall, f. betel; -vhaka, m. betelbearer; -vtik, f. areca-nut rolled up in a betel-leaf: -̮adhikra, m. office of betelcarrier.

ताम्बूल [ tmbla ]
Skt: ताम्बूल [ tmbla ] -- n. betel; - Mac108c3
Pal: {tm~bu-la.} - UHS-PMD0435c1
  UKT from UHS: n. betel, Piper betle 

See Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Betel 171116
"The betel (Piper betle) is the leaf of a vine belonging to the Piperaceae family, which includes pepper and kava. Betel leaf is mostly consumed in Asia, and elsewhere in the world by some Asian emigrants, as betel quid or in paan, with Areca nut and/or tobacco."


p108c3-b01/ 075-050
ताम्बूलिक [ tmbl-ika ]
Skt: ताम्बूलिक [ tmbl-ika ] - m. a seller of betel --
50) ताम्बूलिक (p. 75) tmbl-ika betel-seller.

Pal: {tm~bu-li.ka.} - UHS-MPD0435c1
  UKT from UHS: m. betel seller

See my note on Betel bearers : insert - Benfey
- the most beautiful marriageable maidens of the village carrying the betel caskets in a Shin'byu procession .


grc3-b01 (group of 1)

p108c3-b02/ p075-048
ताम्र [ tmr ]
-- a. copper-coloured, dark red; m. eruption with dark red spots; n. copper; a. (a) of copper; , f. kind of water-clock (a copper vessel having an orifice in the bottom, which when placed in water, gradually fills).
48) ताम्र (p. 75) tmr copper-coloured, dark red; m. eruption with dark red spots; n. copper; a. (a) of copper; , f. kind of water-clock (a copper vessel having an orifice in the bottom, which when placed in water, gradually fills).


grc3-b02 (group of 1 )

p108c3-b03/ p075-047
ताम्रक [ tmra-ka ]
- n. copper; -kutt a, m. copper-smith: , f.; -kda, a. having a red cox comb; m. cock; N.: -yuddha, n. cock-fight; -t, f., -tva, n. copper-colour; -dvpa, m. the island of Ceylon; -dhtu, m. red chalk; -patta, m. copper-plate (for grants); -parn, f. N. of a river (rising in the Malaya and celebrated for its pearls); -ptra, n. copper vessel; -ma ya, a. () made of copper, coppery; -lipta, m. pl. N. of a people: (?), , f. their capital on the western mouth of the Ganges; -varna, a. copper-coloured; -ssana, n. copper-plate edict.
47) ताम्रक (p. 75) tmra-ka copper; -kutta, m. copper-smith: , f.; -kda, a. having a red coxcomb; m. cock; N.: -yuddha, n. cock-fight; -t, f., -tva, n. copper-colour; -dvpa, m. the island of Ceylon; -dhtu, m. red chalk; -patta, m. copper-plate (for grants); -parn, f. N. of a river (rising in the Malaya and celebrated for its pearls); -ptra, n. copper vessel; -maya, a. () made of copper, coppery; -lipta, m. pl. N. of a people: (?), , f. their capital on the western mouth of the Ganges; -varna, a. copper-coloured; -ssana, n. copper-plate edict.

ताम्रक [ tmra-ka ]
Skt: ताम्रक [ tmra-ka ] - n. copper; - Mac108c3
Pal: {tm~ba.} - UHS PMD0434c2
  UKT from UHS: n. copper. mfn. adj. red 

See my note on Tampadipa - the country of copper.


grc3-b03 (group of 3)

p108c3-b04/ p075-046
ताम्राक्ष [ tmra‿aksha ]
-- a. () red-eyed; m. crow.
46) ताम्राक्ष (p. 75) tmra̮aksha () red-eyed; m. crow.


p108c3-b05/ p075-045
ताम्रिक [ tmr-ika ]
-- a. of copper.
45) ताम्रिक (p. 75) tmr-ika of copper. 


p108c3-b06/ p075-076
ताम्रोष्ठ [ tmra‿oshtha ]
-- m. du. red lips; a. having red lips.
76) ताम्रोष्ठ (p. 75) tmra̮oshtha red lips; a. having red lips.


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grc3-b04 (group of 3)

p108c3-b07/ p075-075
ताय [ t-y ]
-- ps. base of √i. tan.
75) ताय (p. 75) t-y √1. tan. 


p108c3-b08/ p075-074
तायन [ ty-ana ]
Skt: तायन [ ty-ana ] -- n. succeeding, prospering. - Mac108c3
  74) तायन (p. 75) ty-ana succeeding, prospering.
BPal: {ta-ya.na.} - UHS-PMD0437c2
  UKT from UHS: n. prospering


p108c3-b09/ p075-073
तायु [ ty- ]
-- m. thief.
73) तायु (p. 75) ty- thief.


Contents of this page


grc3-b05(group of 1) 

p108c3-b10/ p075-072
तार [ tr- ]
-- a. [√tr] penetrating, piercing; shrill, high, loud; sparkling: -m, cpv. -ta ram, spv. -tamam, ad.; m. n. loud, high, or shrill sound; m. pearl of pure water; putting across (--); sacred syllable Om or other mystic monosyllable in a Tantra; , f. N.
72) तार (p. 75) tr- [√tr] penetrating, piercing; shrill,

तार [ tr- ]
Skt: तार [ tr- ] -- a. [√tr] penetrating, piercing; shrill, high, loud; sparkling: - Mac108c
Pal: {ta-ra.} - UHS-PMD0437c2
  UKT from UHS: m. penetrating sound, high sound


grc3-b06 (group of 3)

p108c3-b11/ p075-071
तारक [ . tra-ka ]
-- a. (ik) putting across, delivering; m. N. of a Daitya (slain by Indra): pl. children of Traka.
71) तारक (p. 75) 1. tra-ka (ik) putting across, delivering;

See my note on Taraka - the female Daitya killed by Rama


p108c3-b12/ p075-070
तारक [ . tra-ka ]
-- n. star; pupil (of the eye); , f. id.; meteor; N.
70) तारक (p. 75) 2. taNra-ka star; pupil (of the eye);


grc3-b07 (group of 2)

p108c3-b13/ p075-069
तारकाक्ष [ trak‿aksha ]
-- a. having stars for eyes; m. N. of a Daitya; -‿antaka, m. Slayer of Traka, ep. of Skanda.
69) तारकाक्ष (p. 75) trak̮aksha having stars for eyes; m. N. of a Daitya; -̮antaka, m. Slayer of Traka, ep. of Skanda. 


p108c3-b14/ p075-068
तारकाराज [ trak-rga ]
-- m. moon (king of the stars).
68) तारकाराज (p. 75) trak-rga moon (king of the stars). 


grc3-b08 (group of 2)

p108c3-b15/ p075-067
तारकित [ trak-ita ]
-- pp. starry, bestarred.
67) तारकित (p. 75) trak-ita starry, bestarred.  


p108c3-b16/ p075-066
तारकेश्वर [ trak‿svara] - m. moon (king of the stars)
66) तारकेश्््वर (p. 75) trak̮svara moon (king of the stars). 


grc3-b09 (group of 2)

p108c3-b17/ p075-065
तारण [ tr-ana ]
-- a. bringing over, delivering; n. crossing over, overcoming; saving.
65) तारण (p. 75) tr-ana bringing over, delivering;


p108c3-b18/ p075-064
तारतम्य [ tratam-ya ]
-- n. condition of more or less (tara-tama), gradation; great difference.
64) तारतम्य (p. 75) tratam-ya condition of more or less (tara-tama), gradation;


grfc3-b10 (group of 2)

p108c3-b19/ p075-062
तारदीर्घ [ tra-drgha ]
-- a. loud and protracted (sound); -ntha, m. N. of a historian of Buddhism who lived at the beginning of the 17th century; -mla, n. N. of a locality.
62) तारदीर्घ (p. 75) tra-drgha loud and protracted (sound);


p108c3-b20/ p075-061
तारल्य [ tral-ya ]
-- n. caprice, inconstancy.
61) तारल्य (p. 75) tral-ya caprice, inconstancy.



grc3-b11 (group of 1)

p108c3-b21/ p075-060
तारा  [ tr- ]
-- f. [strewer, radiator], star; pupil of the eye: -dharma, m. N. of a prince; -‿adhipa, m. moon (lord of the stars); -pati, m. id.; Brihaspati; -patha, m. heavens (path of the stars); N. of a country; -pda, m. N. of various princes; -pura, n. N. of a town; -maya, a. () consisting of stars, starry.
60) तारा (p. 75) tr- [strewer, radiator], star; pupil of the eye:

See Wikipedia on Goddess Tara: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tara_(Buddhism) 171118
"Tara , Skt: तारा tārā ... in Tibetan Buddhism, is a female Bodhisattva in Mahayana Buddhism who appears as a female Buddha in Vajrayana Buddhism. She is known as the "mother of liberation", and represents the virtues of success in work and achievements. ... The main Tārā mantra is the same for Buddhists and Hindus alike: oṃ tāre tuttāre ture svāhā. ... Whether the Tārā figure originated as a Buddhist or Hindu goddess is unclear and remains a source of inquiry among scholars. ... Tārā became a very popular Vajrayana deity with the rise of Tantra in 8th-century Pala and, ..."

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----- online 180614 : p108.htm - search for तलातल

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UKT 180620: All copied to respective entries above.


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UKT notes

Betel bearers

UKT cultural note 120314 :

See also: Cigar-Girls, and Foresters of Burma,
in Asiatic Journal Vol4, no3, NovApr1845, p230 , ed. Wm. H. Allen (PDF)
- AsiaticJ04-3<> / bkp<> (link chk 170822)
Note: the betel quid and cheroot (and cigar) are usually served and sold together. The following is an excerpt by an unknown English author:
" At an early hour in the evening, having waited impatiently for the setting of the sun, the cigar-girl commences the delightful operation of her toilette ; smears her face, and indeed every exposed part of her person, with the fragrant cosmetic called thanaka  {a.np.hka:}; dons her necklace (if she has one), and arrays herself in her silk petticoat and velvet jerkin. Thus attired, she takes her wooden tray filled with [with betel quids {kwm:ya}] and] cigars {hs:laip}, her stool and torch, and proceeds to the most frequented thoroughfare near her own home. Having sat down, she kindles her torch, and places it in such a position as to throw the light upon her face and the shade upon the tray before her. The truth is, that she is there less to sell her cigars than to shew off her own countenance, and to enjoy the sweet converse of her admirer ; the reason, therefore, for keeping the former ..."

The betel quid, (Hindi: पान pān), is a small bundle of small pieces of betel-nut of the betel-palm, wrapped with a leaf of the betel-vine -- the two plants are from different families of plants. Peoples of the Indian subcontinent and Myanmar from ancient times chew a cud of betel now and then to freshen their breath and to strengthen their teeth. Contrary to the Western view, the habit does not stain the teeth unless a person becomes a chain user. The custom is still alive in Myanmar, and in the inset are two female betel bearers - the most beautiful damsels in the community - in a Shinbyu or noviciating ceremony in Mandalay, the cultural capital of modern Myanmar. See Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paan 120314
   The betel-quids sold in Taiwan and the sellers, the betel-nut girls,  dressed in scanty outfits are not the same as the betel-bearers. Their quids contain green unripe nuts which are intoxicating. The Bur-Myan betel quids contain dried ripened nuts which are free of the intoxicating component on ripening. See Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Betel_nut_beauty 120315
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Tampadipa - the country of copper

- UKT 120315

Somehow or other the name of Tampadipa is stuck in my memory. It is the name of a part of Ancient Burma of Gautama Buddha era which would be more than 2500 years ago. See in TIL HD-PDF & SD-PDF libraries:

http://www.archive.org/stream/indianantiquarya014360mbp/indianantiquarya014360mbp_djvu.txt 120315
See downloaded J. of Indian Antiquary, R C Temple ed., in which Taw Seinko's article appeared:
- RCTemple-JIndianAntiquVol22<> / Bkp<> (link chk 170821)
On page004, referring to PoUDaung pagoda inscription, we see the names of the 16 states over which King Hsinbyushin (r. 1763-1776 AD): #01. Sunparanta (Kal, Tnnyin, Y, Salin, and Sag - [west bank of Irrawaddy river]), and, #15. Tampadipa (Pagn, Myinzaing, Piny, and Av - [east bank of the Irrawaddy river]. The script is not pure Bur-Myan, it is mixed with Mon-Myan., and square glyphs of Pagan period]. Since, Pagan empire (849-1297 AD), the king referred to cannot be Hsinbyushin, but most probably to Tazishin 'lord of one white-elephant' {tic-si:hyn i-ha-u} of Pinya. See: Translation of an Inscription in Bur-Myan at Buddh Gya, in Section 4: Myanmar languages and Culture :
- myn-indx.htm > Bur-inscrip-india.htm (link chk 171115) 
See also downloaded PDF paper Ancient Geography of Burma by C Duroiselle, Lect. in Pali, Rangoon College, 1906. - CDuroiselle-AncientGeogBurma<> / Bkp<> (link chk 170821)
The name Tampadipa appears on p13.

The right bank of the Irrawaddy River [the western bank] near Prome is fringed by a range of hills, and PflSuodaung is the name applied to the topmost of seven hills, forming part of this range. The P6ft8daung Hill is 'crowned with a massive rook, called the Hermit's Cap, and shaped like a Buddhist priest's alms-bowl. On this rock a platform of brick is raised, on which stands the Po-u-daung Pagoda. It is about 30 feet high, and its form and architecture bespeak its masons from the maritime provinces. Near the pagoda is an image- of fh s * e *^ Burmese Era, (1874 A.D.). In this image-house Gautama

ese in a standing posture with the index-finger of his right hand pointing during- SO^^I^i? Beloved disciple, in a praying attitude, begging the sage to

,,. stem side of the Hermit's Cap '"which is surrounded on every side, except the

m. 6 5.'e it joins the next hill, by sheer precipices of some thousand feet in depth are three cave's cut into the rock. Over these are images of tlie two traditional moles, also cut in the rock, representing them in an adoring attitude and asking some boon from Gautama Buddha, One of the caves is devoted to the custody of an* inscription engraved on a sandstone slab, about four feet high by three feet wide. The inscription was placed there ' by S'inbyuyin (1763-1776 A. D.), the second son of Alaungpaya (Alompra). It bears date 1136, B. E., (1774 A. D.), and contains a record of his progress from Ava to Rangoon, his placing a new hti on the Shwe Dagon Pagoda at Rangoon, v.n-1 the removal of its old ^, which was thrown down by an earthquake in 1769, to be enshrined in the Po-u-daung Pagoda. ... "

UKT: the name Tampadipa appears later in the article.
See also an article by E. Moore, Nyaung-gan: A Preliminary Note on a Bronze Age Cemetery near Mandalay, Myanmar (Burma) http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs/Moore_AP01.pdf 120315. The downloaded pdf is in TIL library.
- EMoorePaukPauk-BronzeAgeNyaunganCemetery<> / Bkp<> (link chk 170821)

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- UKT 120313, 170817:

I opine that the Tandava is nothing but the vigorous dance form of Nataraj {lau:ka.nt} - the time- or rhythm-keeper of the Universe. Identifying Nataraj with with Hindu Shiva is just the work of Ponnar {poaN~Na:}

Somehow or the other the dancing of Nataraj {lau:ka.nt}, brings to mind, the stories of the Raven of the American Native peoples. According to one story I remember, the Raven entered through the open mouth of a whale. Once inside he saw a beautiful damsel dancing by the light of a single lamp. The girl's fingers are attached by strings to various parts of the whale. When the girl feels drowsy, and dances slowly the heart of the whale beats slowly. The Raven did not know that the girl is the spirit of the whale, and her dance makes the whale's heart beat. The Raven thought of rescuing the girl and marrying her. He cut off her attachments and brought her out of the whale. The girl or the spirit of the whale died, and so did the whale.

I could not remember my source of the story. The nearest I could find now is: The Spirit of the Whale (An Inuit Tale)
- http://www.uexpress.com/tell-me-a-story/2004/7/18/the-spirit-of-the-whale-an

The dance of Nataraj {lau:ka.nt} is to keep the "heart of the world" beating. If he were to dance uncontrollably, like the human heart beating uncontrollably, the "world" would "die" or be destroyed.

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tandava 120313

Tāṇḍava or Tāṇḍava nṛtya, the divine art form, is a dance performed by the god Shiva, who is revered by Hindus. [UKT ]

UKT 170817: Just as the village cocks crowing in the early morning might imagine they are the lords of the Sun, who order the Sun to appear for mankind, the Poannars {poaN~Na:} {poaN~Na:} think it is their male dva-god Shiva, who creates the Universe!

According to Hindu mythology [the work of the Poannars {poaN~Na:}], Shivas Tandava is a vigorous dance that is the source of the cycle of creation, preservation and dissolution. While the Rudra Tandava depicts his violent nature, first as the creator and later as the destroyer of the universe, even of death itself; the Ananda Tandava depicts him as the enjoyer of his creation - the universe. Shiva as Nataraja (lit. "Lord of dance") is considered the supreme lord of dance. [1]

The Tandava takes its name from Tandu, the attendant of Shiva, who instructed Bharata (author of the Natya Shastra) in the use of Angaharas and Karanas, modes of the Tandava at Shiva's order. Some scholars consider that Tandu himself must have been the author of an earlier work on the dramatic arts, which was incorporated into the Natya Shastra. [2] Indeed, the classical arts of dance, music and song may derive from the mudras and rituals of Shaiva tradition [southern or Shaivite Hinduism].

UKT 171112: See Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Natya_Shastra 171112
"The Nāṭya Śāstra नाट्य शास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) = (न ा ट ् य) 'drama & dance'  (श ा स ् त ् र)  is a Sanskrit Hindu text on the performing arts. [1] [2] The text is attributed to sage Bharata Muni, and its first complete compilation is dated to between 200 BCE and 200 CE, [3] [4] but estimates vary between 500 BCE and 500 CE. [5]

The 32 Angaharas and 108 Karanas are discussed by Bharata in Chapter 4 of the Natya Shastra, Tandava Lakshanam. [3] Karana is the combination of hand gestures with feet to form a dance posture. Angahara is composed of seven or more Karanas. [4] 108 karanas included in Tandava could be employed in the course of dance, fight, and personal combats and in other special movements like strolling.

The dance is a pictorial allegory of the five principal manifestations of eternal energy:[5]

'Shrishti' - creation, evolution
'Sthiti' - preservation, support
'Samhara' - destruction, evolution
'Tirobhava' - illusion
'Anugraha' - release, emancipation, grace

Thus Tandava symbolizes the cosmic cycles of creation and destruction, as well as the daily rhythm of birth and death.

Tandava, as performed in the sacred dance-drama of southern India, has vigorous, brisk movements. Performed with joy, the dance is called Ananda Tandava. Performed in a violent mood, the dance is called Rudra Tandava. In the Hindu texts, at least seven types of Tandava are found: Ananda Tandava, Tripura Tandava, Sandhya Tandava, Samhara Tandava, Kali (Kalika) Tandava, Uma Tandava and Gauri Tandava. [4] However, some people believe that there are 16 types of Tandava.

"How many various dances of Shiva are known to His worshipers I cannot say. No doubt the root idea behind all of these dances is more or less one and the same, the manifestation of primal rhythmic energy. Whatever the origins of Shiva's dance, it became in time the clearest image of the activity of God which any art or religion can boast of." - Ananda Coomaraswamy [6]

The dance performed by Goddess Parvati in response to Shiva's Tandava is known as Lasya, in which the movements are gentle, graceful and sometimes erotic. Some scholars consider Lasya to be the feminine version of Tandava. Lasya has 2 kinds, Jarita Lasya and Yauvaka Lasya. [7]

The Hindu scriptures narrate various occasions when Shiva or other gods have performed the Tandava. When Sati (first wife of Lord Shiva, who was reborn as Parvati) jumped into the Agni Kunda (sacrificial fire) in Daksha's Yagna and gave up her life, Shiva is said to have performed the Rudra Tandava to express his grief and anger. The Shivapradosha stotra says when Shiva performs the Sandhya Tandava, the other gods like Brahma, Vishnu, Sarasvati, Lakshmi and Indra play musical instruments and sing Shiva's praises. [4] Ganesha, the son of Shiva, is depicted as Ashtabhuja tandavsa nritya murtis (Eight armed form of Ganesha dancing the Tandava) in temple sculptures. [8] The Bhagavata Purana talks of Krishna dancing his Tandava on the head of the serpent Kaliya. [9] According to Jain traditions, Indra is said to have performed the Tandava in honour of Rishabha (Jain tirthankar) on the latter's birth. [10]

Creation is made possible by the goodness of Viṣhṇu, and when it requires to be destroyed, Lord Śiva does it by the tāṇḍavanṛtya. [1]

UKT: End of Wikipedia article.

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Tannaptra - the Devas not to quarrel

- UKT 120314:

The Hindu deva-gods and asura-gods are enemies. You should look on them as anthropomorphic axiomatic entities created and re-created by their priests, the Ponnar {poaN~Na:}, to bring awe into others to support them materially and serve them physically. This phenomenon can be found in Ancient Egypt, Ancient Greece and Ancient Rome. Created after the humans, they have all the human qualities - Greed, Anger, unbridled Sexual desires, un-subdued Pride. Result is they always separated into hostile groups. The following account is how they realized that if they cannot remain united, their enemies will come amongst them and finally conquer them.

Excerpt from Satapatha Brahmana Part II (SBE26), Julius Eggeling tr. [1885], at sacred-texts.com
http://www.sacred-texts.com/hin/sbr/sbe26/sbe2616.htm 120314, 170818

93:1 The Tnnaptra is a solemn covenant made by the sacrificer and his priests, in the name of Tannapt, and while touching sacrificial butter; thereby pledging themselves not to injure each other.

तानूनप्त्र tānūnaptra = त ा न ू न प ् त ् र  - n. used in that ceremony - SpkSkt

1. When the gods [the Devas - UKT] had performed the guest-offering, discord befell them. They separated into four different parties, unwilling to yield to each other's excellence, -- Agni, with the Vasus, Soma with the Rudras, Varuna with the dityas, and Indra with the Maruts. Brihaspati with the All-gods, say some 2, but, indeed, those who separated into four parties were 'all the gods.' When they were separated, the Asura-Rakshas [the enemies of the Devas - UKT] came after them and entered between them.

2. They became aware of it, -- 'Forsooth, we are in an evil plight, the Asura-Rakshas have come in between us: we shall fall a prey to our enemies. Let us come to an agreement and yield to the excellence of one of us!' They yielded to the excellence of Indra; wherefore it is said, 'Indra is all the deities, the gods have Indra for their chief.'

3. For this reason let not kinsmen fall out, for any (enemy) of theirs, be he ever so far away, steps in between them; they do what pleases their enemies and fall a prey to their enemies: therefore let them not fall out. For he who, knowing this, quarrels not, does what displeases his enemies and falls not a prey to his enemies: let him therefore not quarrel.

4. They said, 'Well then, let us contrive so that this (concord) of ours shall be for ever imperishable!'

... ... ...

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Taraka - the female Daitya

- UKT 120315

From: http://wiki.aeriagames.com/megaten/index.php?title=Taraka 120315

In Hindu mythology, Taraka was a female Daitya and the daughter of the yaksha Suketu or the ashura Sunda. She was transformed into a Rakshasi by the sage Agastya and went to live in a forest on the Ganges. She would ravage the country around and had an insatiable lust for blood and carnal desires. Every night she would hunt for male victims and, if she found one that she liked, she would forcibly have sex with him and drain his life energy until he was dead. If she did not like the man, she would simply eat him, starting from his head.

According to the Hindu epic, the Ramayana, the sage Vishvamitra asked Rama to slay Taraka, but he was reluctant to kill a female. Rama decided to deprive Taraka of her ability to do harm by cutting off her arms and his brother Lakshmana cut off her nose and ears. However, Taraka used her powers of sorcery to hurl stones at the brothers and Rama was forced to kill her with an arrow.

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Tattvic philosophy : Trika system

- UKT 170817: What is Tattva?

Skt: तत्त्व tattva = त त ् त ् व - n. axiom, principle - SpkSkt.
Pal: {tt~ta.} - UHS PMD0429c2
  UKT from UHS: [four meanings given: I've taken the most relevant] . n. truth 
Pal: {tt~hta.} - UHS PMD0430c1
  UKT from UHS: ni. that location, that article

Because Tattva is an axiolm, which by definition is truth - a principle - we cannot argue either for or against. You can take it or just ignore it.

From Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tattva 170817

Tattva is a Sanskrit word meaning 'thatness', 'principle', 'reality' or 'truth'. [1] According to various Indian schools of philosophy, a tattva (or tattwa) is an element or aspect of reality. [UKT ]

UKT 170817: As a material scientist, I always differentiate between the non-axiomatic reality from axiomatic reality. By non-axiomatic reality I mean the world of mass and energy governed by Einstein's E = mc, and Quantum Mechanics. As a chemist, mass which can be weighed on a chemical balance, and by energy I mean that governed by the Thermodynamics. By axiomatic reality I mean the world of ideas which is outside the pale of chemical-balance and Thermodynamics.

I always explain my position by the word element . To a chemist, a Chemical element is one of the 100 odd chemical elements of the Periodic Table. On the other hand, the Alchemical elements aka Mahabuta {ma.ha Bu-ta.}  महाभूत -  earth, water, fire and air - are mixtures, compounds and elements made up of Chemical elements. Thirdly, "In early Buddhism, the four elements are [sensory - imaginary - Axiomatic] a basis for understanding [mental] suffering [Principle of Dok-hka] and for liberating oneself from [mental] suffering. [Principle on Nibban]. The earliest Buddhist texts explain that the four primary material elements are the sensory qualities solidity, fluidity, temperature, and mobility; their characterization as earth, water, fire, and air, respectively, is declared an abstraction instead of concentrating on the fact of material existence, one observes how a physical thing is sensed, felt, perceived". - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Classical_element 170617

In some traditions, they are conceived as an aspect of deity. Although the number of tattvas [axiomatic truths] varies depending on the philosophical school, together they are thought to form the basis of all our experience. [UKT ]

The Samkhya {n~hka.ya.} philosophy [see p107.htm] uses a system of 25 tattvas, while Shaivism [worship of Shiva-Dva] recognises 36 tattvas. In Buddhism, the equivalent is the list of dhammas which constitute reality.

Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tattva 171112
"[Tattva] In Buddhism the term "dhamma/dharma" is being used for the constitutional elements. Early Buddhist philosophy used several lists, such as namarupa and the five skandhas, to analyse reality. The Abhidhamma tradition elaborated on these lists, using over 100 terms to analyse reality."


From Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kashmir_Shaivism 170823

Kashmir Shaivism is a group of nondualist Tantric Shaiva exegetical traditions from Kashmir that originated after 850 CE. [1] This tradition is also termed the Trika school and was actually pan-Indian, also flourishing in Orissa and Mahārāṣṭra. [2]

The Tantrāloka, Mālinīślokavārttika, and Tantrasāra of the Kashmirian Abhinavagupta (9751025 CE) are formally an exegesis on the Mālinīvijayottara Tantra, although they also drew heavily on the Kali-based Krama subcategory of the Kulamārga. [3]

Kashmir Shaivism claimed to supersede Shaiva Siddhanta, a dualistic tradition which scholars consider normative tantric Shaivism. [4] The Shaiva Siddhanta goal of becoming an ontologically distinct Shiva (through Shiva's grace) was replaced by recognizing oneself as Shiva who, in Kashmir Shaivism's monism, is the entirety of the universe. [5]


Edited excerpt from Categories of the manifestation according to Trika system
- by Gabriel Pradīpaka
http://www.sanskrit-sanscrito.com.ar/en/trika_overview/tattvicchart.shtml 120313, 170823
UKT 120313: my understanding is given within [...]
UKT 170823: this version does not have Skt-Dev (phonetic) but only Engl-Latin (non-phonetic), and thus suffers from the weakness of English. For my BEPS work, it is almost useless.

Note by Gabriel Pradīpaka - the author:
   "Gabriel Pradīpaka, again. I have published this document in order to show concisely the thirty-six tattva-s or levels of Creation according to Trika.
   "Despite this is a kind of summary, I will describe each of the tattva-s to a certain extent. You should use this document as an essential one. Each time you need it, here it is to be used. As you go deeper and deeper into your studies of Trika, Sanskrit, Meditation and other philosophies, you will have to return to it over and over again.
   "Note that the 25 tattva-s stated by Sāṅkhya (a philosophical system) are the same as the last 25 tattva-s of Trika. Trika reworked the tattvic scheme of Sāṅkhya and added 11 more categories to it. So, if you are a follower of Sāṅkhya, this chart will prove very useful for you too.
   "Please, go to Trika section on this website for more information on tattva-s or categories."

The 36 Tattva-s in the form of a chart

UKT 170823: The word Śiva has to mean the most promiscuous god having sex with his wife - represented by the Lingam (penis) stuck forever in the Yoni (virginal) which is very disturbing to my Buddhist mind.

PARAMAŚIVA परमशिव - the Supreme Śiva or Source of all.
01. Śiva शिव [the male principal - UKT]
02. Śakti शक्ति[the female principal - UKT]

ANĀŚRITAŚIVA अनाश्रितशिव - Śiva without any categories
03. Sadāśiva or Sādākhya सदाशिव or सादाख्य- the abode of Icchāśakti or Power of Will.
04. Īśvara ईश्वर - the abode of Jānaśakti or Power of Knowledge.
05. Sadvidyā or Śuddhavidyā सद्विद्या or शुद्धविद्या - the abode of Kriyāśakti or Power of Action.

ĀṆAVAMALA - आणवमल - the Primordial Impurity, and [its derivatives - UKT]
Māyīyamala - मायीयमल - and Kārmamala - कार्ममल .
06. Māyā माया - Ignorance
07. Kalā कला - the first Kacuka कञ्चुक or Sheath of Ignorance
08. Vidyā विद्या - the second Kacuka
09. Rāga राग - the third Kacuka
10. Kāla काल - the fourth Kacuka
11. Niyati नियति - the last Kacuka

12. Puruṣa पुरुष - the inner Self in all beings.
13. Prakṛti प्रकृति - state in which the three qualities (Guṇa-s) remain completely balanced. These Guṇa-s are Sattva, Rajas and Tamas. They are the well-known Jānaśakti, Icchāśakti and Kriyāśakti, respectively, having undergone one more contraction.

ANTAḤKARAṆA अन्तःकरण - Inner (psychic) organ
   [the three evolutes of Prakṛti -- UKT]
14. Buddhi or Mahat बुद्धि or महत् - first evolute of Prakṛti: "the intellect".
15. Ahaṅkāra or Asmitā अहङ्कार or अस्मिता - the second evolute of Prakṛti: "the ego".
16. Manas मनस् - the third evolute of Prakṛti: "a net of thoughts or the ordinary mind"

JĀNENDRIYA-S ज्ञानेन्द्रिय - Powers of Perception (predominantly sattvic)
   [the five sensations: ear, skin, eye, tongue, nose - UKT]
17. Śrotra श्रोत्र or Śravaṇa श्रवण - power of hearing
18. Tvak त्वक् - power of feeling by touch
19. Cakṣus चक्षुस् - power of seeing
20. Jihvā जिह्वा or Rasanā रसना - power of tasting
21. Ghrāṇa घ्राण - power of smelling

KARMENDRIYA-S कर्मेन्द्रिय - Powers of Action (predominantly rajasic)
   [the five behaviors: lips; hands; legs & feet; excretion through anus, genital, nose; sexual behavior - UKT]
22. Vāk - वाक् - power of speaking
23. Pāṇi पाणि - power of handling
24. Pāda - पाद - power of locomotion
25. Pāyu - पायु - power of excreting
26. Upastha उपस्थ - power of sexual activity and restfulness

TANMĀTRA-S - तन्मात्र - Subtle elements (predominantly tamasic)
   [the five attitudes towards fine things - UKT]
27. Śabda शब्द - Sound-as-such recognition [without speculating its source etc.]
28. Sparśa स्पर्श - Touch-as-such recognition [without speculation] 
29. Rūpa रूप - Color-as-such recognition [without speculation]
30. Rasa रस - Flavor-as-such recognition [without speculation]
31. Gandha गन्ध - Odor-as-such recognition [without speculation]  

MAHĀBHŪTA-S - महाभूत - Gross elements (predominantly tamasic)
   [the five attitudes towards substantive things - UKT]
32. Ākāśa आकाश - [Energy or Life principal - UKT]
33. Vāyu वायु - All that is gaseous [including air - UKT]
34. Agni अग्नि - or Tejas तेजस् - All that contains heat and color [including ordinary "fire" - UKT.]
35. Āpas आपस् - All that is liquid [including ordinary "water". - UKT]
36. Pṛthivī पृथिवी - All that is solid [including ordinary "earth". - UKT]

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