Update: 2018-06-20 08:23 PM -0400


A Practical Sanskrit Dictionary


by A. A. Macdonell, 1893, http://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/scans/MDScan/index.php?sfx=jpg ;
1929, http://dsal.uchicago.edu/dictionaries/macdonell/ 110416 , 110611 

Edited, with additions from Pali sources, by U Kyaw Tun (UKT) (M.S., I.P.S.T., USA) and staff of Tun Institute of Learning (TIL) . Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone. Prepared for students and staff of TIL Research Station, Yangon, MYANMAR :  http://www.tuninst.net , www.romabama.blogspot.com 

MC-indx.htm | Top


Contents of this page

{ta.ya.}/ {t}{ty} : missing in Sanskrit, present in Burmese
{ta.a.}/ {t} : missing in Sanskrit, present in Burmese
{tar~ka.} - Pali: {tak~ka.}
{tar~za.} - Pali: {tiz~za.}
{tar~Na.} तर्ण 
{tar~Sa.} तर्ष  - Pal: {ta.a.} ?

Contents of this page

34) तत्संख्याक (p. 74) tat-saṅkhy-ka the same in number; -sama, a. equal to, synonymous with (--); -samaksham, ad. before his eyes; -sampe, lc. near him; -sambandhin, a. connected with that; -sprishtin, a. touching that or those.
38) तत्रत्य (p. 74) tatra-tya being there.
46) तथ्य (p. 74) tath-ya true; n. truth: in., -tas, in accordance with truth; -vakana, n. promise.
95) तन्त्रवाय (p. 74) tantra-vya weaver.

----- on line : 180614 : p107.htm - search for तपन

The remainder moved to p108. Searching online, page by page (p106, p107, p108, ...) can bring up the same entry from p074, p075, ... again and again. For example, I have found a repeat:
   "1) तल्प p. 75) talpa couch, bed: -m adhi-gam, have sexual intercourse with (--); turret;
    -ga, a. having sexual intercourse with (--); violating the bed of (--); -ga, a. born in the nuptial couch. "
I've already used it in ungrouped "p108c1-b06/ p075-001".
Deleting the multiple entries would make sense, but unintentional delete would bring up some entries being missed.

UKT notes :
tamas - or darkness of hell in सांख्य sāṃkhya or {n~hka.ya.} philosopy
Taralika in Kadambari : a character in Kadambari, the 7th century Sanskrit novel.
Vedic months: different from Hindu months

Contents of this page


UKT 171104: Formerly the grouped entries are in folder Mac. Now a new folder Mac-gr is created, and the grouped entries will be moved one by one from Mac to Mac-gr.


grc1-b01 (group of 2) 

p107c1-b01/ p074-083
तप [ tap-a ]
-- a. (--) burning; tormenting; harassing; m. heat; hot season; penance.
  83) तप (p. 74) tap-a (--) burning; tormenting;
BPal: {ta.pa.}/ {ta.pau:} - UHS-PMD0433c1
  UKT from UHS: mn. heat, austerity (asceticism), Dhutanga Pal: dhutaṅga 'renunciation'

See Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dhutanga 171111
"While the Buddha did not require these practices, they were recommended for those wanting to practice greater asceticism. ... [early practitioners]
1. Maha Kassapa Thero (The greatest among Dhutanga Practitioners),
2. Sariputta Thero (The greatest among the Wise and greater among Dhutanga Practitioners),
3. Khadiravaniya Revata Thero (The greatest among Forest Dwellers)"

p107c1-b02/ p074-082
तपःप्रभाव [ tapah-prabhva ]
-- m. efficacy of penances.
82) तपःप्रभाव (p. 74) tapah-prabhva efficacy of penances.


grc1-b02 (group of 2)

p107c1-b03/ p074-081
तपन [ tp-ana ]
- a. burning; tormenting; m. sun; N. of a hell: -dyuti, a. shining like the sun.
  81) तपन (p. 74) tp-ana burning; tormenting;
  BPal: {ta-pa.na.} - UHS PMD0437c1
  UKT frm UHS: n. burning, extreme anxiety, {ta-pa.na.}-hell


p107c1-b04/ p074-080
तपनीय [ tap-anya ]
-- m. kind of rice; n. purified gold: -‿upala, m. sun-stone.
  80) तपनीय (p. 74) tap-anya rice;
BPal: {ta.pa.ni-ya.} - UHS-PMD0433c1
  UKT from UHS: mfn. anxiety . n. gold

UKT 171104: "purified gold" is that which have been molten (extreme heat) to burn out impurities.
See my note on sun-stone


grc1-b03 (group of 2)

p107c1-b05/ not online
-- m. N. of a man

p107c1-b06/ p074-079
तपश््चरण [ tapas-karana ]
-- n. self-castigation, mortification; austerity; -kary, f. id.
79) तपश्््चरण (p. 74) tapas-karana self-castigation, mortification;


grc1-b04 (group of 1)

p107c1-b07/ p074-112
तपस् [ tp-as ]
-- n. heat; fire (of which there are five, the four directed towards the cardinal points and the sun); torment; penance, self castigation, mortification, religious austerity, devotion; N. of a month (Jan.-Feb.); N. of one of the seven worlds (situated above Ganas).
112) तपस् (p. 74) tp-as heat; fire

तपस् [ tp-as ]
Skt: N. of a month (Jan.-Feb.) - Mac107
PBur: Name of a lunar month coinciding with माघ māgha and {ta.po.tw:} - UKT

See my note on Vedic months -different from Hindu months. See also Loka (world) of Hinduism


grc1-b05 (group of 2)

p107c1-b08/ p074-111
तपस्य [ 1. tpas-ya ]
-- den. P. castigate oneself, mortify the flesh.
111) तपस्य (p. 74) 1. tpas-ya P. castigate oneself,


p107c1-b09/ p074-110
तपस्य [ 2. tapas-y ]
-- a. produced from heat; m. N. of a month (February-March); , f. religious austerity.
110) तपस्य (p. 74) 2. tapas-y produced from heat;


grc1-b06 (group of 2)

p107c1-b10/ p074-109
तपस्वत् [ tpas-vat ]
-- a. glowing, hot; ascetic, full of devotion, pious.
109) तपस्वत् (p. 74) tpas-vat glowing, hot;


p107c1-b11/ p074-108
तपस्विन् [ tapas-vn ]
-- a. tormented, afflicted, unfortunate; pious, devout; m. ascetic, religious devotee; -, f. female ascetic.
108) तपस्विन् (p. 74) tapas-vn tormented, afflicted, unfortunate;


grc1-b07 (group of 2)

p107c1-b12/ p074-107
तपात्यय [ tapa‿atyaya ]
-- m. (end of the heat), rainy season; -‿anta, m. id.
107) तपात्यय (p. 74) tapa̮atyaya (end of the heat), rainy season;


p107c1-b13/ p074-106
तपिष्ठ [ tp-ishtha ]
-- spv. very hot, burning; -ishnu, a. warming, burning; -yas, cpv. most rigorously ascetic; more pious than (g.).
106) तपिष्ठ (p. 74) tp-ishtha very hot, burning;


grc1-b08 (group of 3)

p107c1-b14/ p074-105
तपुषि [ tp-ush-i ]
-- a. glowing, hot.
105) तपुषि (p. 74) tp-ush-i glowing, hot.


p107c1-b15/ p074-104
तपुष्पा [ tap-ush-p ]
-- a. drinking warm libations.
104) तपुष्पा (p. 74) tap-ush-paN drinking warm libations.


p107c1-b16/ p074-103
तपुस् [ tap-us ]
-- a. glowing, hot.
103) तपुस् (p. 74) tap-us glowing, hot.


grc1-b09 (group of 1)

p107c1-b17/ p074-102
तपोधन [ tapo-dhana ]
-- a. whose wealth is penance; devout, pious; m. ascetic, devotee; N.; -nidhi, m. treasury of penance; rigorous devotee; -bhrit, a. devout, pious; m. devotee, ascetic; -maya, a. () consisting of penance or austerity; devoted to piety; -mla, a. having austerity for its root; -yaga, a. sacrificing with penance; -yukta, pp. ascetic, pious; m. ascetic, devotee; -rata, pp. delighting in penance, devout; -rati, a. id.; -vat, a. ascetic, devout; -vana, n. sacred grove (in which ascetics practise penance); -vriddha, pp. abounding in penance, rigorously ascetic, very pious.
102) तपोधन (p. 74) tapo-dhana whose wealth is penance;

तपोधन [ tapo-dhana ]
Skt: तपोधन [ tapo-dhana ] -- a. whose wealth is penance; devout, pious; m. ascetic, devotee; N.; - Mac107c1
BPal: {ta.pau:Da.na.} - UHS PMD0433c2
  UKT from UHS: mfn. whose wealth is austerity. m. monk

UKT 171114: The word "penance" because of its association of "Sin" (Original Sin of Christians) or "wrong doing" is not fitting for Theravada monks and holy persons. I prefer the word "austerity".
penance  n. . An act of self-mortification or devotion performed voluntarily to show sorrow for a sin or other wrongdoing. - AHTD
austerity  n. pl. austerities . The quality of being austere. . Severe and rigid economy: wartime austerity. . An austere habit or practice. - AHTD


grc1-b10 (group of 3)

p107c1-b18/ p074-101
तप्त [ tap-t ]
-- pp.; n. hot water; glowing heat.
101) तप्त (p. 74) tap-t hot water; glowing heat.


p107c1-b19/ p074-100
तप्तकृच्छ्र [ tapta-krikkhra ]
-- m. n. penance in which only hot things are eaten; -vluk, f. pl. hot sand.
100) तप्तकृच्छ्र (p. 74) tapta-krikkhra penance in which only hot things are eaten;


p107c1-b20/ p074-099
तप्ति [ tap-ti ]
- f. heat; -tri, m. warmer, heater.
99) तप्ति (p. 74) tap-ti heat; -tri, m. warmer, heater.


Contents of this page


grc1-b11 (group of 1)

p107c1-b21/ not online
तम् [ tam ] IV. P. ()
-- tamya , become breathless, choke; faint; be exhausted or distressed; be beside oneself; become rigid; pp. tnt , distressed. , be beside oneself, become faint; be distressed. ni , pp. nitnta , q.v. sam , become exhausted.


Contents of this page


grc2-b01 (group of 3)

p107c2-b01/ p074-098
तम [ tama ]
-- a. (spv. suffix) most wished for.
98) तम (p. 74) tama most wished for.
BPal: {ta.ma.} - UHS-PMD0434c2
  UKT from UHS: n. ignorance, darkness of ignorance. Rahu Planet.

UKT 171105: Note the word suffix. The meanings in Skt-Dev and Pal-Myan seemed to be diagonally opposite. See below.


p107c2-b02/ p074-097
तमक [ tama-ka ]
-- m. kind of asthma.
97) तमक (p. 74) tama-ka asthma.


p107c2-b03/ p074-154
तमप् [ tama-p ]
-- suffix of the spv. -tama (gr.).
154) तमप् (p. 74) tama-p -tama (gr.). 


grc2-b02 (group of 1)

p107c2-b04/ p074-125
तमस् [ tm-as ]
- n (sg & pl) n. darkness (--); -ka, -- a.=tamas; -vin-, f. night.  -- n. (sg. & pl.) darkness; gloom of hell; N. of a hell; eclipse = Rhu; error, ignorance; delusion; Darkness (one of the three fundamental qualities (gunas) incident to creation; in the Sṅkhya philosophy one of the five forms of Avidy).
125) तमस् (p. 74) tm-as darkness; gloom of hell;

See Sṅkhya Philosophy introduction by Nandalal Sinha, 1915, in TIL PDF libraries
- NSinha-SankhyaPhilo<> / Bkp<>
Keep in mind that Skt अविद्या = अ व ि द ् य ा avidy is Pali‎: ‎ {a.waiz~za} अविज्जा avijjā
See my note on tamas तमस् - or darkness of hell


grc2-b03 (group of 2)

p107c2-b05/ p074-124
तमस [ tamas- ]
-- a. dark-coloured; n. darkness (--); -ka, -- a. = tamas; -vin-, f. night.
  124) तमस (p. 74) tamas- dark-coloured;
BPal: {ta-ma.a.}
- - UHS-PMD0437
  UKT from UHS: mfn. darkness


p107c2-b06/ not online
-- a. connected with darkness


grc2-b04 (group of 3)

p107c2-b07/ p074-123
तमाम् [ tamm ]
-- (ac. f.) ad. --, highly, very, much (attached to advs. in V., to verbs in C.).
123) तमाम् (p. 74) tamm --, highly, very, much


p107c2-b08/ p074-122
तमाल [ tam-la ]
-- m. N. of a dark-coloured tree: -pattra, n. leaf of the Tamla tree.
122) तमाल (p. 74) tam-la -pattra, n. leaf of the Tamla tree. 

UKT 120310: Tamla tree. [Cinnamomum tamala ]
-- http://www.worldagroforestrycentre.org/sea/products/afdbases/af/asp/SpeciesInfo.asp?SpID=18024 120310]


p107c2-b09/ not online
तमालिका [taml-ik]
Skt: तमालिका [taml-ik] - f. N. of a woman - Mac107c2
Skt: तमालिका - f. N of a woman - SktDic: MWilliams

UKT 120310: Tamalika is a character in Vasavadatta (वासवदत्ता, vāsavadattā) a Gupta period romantic akhyayika (tale). The author was Subandhu, a courtier of Kumaragupta I (414-455) and his son Skandagupta (455-467).
-- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vasavadatta 120310, 171114
UKT 171114: In the story, Tamalika is the companion and confidante of Princess Vasavadatta, daughter of king Shringarashekhara of Kusumapura."


grc2-b05 (group of 2)

p107c2-b10/ p074-121
तमिस्र [ tamis-ra ]
-- n. darkness, dark night; , f. id.; -paksha, m. dark fortnight (full moon till new moon - the waning moon.).
121) तमिस्र (p. 74) tamis-ra darkness, dark night;


p107c2-b11/ p074-120
तमी  [ tam- ]
-- f. night.
120) तमी (p. 74) tam- night.


grc2-b06 (group of 1)

p107c2-b12/ p074-119
तमोगा [ tamo-g ]
-- a. moving in darkness; -ghna, a. darkness dispelling; m. sun; -nuda, a. dispelling darkness; m. sun; moon; -xpaha, a. dispelling darkness or ignorance; m. moon; -bhta, pp. involved in darkness or darkness incarnate; stupid, foolish; -mani, m. fire-fly; -maya, a. () consisting of or involved in darkness; m. one of the five forms of Avidy in the Sṅkhya; -xri, m. sun (enemy of darkness): -vivara, n.(?) window; -vsas, n. garb or robe of darkness.
119) तमोगा (p. 74) tamo-gaN moving in darkness;

तमोमणि [tamo-mani]
Skt: तमोमणि [tamo-mani] - m. fire-fly - Mac107c2
Skt: तमोमणि tamomaṇi - fire-fly - SpkSkt
BPal: {ta.mau:ma.Ni.} - UHS-PMD0434c2
  UKT from UHS: m. fire-fly


Contents of this page


grc2-b07 (group of 2) 

p107c2-b13/ p074-118
तर [ tr-a ]
-- a. crossing, overcoming (--); m. passage, ferry; boat-hire, fare; N.
118) तर (p. 74) tr-a crossing, overcoming (--);
BPal: {ta.ra.} - UHS-PMD0435c1
  UKT from UHS: m. crossing over, raft. mfn. crossing


p107c2-b14/ p074-117
तरक्ष [taraksha],
तरक्षु [taraksha], [ tarakshu ]
-- m. hyna.
117) तरक्ष (p. 74) tarakshu hyna.


grc2-b08 (group of 2)

p107c2-b15/ p074-116
तरंग [ 1. taram-ga ]
-- m. [going across], wave; section of a book (the title of which contains a word for ocean or river); gallop; moving to and fro.
  116) तरंग (p. 74) 1. taram-ga [going across], wave;
BPal: {ta.rn~ga.} - UHS-PMD0435c1
  UKT from UHS: m. wave, (possibility of crossing over)


p107c2-b16/ 074-115
तरंग [ 2. taramga ]
-- - den. move like waves, surge; move to and fro.
  115) तरंग (p. 74) 2. taramga move like waves, surge;


grc2-b09 (group of 2)

p107c2-b17/ p074-114
तरंगय [ taramga-ya ]
-- den. P. cause to wave; cause to move about (eyes): pp. taramgita, waving; moving to and fro; n. fluctuation, backward and forward motion.
114) तरंगय (p. 74) taramga-ya P. cause to wave;


p107c2-b18/ p074-129
तरंगिन् [ taramg-in ]
-- a. fluctuating, unsteady, restless: -, f. river; title of various works (--).
129) तरंगिन् (p. 74) taramg-in fluctuating, unsteady, restless:


grc2-b10 (group of 1)

p107c2-b19/ p074-113
तरण [ tar-ana ]
-- n. crossing, passing over, passage of (--); overcoming; -ni, a. pressing onward, swift; m. sun; -anya, fp. to be crossed.
113) तरण (p. 74) tar-ana crossing, passing over, passage of (--);


grc2-b11 (group of 2)

p107c2-b20/ p074-144
तरतमतस् [ tara-tama-tas ]
-- ad. more or less.
144) तरतमतस् (p. 74) tara-tama-tas more or less.


p107c2-b21/ not online
तरत्समन्दी [tarat-sa-mandi] / not online
-- f. pl. -ya , n. the hymn RV. IX, 58, (so called from the initial words tarat-sa-mandi )
Skt: तरत्समन्दी taratsamandī - hymn - SpkSkt

 insert: - A Sanskrit-English Dictionary, by Theodor Benfey, 1866, p356c1


grc2-b12 (group of 1)

p107c2-b22/ p074-143
तरल [ tar-ala ]
-- a. trembling, tremulous; quivering; sparkling; fickle, inconstant; transitory; m. wave; central gem of a necklace; N. of a people; n., , f. rice-gruel; -t, f. tremor; sparkle; ogling; fickleness; meddling disposition; -tva, n. id.
143) तरल (p. 74) tar-ala trembling, tremulous;


grc2-b13 (group of 2)

p107c2-b23/ p074-142
तरलय [ tarala-ya ]
-- den. P. cause to tremble, move to and fro; flutter: pp. taralita, waving, moving to and fro; fluttering (heart).
142) तरलय (p. 74) tarala-ya P. cause to tremble, move to and fro;


p107c2-b24/ not online
तरललेखा [tarala-lekh]
Skt: तरललेखा [tarala-lekh] - f. N. - Mac107c2
Skt: तरललेखा - f. Name of a woman - SktDict: MWilliams

( end p107c2 )

Contents of this page



grc3-b00 (group of 1 )

p107c3-b01/ not online
तरलिका [taralik]
Skt: तरलिका [taralik] -- f. N. - Mac107c3
Skt: तरलिका - f. Name of a female servant - SktDict: MWilliams

See my note on Taralika - a character in Kadambari kādambari - probably one of the world's first novels.
In the story Taralika is the beetle-box bearer of the heroine Mahashveta.


grc3-b01 (group of 1)

p107c3-b02/ p074-141
तरस् [ tr-as ]
-- n. speed; energy, activity, force: in. by force; speedily, straightway.
141) तरस् (p. 74) tr-as speed; energy, activity, force:


grc3-b02 (group of 2)

p107c3-b03/ p074-140
तरस्वत् [ tras-vat ]
-- a. energetic.
140) तरस्वत् (p. 74) tras-vat energetic.


p107c3-b04/ p074-139
तरस्विन् [ taras-vn ]
-- a. swift; impetuous, energetic; bold.
139) तरस्विन् (p. 74) taras-vn swift; impetuous, energetic; bold.

grc3-b03 (group of 2)

p107c3-b05/ p074-138
तराम् [ tarm ]
-- (ac. f.) cpv. ad. with na, by no means; --, very, much, greatly (added to advs. in V., and to verbs in C., like -tamm).
138) तराम् (p. 74) tarm na, by no means; --, very, much, greatly (added to advs. in V., and to verbs in C., like -tamm).


p107c3-b06/ p074-137
तरि [tar-i]
- तरी[ tar- ] f. boat; -ika, m. ferry man; -ik, f. boat; -i-tavya, fp. to be crossed.
137) तरि (p. 74) tar- boat; -ika, m. ferryman; -ik, f. boat; -i-tavya, fp. to be crossed.

grc3-b04 (group of 2)

p107c3-b07/ p074-136
तरु [ 1. tr-u ]
-- a. swift.
136) तरु (p. 74) 1. tr-u swift.


p107c3-b08/ p074-135
तरु [ 2. taru ]
-- m. tree (later than Manu): -kot ara, n. hollow of a tree; -khanda, m. n. group of trees, clump; -gahana, n. forest thicket; -kkhy, f. shade of a tree.
135) तरु (p. 74) 2. taru tree (later than Manu): -kotara, n. hollow of a tree; -khanda, m. n. group of trees, clump; -gahana, n. forest thicket; -kkhy, f. shade of a tree.


grc3-b05 (group of 3)

p107c3-b09/ p074-134
तरुण [ tr-una ]
-- a. () young; tender; new, fresh; vivid (feeling); just begun; lately risen (sun); crescent (moon); m. youth; n. sprout, blade: -ka, n. sprout, shoot, blade; -t, f. freshness, vigour.
134) तरुण (p. 74) tr-una () young; tender; new, fresh; vivid (feeling); just begun; lately risen (sun); crescent (moon); m. youth; n. sprout, blade: -ka, n. sprout, shoot, blade; -t, f. freshness, vigour.


p107c3-b10/ p074-133
तरुणय [ taruna-ya ]
-- den. P. make young.
133) तरुणय (p. 74) taruna-ya P. make young.


p107c3-b11/ p074-132
तरुणाय [ tarun-ya ]
-- den. . become or remain young.
132) तरुणाय (p. 74) tarun-ya . become or remain young.


grc3-b06 (group of 2)

p107c3-b12/ p074-131
तरुणिमन् [ tarun-i-mn ]
-- m. youth.
131) तरुणिमन् (p. 74) tarun-i-mn youth.


p107c3-b13/ p074-130
तरुणी [ tarun- ]
-- f. virgin, maiden; young woman.
130) तरुणी (p. 74) tarun- virgin, maiden; young woman.


grc3-b07(group of 2)

p107c3-b14/ p074-127
तरुतल [ taru-tala ]
-- n. flat space under a tree; -t, f. condition of a tree; -mandapa, arbour, bower; -mla, n. root of a tree; -vall, f. creeper; -shanda, n. group of trees.
127) तरुतल (p. 74) taru-tala flat space under a tree; -t, f. condition of a tree; -mandapa, arbour, bower; -mla, n. root of a tree; -vall, f. creeper; -shanda, n. group of trees.


p107c3-b15/ p074-126
तरूट [ tarta ]
-- m. lotus root.
126) तरूट (p. 74) tarta lotus root.

Contents of this page

{tar~ka.} - Pali : {tak~ka.}

UKT 120312, 170816: Note the vowel change in Pal.
See: Pal: {tak~ka.} m. speculation, thought. n. buttermilk. - UKT-UHS-PMD0426

Repha in Skt tarka changing into Pali must be taken with care. Here we find only one of the meanings of given by UHS, agrees with that given for Skt-Dev.


grc3-b08 (group of 1)

p107c3-b16/ not online
तर्क् [ tark ]
- X.P. () tarkaya , suppose, surmise; express one's supposition; speculate on, form an idea of (ac.); ...


grc3-b09 (group of 1)

p107c3-b17/ p074-152
तर्क [ tark-a ]
Skt: -- m. supposition, conjecture; reflexion, speculation; speculative doctrine, philosophical system (of which there are six ṣaḍdarśana , the 1. Prvaand 2. Uttara-Mmms, 3. Nyya, 4. Vaiseshika, 5. Sṅkhya, and 6. Yoga); refutation, reductio ad absurdum (in logic); -gna, n. knowledge derived from speculation; -vid, m. philosopher, dialectician; -vidy, -sstra, n. science of thought; -samgraha, m. T. of a manual on the Nyya system. -- Mac107c3
152) तर्क (p. 74) tark-a supposition, conjecture; reflexion, speculation; speculative doctrine, philosophical system (of which there are six, the Prva- and Uttara-Mmms, Nyya, Vaiseshika, Sṅkhya, and Yoga); refutation, reductio ad absurdum (in logic); -gna, n. knowledge derived from speculation; -vid, m. philosopher, dialectician; -vidy, -sstra, n. science of thought; -samgraha, m. T. of a manual on the Nyya system.

See Wikipedia:
1. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hindu_philosophy 171114
  "Nyāya or logic, which explores sources of knowledge. Nyāya Sūtras."
2. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ny%C4%81ya_S%C5%ABtras
  "The Nyaya-sutras have been one of the foundations for the historic debate between Hinduism's premise that ultimate reality and atman (soul) exists, and Buddhism's premise that there is voidness and anatta (no-soul). [87] [88] [89]

तर्क [ tark-a ]
Skt: तर्क [ tark-a ] - m. supposition, conjecture; reflexion, speculation; speculative doctrine, philosophical system - Mac107c3
Pal: {tak~ka.} - UHS-PMD0426
  UKT from UHS: m. speculation, thought. n. buttermilk.


grc3-b10 (group of 1)

p107c3-b18/ p074-151
तर्किन् [ tark-in ]
-- a. supposing, surmising, skilled in speculation.
151) तर्किन् (p. 74) tark-in supposing, surmising, skilled in speculation.


grc3-b11 (group of 2)

p107c3-b19/ not online
तर्कु [tark-u]
Skt: तर्कु [tark-u] -- spindle - Mac107c3
Skt: तर्कु tarku - spindle - SpkSkt


p107c3-b20/ p074-150
तर्कुक [ tarku-ka ]
-- m. beggar.
150) तर्कुक (p. 74) tarku-ka beggar.


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{tar~za.} तर्ज्  - Pal: {tiz~za.}

UKT120312, 170816: Note the vowel change in Pal.
See: {tiz~za.na} - f. threatening - UKT-UHS-PMD0428c3


grc3-b12 (group of 1)

p107c3-b21/ not online
तर्ज्  [ targ ]
= त र ् ज ्
-- I.P. () targa threaten; cs. targaya , menace; abuse; terrify; ridicule; abhi , cs.id. revile ; cs.id. pari , menace. vi, cs. threaten ; revile. sam , cs. threaten ; abuse ; terrify

तर्ज्  [ targ ] = त र ् ज ्
Skt: तर्ज्  [ targ ] -- I.P. () targa threaten - Mac107c3
Skt: तर्ज्  [ tarj ] - to menace, to blame, to terrify, to ridicule. n. menacing - Benfey
Pal: {tiz~za.na} - f. threatening - UKT-UHS-PMD0428c3 

insert: - A Sanskrit-English Dictionary, by Theodor Benfey, 1866


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grc3-b13 (group of 1)

p107c3-b22/ p074-149
तर्जन [ targ-ana ]
= त र ् ज न
Skt: -- n. threatening; abuse; , f. forefinger. -- Mac107c3
149) तर्जन (p. 74) targ-ana threatening; abuse; , f. forefinger.
Pal: {tiz~za.na}  - UHS-PMD0428c3
  UKT from UHS: f. threatening

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{ tar~Na.} तर्ण

grc3-b14 (group of 1}

p107c3-b23/ p074-148
तर्णक [ tarna-ka ]
-- m. calf; young (of animals).
148) तर्णक (p. 74) tarna-ka calf; young (of animals).


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{tar~pa.} तर्प - Pal: {tap~pa.} ?


gr107c3-b15 (group of 1) 

p107c3-b24/ p074-147
तर्पण [ trp-ana ]
-- a. () satisfying; n. satisfaction (act. & ps.); satisfying, pleasing (the gods or Ma'nes by oblations); nourishment, refreshment.
147) तर्पण (p. 74) trp-ana () satisfying; n. satisfaction (act. & ps.); satisfying, pleasing (the gods or Manes by oblations); nourishment, refreshment.
Pal: {tap~pa.Na.} - UHS-PMD0433c2
  UKT from UHS: n. satisfying, pleasing


grc3-b16 (group of 2)

p107c3-b25/ p074-146
तर्पणीय [ tarp-anya ]
-- fp. to be satisfied w. (in.).
146) तर्पणीय (p. 74) tarp-anya to be satisfied w. (in.).


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{tar~Sa.} तर्ष  - Pal: {ta.a.} ?

p107c3-b26/ p074-145
तर्ष [ tarsh-a ]
-- m. thirst; desire (for, --); -ana, n. id.; -ita, pp. thirsty, eager for (--).
145) तर्ष (p. 74) tarsh-a thirst; desire (for, --); -ana, n. id.; -ita, pp. thirsty, eager for (--).


तर्ष [ tarsh-a ]
Skt: तर्ष [ tarsh-a ] -- m. thirst; desire (for, --); - Mac107c3
Pal: {ta.a.} - UHS-PMD0436
  UKT from UHS: . mfn. excitable, alarmed. . mfn. attachment, possessed with {ta.Nha} 'sexual desire'

( end p107c3 )

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----- on line : 180614 : p107.htm - search for तपन

171028  The remainder moved to p108.


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UKT notes

Loka - Worlds of Hinduism

- UKT 120310, 171112: We have the word loka {lau:ka.} in both Bur-Myan and Pal-Myan.
{ti.lau:ka.} - UHS-PMD0445c2
  UKT based UHS: n. three worlds:
1. {ka-ma.lau:ka.} 'world of sensual pleasure' with males and females enjoying sex,
2. {ru-pa.lau:ka.} 'world of forms' of a-sexual Brahma where there are no males and females [which I translate as 'material' or 'matter'],
3. {a.ru-pa.lau:ka.} 'world of no-forms' of a-sexual Brahma where there are no males and females [which I translate as 'immaterial' or 'energy'].
Also as three worlds of Man [which I translate as 'creatures' with life].

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Loka 120310, 171112

Loka {lau:ka.} is a Sanskrit word for "world". In Hindu mythology it takes a specific meaning related to cosmology.

In the Puranas, and already in the Atharvaveda, there are fourteen worlds, seven higher ones (vyahrtis) and seven lower ones (patalas), viz.

bhuu, bhuvas, svar, mahas, janas, tapas, and satya above and
atala, vitala, sutala, rasaataala, talatala, mahaatala, paatala loka and naraka below.

The scholar Deborah Soifer describes the development of the concept of lokas as follows:

The concept of a loka [or lokas] develops in the Vedic literature. Influenced by the special connotations that a word for space might have for a nomadic people, loka in the Veda did not simply mean place or world, but had a positive valuation: it was a place or position of religious or psychological interest with a special value of function of its own.

Hence, inherent in the 'loka' concept in the earliest literature was a double aspect; that is, coexistent with spatiality was a religious or soteriological meaning, which could exist independent of a spatial notion, an 'immaterial' significance. The most common cosmological conception of lokas in the Veda was that of the trailokya or triple world: three worlds consisting of earth, atmosphere or sky, and heaven, making up the universe. "[1]

[Theravada ?] Buddhism

In Early Buddhism, based upon the Pali Canon and related Agamas, there are four distinct worlds: There is the Kama Loka, or world of sensuality, in which humans, animals, and some devas reside, Rupa-Loka, or the world of refined material existence, in which certain beings mastering specific meditative attainments [J ] reside, and Arupa Loka, or the immaterial, formless world, in which beings to master formless meditative attainments reside. [UKT ]

UKT 171112: What follows is not in accordance with Myanmar Theravada philosophy. Wikipedia has confused Arahants with Anagamika 'non-returners'.

Planetary system name

01. Satya-loka. 02. Tapa-loka. 03. Jana-loka. 04. Mahar-loka. 05. Svar-loka. 06. Bhuvar-loka.
07. Bhur-loka (भूर्लोक = भ ू र ् ल ो क - chk sp?)
08. Atala-loka. 09. Vitala-loka. 10. Sutala-loka. 11. Talatala-loka. 12. Mahatala-loka. 13. Rasatala-loka.
14. Patala-loka (पाताल, pātāla)

According to Hindu cosmology, the universe is divided into the three worlds: Svarga (Heaven: seven upper regions), Prithvi (earth) and Patala - the underworld and netherworld. [7]
- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paatala_loka 120310

UKT: More in the Wikipedia articles. Always scrutinize the word <Buddhism>. It can mean Mahayana, Tibetan, etc. To the Bur-Myan speakers, the word means the Theravada.

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From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sunstone 120310
Chem. formula: Sodium calcium aluminum silicate (Ca,Na)((AI,Si)2Si2O8)

Sunstone is a plagioclase feldspar, which when viewed from certain directions exhibits a brilliant spangled appearance; this has led to its use as a gemstone. It has been found in Southern Norway, and in some United States localities. It is the official gemstone of Oregon.

The optical effect appears to be due to reflections from inclusions of red copper, in the form of minute scales, which are hexagonal, rhombic, or irregular in shape, and are disposed parallel to the principal cleavage-plane. These inclusions give the stone an appearance something like that of aventurine, hence sunstone is known also as "aventurine-feldspar." The optical effect called shiller and the color in Oregon Sunstone is due to copper. In the middle part of this crystal, it sparks a lot, and usually has a dark color in the middle, and the color becomes lighter as it becomes the outer part.

The feldspar which usually displays the aventurine appearance is oligoclase, though the effect is sometimes seen in orthoclase: hence two kinds of sunstone are distinguished as "oligoclase sunstone" and "orthoclase sunstone."

UKT: More in the Wikipedia article

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tamas (तमस्) - or darkness of hell

- UKT 120310

The s in tamas तमस् does not denote "plural" but it equivalent to /θ/ {a.}-killed. See Sṅkhya Philosophy introduction by Nandalal Sinha, 1915, in TIL PDF libraries
- NSinha-SankhyaPhilo<> / Bkp<>
Keep in mind that Skt अविद्या = अ व ि द ् य ा avidy is Pali‎: ‎ {a.waiz~za} अविज्जा avijjā

See also Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Samkhya 171111

Samkhya or Sankhya सांख्य sāṃkhya = स ा ं ख ् य   {an~hkya} is one of the six āstika schools of Hindu philosophy. [1] [2] [3] [UKT ]

UKT 171112: In translating Sankhya सांख्य sāṃkhya {an~hkya} into Pal-Myan, I base my opinion on that fact that, the velar {nga.} /ŋ/ is not properly pronounced by both Sanskrit speakers, and Lanka speakers. Since I hold that Pali-Lanka is quite different from Pali-Myan, I equate sāṃ to {n~}, and translate Sankhya सांख्य sāṃkhya as:
Pal: {n~hka.ya.} - UHS PMD0943c2
    UKT based on UHS: m. depletion of ignorance, or axiomatic truth.

It is most related to the Yoga school of Hinduism, and it was influential on other schools of Indian philosophy. [4] Sāmkhya is an enumerationist philosophy whose epistemology accepts three of six pramanas (proofs) as the only reliable means of gaining knowledge. ... Samkhya is known for its theory of guṇas (qualities, innate tendencies). [20] Guṇa, it states, are of three types: sattva being good, compassionate, illuminating, positive, and constructive; rajas is one of activity, chaotic, passion, impulsive, potentially good or bad; and tamas being the quality of darkness, ignorance, destructive, lethargic, negative. Everything, all life forms and human beings, state Samkhya scholars, have these three guṇas, but in different proportions. ... A prominent similarity between Buddhism and Samkhya is the greater emphasis on suffering (dukkha) as the foundation for their respective soteriological theories, than other Indian philosophies. [76]...

UKT 171111: Before he became the Buddha, young Rishi Siddhartha, had two teachers.

1. The first teacher Alara Kalama taught [young Rishi Siddhartha] Gautama Buddha meditation, especially a dhyānic state {Zaan} called the "sphere of nothingness" Pali:  ākicaāyatana. [6] [7]" - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alara_Kalama 171111

{a-kai~si~a.} - UHS-PMD0156c1
  UKT from UHS: n. nothingness, not slightest material, not slightest anxiety, absolute nothingness
{a-kai~si~a-ya.ta.na.} - UHS-PMD0156c1
  UKT from UHS: n. mental experience of realizing nothingness

2. The second Uddaka Ramaputta taught "refined states of meditation known as the immaterial attainments". [1] [2] [3] - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Uddaka_Ramaputta 171111

Unsatisfied with their teachings, Rishi Siddhartha who had already wasted six years under his teachers, decided to reject everything, and started to meditate upon a natural law that do not presupposes anything especially about Axiomatic entities like YHVH, God and Allah. He came up with his Four Noble Truths and Anatta doctrine which are Non-Axiomatic, and is acceptable to modern Science. Because of that, I claim him to be the First Scientist. Only then he came to be called the Buddha Gautama 'the enlightened of the Gautama clan'. My question is how did he know that he had discovered the "truth". He had only his reason, and his satisfaction to rely on. He did what any other scientist would do!

From: http://www.dictionaryofspiritualterms.com/public/Glossaries/terms.aspx?ID=1129 120310

Alternate spelling: tamasic

In Hinduism and Buddhism, the lowest of the three cosmic qualities (gunas) that are a result of creation; tamas literally means "darkness" and this cosmic quality or energy is characterized by error, ignorance, heaviness, inertia, etc.

In Hinduism and Buddhism, the lowest of the three cosmic qualities (gunas) that are a result of the creation of matter; tamas literally means "darkness" and this cosmic quality or energy is characterized by error, ignorance, heaviness, inertia, etc. Its darkness is related to the gloom of hell. In the Samkhya system of Hindu philosophy, tamas is seen as a form of ignorance (avidya) that lulls the spiritual being away from its true nature.

UKT 1711105: The word "creation" is different from "Creation" of the Christians in which the Creator is the Axiomatic entity God.

See p108.htm for Tattvic philosophy : Trika system - Kashmir Shaivism
Also see Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tattva 171112
"[Tattva] In Buddhism the term "dhamma/dharma" is being used for the constitutional elements. Early Buddhist philosophy used several lists, such as namarupa and the five skandhas, to analyse reality. The Abhidhamma tradition elaborated on these lists, using over 100 terms to analyse reality."

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Taralika in Kadambari

UKT 120311: In the story Taralika is the beetle-box bearer of the heroine Mahashveta, who later became a female-Rishi.

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kadambari 120311

Kādambari is a romantic novel in Sanskrit. It was substantially composed by Bānabhatta in the first half of the 7th century, who did not survive to see it through completion. The novel was completed by Banabhatta's son Bhushanabhatta, according to the plan laid out by his late father. It is conventionally divided into Purvabhaga (earlier part) written by Banabhatta, and Uttarabhaga (latter part) by Bhushanabhatta. (An alternate tradition gives the son's name as Pulindabhatta.) [1]

The standard editions of the original Sanskrit text are by Peterson [2] and Kane [3]. There are translations into English by Kale [4], Layne [1] and Ridding [5].

The plot of the novel has probably been adapted from the story of King Sumanas from Gunadhya's ' Brihatkatha' (a conjectural collection of stories in the extinct Paishachi language). This story also appears in Somadeva's ' Kathasaritsagara' (which is believed to be a Sanskrit precis of Gunadhya's work). [4]

UKT 171106: Paishachi paiśācī language, according to Wikipedia is an IE language. However, it could very well be a Tib-Burman language. - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paishachi
"It is found grouped with the Prakrit languages, with which it shares some linguistic familiarities, but is not considered a spoken Prakrit by the grammarians because it was purely a literary language, but also due to its archaicism. [3] ... There is no known complete work in this language, however certain scholars specializing in Indology like Sten Konow, [3] Felix Lacte [4] & Alfred Master [5] have attempted to explain that Paiśācī was the ancient name for Pāli, the language of the Pāli Canon of Theravada Buddhism."

UKT 171106: Since Pali is derived from Ancient Magadhi and native Lankan, for the Buddhists of Lanka, so could Paiśācī be Ancient Magadhi and a native language of the area. I contend that Pali spoken in Myanmarpr is not the Pali of Lanka, but a dialect of Ancient Magadhi, brought over by King Abiraza long before the time of the Gautama Buddha, and by relatives of the Buddha during the time of the Buddha. Pali-Myan came to be adulterated by the Lankan Pali, during the religious reformations of King Anawrahta of Pagan in the 11th century.

This work can be plausibly claimed to be one of the first novels in the world; making due allowance for the ambiguities of such a classification. In fact, two modern Indian languages (Kannada and Marathi) use 'kadambari' as a generic term for a romance or a novel.

The novel has a very intricate plot. The story proceeds through several narrators in a succession of nested frames. Several characters appear in multiple births. Kadambari (the eponymous heroine of the novel) makes her appearance only past the midpoint [1].

UKT comment: As usual Sanskrit stories are nested stories, one inside another, and the plots are quite complicated. The following is the part where the name Taralika appears:

07. The damsel, named Mahashveta [a female ascetic aka female-Rishi, who has renounced the world], offers hospitality to Chandrapeeda. He insists that she should narrate her story. [UKT ] Mahashveta begins the narration in a gush of tears with the words, " O Prince, what is to be gained by hearing my story of my renunciation of the world? But if you are eager to know, I shall tell it."

08. Mahashveta [ female-Rishi] relates that she is the daughter of a Gandharva (a demigod) [Remember that some Gandhava and their females, Apsara, are in the service of Indra-dva as musicians and dancers.]. One day, she had come to Lake Acchoda for a bath, when she spotted a handsome young ascetic and was instantly smitten. An enticing smell seemed to emanate from his body. The ascetic, too, appeared to be overwhelmed by passion. [UKT ]

She approaches a second young sage (named Kapinjala), who tells her that her object of infatuation is named Pundarika. He is the son of Lakshmi (Goddess of Wealth) who had conceived him while sitting on a lotus, by merely looking at the great sage Shvetaketu. [UKT ]

UKT 171106: Rishi Shvetaketu came to know Self and Truth, which entitled him, after death, [to be reborn] to reside in Tushita Dva-loka aka Heaven. It is the heaven where the Bodhisattva Svetaketu (Pali: Setaketu "White Banner") resided before being reborn on Earth as Gautama Buddha, the historical Buddha; [1] . -- Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tushita 171106

Below, because of the confusion of names, I've inserted my additions in [...]

One day, as [Rishi] Kapinjala and [Rishi] Pundarika were wandering in the Nandana forest, the goddess of the forest presented a fresh mango sprout to Pundarika as an ornament for his ear. It is this sprout which is the source of this smell.

09. [Rishi] Pundarika [now smitten with love for the Apsara] removes the sprout from [his] Pundarika's ear, and places it onto [Apsara] Mahashveta's ear. His rosary falls down, as he is trembling from the pleasure of touching her cheek. Mahashveta wears it around her neck. [UKT ]

[The good Rishi] Kapinjala gives a scolding to [the fallen Rishi] Pundarika for succumbing to such a base passion, contrary to his calling as an ascetic [Rishi]. [The fallen Rishi] Pundarika feels abashed, and asks for his rosary back in mock-anger. Since Pundarika is visibly befuddled due to his passion, [the Apsara] Mahashveta deceives him by giving him her strand of pearls instead of the rosary.

10. They [the fallen Rishi and his Apsara] part company, and that night [Apsara] Mahashveta is driven senseless by her love-sickness. Her beetle-box bearer Taralika mentions to her that she was approached by Pundarika, who enquired about her mistress. He has given a love-letter for [Apsara] Mahashveta written on the bark of a tree using the juice of a leaf as ink. [Apsara] Mahashveta loses her mind after reading it, when the arrival of [Rishi] Kapinjala is announced. The latter reports that [the fallen Rishi] Pundarika is driven to the brink of his existence by his passion for [Apsara] Mahashveta, and henceforth his life is in her hands.

11. After [Rishi] Kapinjala has departed, [Apsara] Mahashveta is tormented and falls into a swoon. As the moon rises, she leaves her palace to meet [the fallen Rishi] Pundarika. However, she hears [the good Rishi] Kapinjala's wailing from a distance, who tells her that [the fallen Rishi] Pundarika is dead. [UKT]

[Apsara-lover] Mahashveta is heart-broken, and prepares to immolate herself on the funeral pyre. At this moment, a divine being descends from the skies and carries aloft [the fallen Rishi] Pundarika's body. He admonishes [Lovelorn Apsara] Mahashveta not to give up her life, and reassures her that "You two will be reunited." [The good Rishi] Kapinjala is agitated, and flies away himself in pursuit of this being. [UKT] 

[Lovelorn Apsara] Mahashveta believes herself to be responsible for [the fallen Rishi] Pundarika's death. She has given up all worldly pleasures, and is now an ascetic. This ends [Apsara-lover now a Rishi hersel] Mahashveta's narrative, begun in Paragraph 7.

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Vedic months

 Vedic month names are different from those of Hindu months. I contend that Vedic originated in the area of the foot-hills of Himalayas of low hills where rishis lived. The area extended from northern India to the Yomas of Myanmarpr. We can still find the rishis {ra..} in the hills of Myanmarpr, particularly in the area of Kyaik'htiyo pagoda which is popularly known as 'Golden Rock'.

The {ra..} is a holy man or woman dedicated to the pursuit of one goal only, such as the ability to stare into the mid-day sun without being hurt by the UV rays of the sun. I've seen such a person on the platform the Shwedagon pagoda. We also have a town in Rakhine state named {ra..tan} - a hill which was probably the home of rishis {ra..} .

See Indian Calendrical Calculations, by Nachum Dershowitz and Edward M Reingold, 2008
in TIL HD-PDF & SD-PDF libraries:
- NDershowitzEMReinhold-IndianCalendriCalcula<> / Bkp<> (link chk 180618)
"Abstract: We analyse various Indian calendars. We discuss the Indian day count, a generic solar calendar that generalizes various calendars including the mean Indian solar calendar, the true and astronomical Indian solar calendars, a generic lunisolar calendar that generalizes the Indian version, and the true and astronomical Indian lunisolar calendars. We also discuss aspects of the traditional Indian calculation of the time of sunrise and the determination of lunisolar holidays."

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End of TIL file