Update: 2017-08-15 02:02 PM -0400


A Practical Sanskrit Dictionary


by A. A. Macdonell, 1893,
http://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/scans/MDScan/index.php?sfx=jpg 1929.
Nataraj ed., 1st in 2006, 2012

Edited, with additions from Pali sources, by U Kyaw Tun (UKT) (M.S., I.P.S.T., USA) and staff of Tun Institute of Learning (TIL) . Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone. Prepared for students and staff of TIL Research Station, Yangon, MYANMAR : http://www.tuninst.net , www.romabama.blogspot.com

MC-indx.htm | Top

Contents of this page



UKT notes :
Buddhist tantra : Skt: तन्त्र tantra;
  Pal: {tn~ta.} 'prescribed method' [as in weaving on a loom] - UHS-PMD0432
Tanu bhava - Vedic astrology

Contents of this page


UKT 170813: Note to TIL editor: The following in groups of 1, 2, 3 or 4 have been moved
from old files under MC-c41-indx.htm , and given new file numbers in accordance with
Univ. Cologne Scanned pages, and checked with Nataraj ed.

Firstly, remember to add "old" to bookmarks of old files under MC-c41-indx.htm
Secondly, change "top" in bookmarks of old files to "00".


old p106c1-b01 (group of 2)


तदनन्तर [ tad-anantara ]
-- a. standing next to (g.): -m, ad. immediately after, thereupon (corr. prk or prathamam).
44) तदनन्तर (p. 74) tad-anantara standing next to (g.): -m, ad. immediately after, thereupon (corr. prk or prathamam).



तदनु [ tad-anu ]
-- ad. thereupon, then.
43) तदनु (p. 74) tad-anu thereupon, then.


old p106c1-b02 (group of 1)


तदनुकृति [ tad-anukriti ]
-- ad. accordingly; -anusarana-krama, m. continual following of him; -anta, a. ending with that; -apatya t, f. condition of having offspring through him (the son) or by her (the Sdr woman); apatya-maya, a. devoted to his (her) children; -apeksha, a. having regard to that; -artha, m. the meaning of that or those; a. having that for its object, meant for that; having the same meaning: -m, ad. for that purpose, on that account, therefore; -arthin, a. desiring that; -arthya, a. undertaken for that end, having that as its object; -ardhika, a. half as much; -arha, a. commensurate with that; -avastha, a. being in that condition or plight; being in the same condition=safe.
42) तदनुकृति (p. 74) tad-anukriti accordingly; -anusarana-krama, m. continual following of him; -anta, a. ending with that; -apatyat, f. condition of having offspring through him (the son) or by her (the Sdr woman); apatya-maya, a. devoted to his (her) children; -apeksha, a. having regard to that; -artha, m. the meaning of that or those; a. having that for its object, meant for that; having the same meaning: -m, ad. for that purpose, on that account, therefore; -arthin, a. desiring that; -arthya, a. undertaken for that end, having that as its object; -ardhika, a. half as much; -arha, a. commensurate with that; -avastha, a. being in that condition or plight; being in the same condition=safe.


old p106c1-b03 (group of 1)


तदा [ ta-d ]
-- ad. at that time, then (often redundant in E. with tatah, pur, and atha): frequently with correlative yatah, yatra, yad, yad, yadi, ked; in that case; tad pra bhriti, thenceforward; yad yad -tad tad, whenever--then; yad tad, at any time, always.
32) तदा (p. 74) ta-d at that time, then (often redundant in E. with tatah, pur, and atha): frequently with correlative yatah, yatra, yad, yad, yadi, ked; in that case; tad prabhriti, thenceforward; yad yad -- tad tad, whenever--then; yad tad, at any time, always.


old p106c1-b04 (group of 2)


तदाकार [ tad-kra ]
-- a. having that appearance.
26) तदाकार (p. 74) tad-kra having that appearance.



तदात्व [ tad-tva ]
-- n. present time or state (opp. yati). 
25) तदात्व (p. 74) tad-tva present time or state (opp. yati).


old p106c1-b05 (group of two)


तदादि [ tad-di ]
-- ad. thenceforward; then first.
24) तदादि (p. 74) tad-di thenceforward; then first.



तदानीम्् [ tad-n-m ]
-- (ac.) ad. then, at that time (corr. yatra, yad, yadi).
78) तदानीम्् (p. 74) tad-n-m then, at that time (corr. yatra, yad, yadi). 


old p106c1-b06 (group of 1)


तदीय [ tad-ya ]
-- a. belonging, referring or proper to him, her, it, them, or that; his, her, its, their; such: -saṅga, m. union with her.
77) तदीय (p. 74) tad-ya belonging, referring or proper to him, her, it, them, or that; his, her, its, their; such: -saṅga, m. union with her.


old p106c1-b07 (group of 2) 


तदुत्थ taduttha [ tad-uttha ]
-- a. arising from or caused by that man; -upahita, pp. transferred to him.
64) तदुत्थ (p. 74) tad-uttha arising from or caused by that man; -upahita, pp. transferred to him.



तदोकस् tadokas [ td-okas ]
-- a. abiding there.
63) तदोकस् (p. 74) td-okas abiding there.



Contents of this page

p106c1 / p106c2 / p106c3
new downloads from Cologne Univ.



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-----on line

52) तनिमन् (p. 74) tn-i-man thinness; shallowness; weakness; -ishtha, spv., -yas, cpv. of tan.
53) तनिका (p. 74) tan-ik rope, cord; -i-tri, m. extender, performer.
54) तनयीकृत (p. 74) tanay-krita made a son.
55) तनय (p. 74) tn-aya continuing a family; belonging to one's own family; m. son; , f. daughter; n. progeny; race, family; child.
56) तन् (p. 74) 3. tn duration: in. continually.
57) तद्रस (p. 74) tad-rasa essence of it; -rga, m. suffix attached to the name of a people to designate their king; -rpa, a. of such kind or appearance; of the same kind; -vamsya, m. relative of that ruler; -vaktri, m. propounder of that; -vat, 1. ad. in this way, thus; similarly, likewise, also; 2. a. possessing or containing that: -t, f. conformity, harmony; -vayas, a. of the same age; -vd, a. knowing or versed in that; m. connoisseur; -vidha, a. of such a kind, such, such-like; corresponding thereto: -tva, n. corresponding nature; -vishaya, a. belonging to that category; having that as an object; -vritti, a. living according to that; -vrata, a. fulfilling duties towards him, her, or them.
58) तद्भव (p. 74) tad-bhava derived from that, viz. Sanskrit (applied to Prkrit and South Indian words); -bhva, m. becoming that; becoming (--); his sentiments or intentions; -bhta, pp. being therein.
59) तद्बुद्धि (p. 74) tad-buddhi whose mind is centred on that.
60) तद्धित (p. 74) tad-dhita good for him, in which sense one of the suffixes of this class is used: m. (sc. pratyaya) secondary suffix; word formed with a secondary suffix.
61) तद्देवताक (p. 74) tad-devat-ka having that as a deity; -desya, a. coming from the same country; m. countryman; -dviguna, a. twice that amount.
62) तद्गत (p. 74) tad-gata directed to him, her, or that; directed to (--); -guna, m. his or her quality or virtue; a. having those qualities.
65) तन्त्र (p. 74) tn-tra loom; warp; groundwork, underlying principle, essence; system; standard; main point; rule, doctrine; manual; section in a manual; a class of magical and mystical treatises; spell; physic, specific; government; --, line, rank, troop; a. chiefly concerned with, dependent on (--).
66) तन्तु (p. 74) tn-tu thread, cord, string; fibre, warp; uninterrupted course of a sacrifice; propagator of a race; lineage.
67) तन्ति (p. 74) tan-t ) cord, rope (esp. for tying calves).
68) तनूभव (p. 74) tan-bhava son; -ruha, n. hair (on the body); plumage; wing; m. son.
69) तनूनपात् (p. 74) tn-npt son of himself, ep. of Agni; fire; -naptri, m. id.
70) तनूज (p. 74) tan-g born from the body; m. son: , f. daughter; -tyag, a. risking one's life, desperate; -duNshi, a. injuring life.
71) तनूकरण (p. 74) tan-karana attenuating; -kartri, m. diminisher.
72) तनू (p. 74) tan-uN tan-.
73) तनुदान (p. 74) tanu-dna giving up the body; scanty gift; -bhva, m. slenderness, scantiness; -bhrit, m. embodied being, esp. human being; -mat, a. possessing a body; -madhya, n. waist; a. slender-waisted; -madhyama, a. slender-waisted; -ruha, n. feather; -samgama, m. personal union.
74) तनुत्र (p. 74) tanu-tra armour, cuirass; -trna, n. id.; -tr-in, a. armoured.
75) तनुच्छद (p. 74) tanu-kkhada feather; armour, cuirass; -ga, m. son: , f. daughter; -t, f. smallness; meagreness, slenderness; condition of having a body; -tyag, a. abandoning the body, dying; risking life, brave; -tyga, m. sacrificing or risking one's life.
76) तनु (p. 74) tan- (ŭ̂, v-) thin; small; slender; scanty, moderate (in amount); delicate, weak; u, , f. body, person, form; one's self (=refl. prn.: also pl.); manifestation: rartym tanur manyoh=frown of anger; iyam tanur mama, I here; svak tanuh, one's own person.
79) तपश्््चरण (p. 74) tapas-karana self-castigation, mortification; austerity; -kary, f. id.
80) तपनीय (p. 74) tap-anya rice; n. purified gold: -̮upala, m. sun-stone.
81) तपन (p. 74) tp-ana burning; tormenting; m. sun; N. of a hell: -dyuti, a. shining like the sun.
82) तपःप्रभाव (p. 74) tapah-prabhva efficacy of penances.
83) तप (p. 74) tap-a (--) burning; tormenting; harassing; m. heat; hot season; penance.
84) तन्वी (p. 74) tanv- tanu) slender maiden.
85) तन्वङ्ग (p. 74) tanu̮aṅga () delicate-limbed, slenderly built; m. N.
86) तन्यतु (p. 74) tan-ya-t roaring; thunder.
87) तन्मनस् (p. 74) tan-manas absorbed therein; -maya, a. consisting thereof, full of, identified therewith: -t, f., -tva, n. identity with him, her, it, or that; -mtra, a. only so much or little; atomic; n. trifle (ab. (angry) about a mere trifle); atom, rudimentary undifferentiated, subtile element (from which a gross element is produced): -ka, n. only just so much; -mnin, a. passing for that; -mla, a. based on that; occasioned thereby: -tva, n. condition of being the root thereof or of being based thereon.
88) तन्निमित्त (p. 74) tan-nimitta caused by him or thereby: -tva, n. being the cause thereof; -nishtha, a. thoroughly devoted to that.
89) तन्द्रालु (p. 74) tandr-lu weary, fatigued.
90) तन्द्राय (p. 74) tandr-ya . grow weary.
91) तन्द्रा (p. 74) tand-r lassitude; laziness, sloth.
92) तन्द्रय (p. 74) tandra-ya . grow weary.
93) तन्त्री (p. 74) tan-tr -s) string; music of a stringed instrument.
94) तन्त्रिन् (p. 74) tantr-in soldier.
95) तन्त्रवाय (p. 74) tantra-vya weaver.
96) तन्त्रय (p. 74) tantra-ya P. follow; perform; provide for (ac.): pp. tantrita, dependent on (--).
97) तमक (p. 74) tama-ka asthma.
98) तम (p. 74) tama most wished for.
99) तप्ति (p. 74) tap-ti heat; -tri, m. warmer, heater.
100) तप्तकृच्छ्र (p. 74) tapta-krikkhra penance in which only hot things are eaten; -vluk, f. pl. hot sand.
101) तप्त (p. 74) tap-t hot water; glowing heat.
102) तपोधन (p. 74) tapo-dhana whose wealth is penance; devout, pious; m. ascetic, devotee; N.; -nidhi, m. treasury of penance; rigorous devotee; -bhrit, a. devout, pious; m. devotee, ascetic; -maya, a. () consisting of penance or austerity; devoted to piety; -mla, a. having austerity for its root; -yaga, a. sacrificing with penance; -yukta, pp. ascetic, pious; m. ascetic, devotee; -rata, pp. delighting in penance, devout; -rati, a. id.; -vat, a. ascetic, devout; -vana, n. sacred grove (in which ascetics practise penance); -vriddha, pp. abounding in penance, rigorously ascetic, very pious.
103) तपुस् (p. 74) tap-us glowing, hot.
104) तपुष्पा (p. 74) tap-ush-paN drinking warm libations.
105) तपुषि (p. 74) tp-ush-i glowing, hot.
106) तपिष्ठ (p. 74) tp-ishtha very hot, burning; -ishnu, a. warming, burning; -yas, cpv. most rigorously ascetic; more pious than (g.).
107) तपात्यय (p. 74) tapa̮atyaya (end of the heat), rainy season; -̮anta, m. id.
108) तपस्विन् (p. 74) tapas-vn tormented, afflicted, unfortunate; pious, devout; m. ascetic, religious devotee; -, f. female ascetic.
109) तपस्वत् (p. 74) tpas-vat glowing, hot; ascetic, full of devotion, pious.
110) तपस्य (p. 74) 2. tapas-y produced from heat; m. N. of a month (February-March); , f. religious austerity.
111) तपस्य (p. 74) 1. tpas-ya P. castigate oneself, mortify the flesh.
112) तपस् (p. 74) tp-as heat; fire (of which there are five, the four directed towards the cardinal points and the sun); torment; penance, selfcastigation, mortification, religious austerity, devotion; N. of a month (Jan.--Feb.); N. of one of the seven worlds (situated above Ganas).
113) तरण (p. 74) tar-ana crossing, passing over, passage of (--); overcoming; -ni, a. pressing onward, swift; m. sun; -anya, fp. to be crossed.
114) तरंगय (p. 74) taramga-ya P. cause to wave; cause to move about (eyes): pp. taramgita, waving; moving to and fro; n. fluctuation, backward and forward motion.
115) तरंग (p. 74) 2. taramga move like waves, surge; move to and fro.
116) तरंग (p. 74) 1. taram-ga [going across], wave; section of a book (the title of which contains a word for ocean or river); gallop; moving to and fro.
117) तरक्ष (p. 74) tarakshu hyna.
118) तर (p. 74) tr-a crossing, overcoming (--); m. passage, ferry; boat-hire, fare; N.
119) तमोगा (p. 74) tamo-gaN moving in darkness; -ghna, a. darkness dispelling; m. sun; -nuda, a. dispelling darkness; m. sun; moon; -ƶpaha, a. dispelling darkness or ignorance; m. moon; -bhta, pp. involved in darkness or darkness incarnate; stupid, foolish; -mani, m. fire-fly; -maya, a. () consisting of or involved in darkness; m. one of the five forms of Avidy in the Sṅkhya; -ƶri, m. sun (enemy of darkness): -vivara, n.(?) window; -vsas, n. garb or robe of darkness.
120) तमी (p. 74) tam- night.
121) तमिस्र (p. 74) tamis-ra darkness, dark night; , f. id.; -paksha, m. dark fortnight (full moon till new moon).
122) तमाल (p. 74) tam-la -pattra, n. leaf of the Tamla tree.
123) तमाम् (p. 74) tamm --, highly, very, much (attached to advs. in V., to verbs in C.).
124) तमस (p. 74) tamas- dark-coloured; n. darkness (--); -ka, -- a.=tamas; -vin-, f. night.
125) तमस् (p. 74) tm-as darkness; gloom of hell; N. of a hell; eclipse=Rhu; error, ignorance; delusion; Darkness (one of the three fundamental qualities (gunas) incident to creation; in the Sṅkhya philosophy one of the five forms of Avidy).
126) तरूट (p. 74) tarta lotus root.
127) तरुतल (p. 74) taru-tala flat space under a tree; -t, f. condition of a tree; -mandapa, arbour, bower; -mla, n. root of a tree; -vall, f. creeper; -shanda, n. group of trees.
128) तन्त्रक (p. 74) tantra-ka coming from the loom, quite new; -- a. doctrine, manual.
129) तरंगिन् (p. 74) taramg-in fluctuating, unsteady, restless: -, f. river; title of various works (--).
130) तरुणी (p. 74) tarun- virgin, maiden; young woman.
131) तरुणिमन् (p. 74) tarun-i-mn youth.
132) तरुणाय (p. 74) tarun-ya . become or remain young.
133) तरुणय (p. 74) taruna-ya P. make young.
134) तरुण (p. 74) tr-una () young; tender; new, fresh; vivid (feeling); just begun; lately risen (sun); crescent (moon); m. youth; n. sprout, blade: -ka, n. sprout, shoot, blade; -t, f. freshness, vigour.
135) तरु (p. 74) 2. taru tree (later than Manu): -kotara, n. hollow of a tree; -khanda, m. n. group of trees, clump; -gahana, n. forest thicket; -kkhy, f. shade of a tree.
136) तरु (p. 74) 1. tr-u swift.
137) तरि (p. 74) tar- boat; -ika, m. ferryman; -ik, f. boat; -i-tavya, fp. to be crossed.
138) तराम् (p. 74) tarm na, by no means; --, very, much, greatly (added to advs. in V., and to verbs in C., like -tamm).
139) तरस्विन् (p. 74) taras-vn swift; impetuous, energetic; bold.
140) तरस्वत् (p. 74) tras-vat energetic.
141) तरस् (p. 74) tr-as speed; energy, activity, force: in. by force; speedily, straightway.
142) तरलय (p. 74) tarala-ya P. cause to tremble, move to and fro; flutter: pp. taralita, waving, moving to and fro; fluttering (heart).
143) तरल (p. 74) tar-ala trembling, tremulous; quivering; sparkling; fickle, inconstant; transitory; m. wave; central gem of a necklace; N. of a people; n., , f. rice-gruel; -t, f. tremor; sparkle; ogling; fickleness; meddling disposition; -tva, n. id.
144) तरतमतस् (p. 74) tara-tama-tas more or less.
145) तर्ष (p. 74) tarsh-a thirst; desire (for, --); -ana, n. id.; -ita, pp. thirsty, eager for (--).
146) तर्पणीय (p. 74) tarp-anya to be satisfied w. (in.).
147) तर्पण (p. 74) trp-ana () satisfying; n. satisfaction (act. & ps.); satisfying, pleasing (the gods or Manes by oblations); nourishment, refreshment.
148) तर्णक (p. 74) tarna-ka calf; young (of animals).
149) तर्जन (p. 74) targ-ana threatening; abuse; , f. forefinger.
150) तर्कुक (p. 74) tarku-ka beggar.
151) तर्किन् (p. 74) tark-in supposing, surmising, skilled in speculation.
152) तर्क (p. 74) tark-a supposition, conjecture; reflexion, speculation; speculative doctrine, philosophical system (of which there are six, the Prva- and Uttara-Mmms, Nyya, Vaiseshika, Sṅkhya, and Yoga); refutation, reductio ad absurdum (in logic); -gna, n. knowledge derived from speculation; -vid, m. philosopher, dialectician; -vidy, -sstra, n. science of thought; -samgraha, m. T. of a manual on the Nyya system.
153) तन्त्रकार (p. 74) tantra-kra composer of a manual.
154) तमप् (p. 74) tama-p -tama (gr.).



Contents of this page

UKT notes

Buddhist tantra

UKT: When King Abiraza came from northern India to northern Myanmar before the birth of the Buddha, what form of religion did he bring? I suppose it must be Vedic with its chants. And when the second group of northern Indians - the relatives of the Buddha - came in during his lifetime, did they bring in the earliest form of Buddhism (the first time) and also the Vedic religion (a second time)? And during the time of Nalanda university (5th or 6th century CE to 1197 CE) did the monks from India continually bring in their religion into northern Myanmar? They must have. Then what was the brand of Buddhism? Please remember that there are overland routes between northern India and northern Myanmar. And so when King Anawratha supplanted the Buddhist practices of the Arigyi monks with the Theravada from the south, what was the exact form of Buddhism the Aris were practicing? Some say it was the Tantra. Was it the same as Vajrayana that is given by Wikipedia below? -- UKT 120309

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vajrayana 120309

Vajrayāna Buddhism (Skt: वज्रयान; Oriya: ବଜ୍ରଯାନ, Tibetan: རྡོ་རྗེ་ཐེག་པ་, rdo rje theg pa; Mongolian: Очирт хөлгөн, Ochirt Hlgn) is also known as Tantric Buddhism, Tantrayāna, Mantrayāna, Secret Mantra, Esoteric Buddhism and the Diamond Vehicle. Vajrayana is a complex and multifaceted system of Buddhist thought and practice which evolved over several centuries.[1] Its main scriptures are called Tantras.[1] A distinctive feature of Vajrayana Buddhism is ritual, which are Skillful Means (Upaya), which is used as a substitute or alternative for the earlier abstract meditations.[2][3]

The period of Indian Vajrayana Buddhism has been classified as the fifth[4] or final[1] period of Indian Buddhism. Although the first tantric Buddhist texts appeared in India in the 3rd century and continued to appear until the 12th century,[5] scholars such as Hirakawa Akira believe that the Vajrayana probably came into existence in the 6th or 7th century,[4] while the term Vajrayana first came into evidence in the 8th century.[1]

According to Vajrayana scriptures Vajrayana refers to one of three vehicles or routes to enlightenment, the other two being the Hinayana and Mahayana.

UKT: More in the Wikipedia article.

From Paul Harrison in Tantric Buddhism - sexual pantheism
http://www.pantheism.net/paul/tantra.htm 120309

At first sight nothing seems more alien to the oldest form of Buddhism, Theravada, than Tantric Buddhism. Where Theravada urges us to reflect on the repulsiveness of the body, Tantric Buddhism tells us to revere it as a temple and to indulge its most sensual impulses. Theravada preaches the renunciation of all desires: Tantric Buddhism their over-fulfillment.

These are very real and significant differences. If we regard nirvana as an ultimate reality which is revered as virtually divine, then most Mahayana schools of Buddhism are pantheisms of the world-rejecting and world-denying varieties (see Varieties of Pantheism). [UKT ]

[The following two quotations are from 1. Treasury of Songs by Saraha, written in the eleventh or twelfth century AD, in Edward Conze et al eds, Buddhist Texts through the Ages, Harper Torchbooks, 1964.]

I have visited in my wanderings shrines and other places of pilgrimage,
But I have not seen another shrine blissful like my own body. [48]

Eat and drink, indulge the senses,
Fill the mandala (with offerings) again and again,
By things like these you'll gain the world beyond.

Tantric Buddhism is a pantheism of the world-accepting variety which sees nirvana in the midst of sense-phenomena.

Tantric Buddhism also laid great emphasis on mantras (incantations), on mudras (symbolic gestures) and on mandalas (symbolic diagrams of deities and cosmic forces), as well as on magic and a multiplicity of deities.

Yet it has two major points in common with its parent.

The first is that it aims at the abandonment or transcendence of the self. Once again, its favoured method - the ecstasy of ritual sexual intercourse and orgasm - is quite foreign to Theravada Buddhism. The Buddha scolded his pupil Ananda for giving in to female attractions.

The sexual aspect of Tantric Buddhism has attracted a great deal of attention, sometimes puritanical, sometimes prurient. Some of the Tantric sutras, such as the Guhyasamaja-tantra, describe elaborate rituals for group orgies. Many scholars claim that these passages are not to be taken literally. They are said to be symbolic of the union of wisdom (symbolized by the female) and means (the male).

However, some groups did practise the rituals literally and in the flesh. These are likely to have been primarily males of the higher classes, who could buy lower-caste women or high-class prostitutes to do what they liked with, or landless castes, who had no property to pass on, and for whom female virginity was less critical.

Tantric Buddhism shares another factor with many schools of Mahayana Buddhism. It claims that the existence of the physical world is illusory, and therefore there is no difference between samsara (the world of transmigration and shifting appearances) and nirvana.

If this is true, then all we need to be liberated is to realize it. As long as we do so, it makes no difference how we act. We can rape, murder, commit incest - as some of the more extreme Tantric texts encourage - and we will remain undefiled by the world of illusion. In this amoral position Tantric teachings resembled those of the Nicolaitan Gnostics and the Brethren of the Free Spirit.

Tantric sex rituals were elaborate. In the chakrapuja between eight and forty eight male and female celebrants gather and take cannabis. The priest anoints and has intercourse with a nude young girl, retaining his semen for the congregation to drink. Feasting and drinking follow, and the ceremony ends in ritual copulation accompanied by reciting of mantras. The purpose (allegedly) is not to have a good time, but to use sexual union and orgasm as a way to extinction of the self and fusion with the underlying reality and unity.

Tantric Buddhism probably began around 300 AD as an esoteric development among small circles of initiates, passed down from guru to pupil. It gathered momentum after 600 AD, and was espoused by the rulers of a kingdom known as Uddyana (possibly around Peshawar in modern Pakistan) and by the Pala dynasty in Bengal (750-1150). It was largely suppressed during the Moghul period.

[Harrison gives several quotations and their sources:]
1. Treasury of Songs by Saraha, written in the eleventh or twelfth century AD, in Edward Conze et al eds, Buddhist Texts through the Ages, Harper Torchbooks, 1964.
2.  Cittavisuddhiprakarana, of Aryadeva, 7th century, cited in W. T. de Bary, The Buddhist Tradition, Vintage Books, 1972.

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Tanu bhava

1. http://ianala.blogspot.com/2008/02/bhavas-first-house-tanu-bhava.html 120308
2. Bṛhat Parāśara Horāśāstra (BPHS) , Chapter 11 , Judgment of Bhavas
http://www.indiadivine.org/audarya/vedic-astrology-jyotisha/291122-brihat-parashara-hora-shastra.html 120308

Chapter 11. Judgement of Bhavas

1. O Maharishi Parashar, I have come to know of the evils and antidotes thereof from you. Please tell me, what is to be deduced from each Bhava (House).

2. Indications of Tanu (Self) Bhava. Maharishi Parashar replies. Physique, appearance, intellect (or the organ of intelligence, i.e. brain), complexion of the body, vigour, weakness, happiness, grief and innate nature are all to be guessed through the ascending Rasi.

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/B%E1%B9%9Bhat_Par%C4%81%C5%9Bara_Hor%C4%81%C5%9B%C4%81stra 120308

The Bṛhat Parāśara Horāśāstra (BPHS) is a foundational compilation of Indian astrology, or horā. [1]

UKT: बृहत्पाराशरहोराशास्त्र - sp chk needed 120308

The Bṛhat Parāśara Horāśāstra is the most comprehensive extant work on natal astrology in Hindu astrology ascribed to any Rishi or sage according to the text itself. Its oldest printed version is a composite work of 71 chapters, in which the first part (chapters 1-51) dates to the 7th and early 8th centuries, and the second part (chapters 52-71) dates to the latter part of the 8th century [citation]. A commentary by Govindaswamin (a mathematician) on the second portion, which presupposes the first, is dated to c. 850 CE and attests to the scope of the work at that date [citation]. The text says that this work was created by Sage Parashara (father of Veda Vyaasa, the compiler of Mahabharata) for the benefit of Kaliyuga. An English translation was published by N.N. Krishna Rau and V.B. Choudhari in 1963, in two volumes.[2]

The oldest edition by Khemraj Press of Mumbai having 71 chapters contains a verse saying that treatise has 100 chapters ("horaa-shataadhyaayi" : verse 14 of 71st chapter), and the first part had 11000 verses, although even enlarged modern editions contain only half that number of verses. But 29 chapters were absent in that edition. Later editions contain 97, 98, 99 and even 100 chapters. But the source and dating of the extra material is not known. One important later edition, by Pt Sitaram Jha, which has found its way into internet and which was the basis of all English translations, claimed that Khemraj edition contained many spurious chapters. Thus, the number of non-controversial chapters will reduce to much less than 71. None of these editors used any material from any ancient commentary.

Currently, four different versions of this treatise are available (all other editions use the text of Pt Sitaram Jha's version) : by Khemraj Press, by Pt Sitaram Jha, by Pt Devachandra Jha, and by Ganeshadatta Pathak. These are all Hindi editions. The text prepared by Pt Sitaram Jha based on the manuscript supplied by Pt Jeevanath Jha was later used by all English translators and only this version is available online. Pt Sitaram Jha claimed in his introduction that he introduced many new things and revised much old material in the manuscript ! The version of Pt Sitaram Jha is completely different from all other versions in syntax, although almost all verses carry same meanings. It seems as if some modern exert of prosody rewrote this entire text. The text of Pt Devachandra Jha was based on a large number of complete and incomplete manuscripts. Pt Ganeshdatta Pathak also used many manuscripts and his text differs from that of Pt Devachandra Jha at few places. Khemraj edition contains a large body of unique materials, and although it has minimum number of chapters, it contains the largest number of verses : 5781 verses as compared to 4001 verses in Pt Sitaram Jha's edition. The first verse of second part in Khemraj edition says that the first part had 11000 verses in 80 chapters. Same text says that there were 100 chapters originally. Hence, second chapters had only 20 chapters, although all modern editions have more chapters in second part and much more in first part than claimed by the Sanskrit verses. No critical and comparative edition has been brought out to fix the problem of authentic parts of this treatise.

UKT: http://www.reliableastrology.com/mphs.htm 120308
   gives a version of BPHS

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