Update: 2019-02-04 01:29 AM -0500


A Practical Sanskrit Dictionary


by A. A. Macdonell, 1893, http://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/scans/MDScan/index.php?sfx=jpg ;
1929, http://dsal.uchicago.edu/dictionaries/macdonell/ 110416 , 110611 

Edited, with additions from Pali sources, by U Kyaw Tun (UKT) (M.S., I.P.S.T., USA) and staff of Tun Institute of Learning (TIL) . Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone. Prepared for students and staff of TIL Research Station, Yangon, MYANMAR :  http://www.tuninst.net , www.romabama.blogspot.com 

MC-indx.htm | Top

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{ta.da.} तद
{ta.Da.} : missing c4 {Da.}
{ta.na.} तन
{tn} तन्  / {tun-u.}: as prefix. Pal: {ta.nu.} तनु
{ta.nu.da.} तनुदान
{ta.nu} तनू
{ta.nu-Ba.} तनूभव
{tn~tra.} तन्त्र  : Remember TOC is in Pal-Myan 
  {tn~tra.ka.} तन्त्रक
  {tn~tra.ya.} तन्त्रय
{tn~dra.} तन्द्र 


UKT notes
Buddhist tantra
Nasal codas :
Twelve Divisions in Hindu Astrology
  Zodiac - Mesa Rasi 
  Personal life - Tanu bhava

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{ta.da.} तद


UKT 171030: The prefix  / {td} 'that' is an important pre-fix.
{td} - UHS PMD0430
- n. that

p106c1-b01/ p074-044
तदनन्तर [ tad-anantara ]
- a. standing next to (g.): -m, ad. immediately after, thereupon (corr. prk or prathamam).
44) तदनन्तर (p. 74) tad-anantara standing next to (g.):


p106c1-b02/ p074-043
तदनु [ tad-anu ]
- ad. thereupon, then.
43) तदनु (p. 74) tad-anu thereupon, then.

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p106c1-b03/ p074-043
तदनुकृति [ tad-anukriti ]
- ad. accordingly; -ansarana-krama, m. continual following of him; -anta, a. ending with that; -apatyat, f. condition of having offspring through him (the son) or by her (the Sdr woman); apatya-maya, a. devoted to his (her) children; -apeksha, a. having regard to that; -artha, m. the meaning of that or those; a. having that for its object, meant for that; having the same meaning: -m, ad. for that purpose, on that account, therefore; -arthin, a. desiring that; -arthya, a. undertaken for that end, having that as its object; -ardhika, a. half as much; -arha, a. commensurate with that; -avastha, a. being in that condition or plight; being in the same condition=safe.
42) तदनुकृति (p. 74) tad-anukriti accordingly;


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p106c1-b04/ p074-032
तदा [ ta-d ]
- ad. at that time, then (often redundant in E. with tatah, pur, and atha): frequently with correlative yatah, yatra, yad, yad, yadi, ked; in that case; tad prabhriti, thenceforward; yad yad -- tad tad, whenever--then; yad tad, at any time, always.
32) तदा (p. 74) ta-d at that time, then (often redundant in E. with tatah, pur, and atha):

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p106c1-b05/ p074-026
तदाकार [ tad-kra ]
- a. having that appearance
26) तदाकार (p. 74) tad-kra having that appearance.


p106c1-b06/ p074-025 
तदात्व [ tad-tva ]
- n. present time or state (opp. yati)
25) तदात्व (p. 74) tad-tva present time

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p106c1-b07/ p074-024 
तदादि [ tad-di ]
- ad. thenceforward; then first.
24) तदादि (p. 74) tad-di thenceforward;


p106c1-b08/ p074-078
तदानीम््   [ tad-n-m ]  
- (ac.) ad. then, at that time (corr. yatra, yad, yadi).
78) तदानीम्् (p. 74) tad-n-m then, at that time

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p106c1-b09/ p074-077
तदीय [ tad-ya ]
- a. belonging, referring or proper to him, her, it, them, or that; his, her, its, their; such: -saṅga, m. union with her.
77) तदीय (p. 74) tad-ya belonging, referring or proper to him, her, it, them, or that; his, her, its, their; such:


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p106c1-b10/ p074-064
तदुत्थ [ tad-uttha ]
- a. arising from or caused by that man; -upahita, pp. transferred to him.
64) तदुत्थ (p. 74) tad-uttha arising from or caused by that man;


p106c1-b11/ p074-063
तदोकस् [ td-okas ]
- a. abiding there.
63) तदोकस् (p. 74) td-okas abiding there.


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p106c1-b12/ p074-062
तद्गत [ tad-gata ]
-- pp. directed to him, her, or that; directed to (--); -guna, m. his or her quality or virtue; a. having those qualities.
62) तद्गत (p. 74) tad-gata directed to him, her, or that;


p106c1-b13/ p074-061
तद्देवताक [ tad-devat-ka ]
- a. having that as a deity; -desya, a. coming from the same country; m. countryman; -dviguna, a. twice that amount.
61) तद्देवताक (p. 74) tad-devat-ka having that as a deity;


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p106c1-b14/ p074-060
तद्धित [ tad-dhita ]
-- a. good for him, in which sense one of the suffixes of this class is used: m. (sc. pratyaya) secondary suffix; word formed with a secondary suffix.
60) तद्धित (p. 74) tad-dhita good for him,


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p106c1-b15/ p074-059
तद्बुद्धि [ tad-buddhi ]
= त द ् ब ु द ् ध ि
-- a. whose mind is centred on that.
59) तद्बुद्धि (p. 74) tad-buddhi whose mind is centred on that.


p106c1-b16/ p074-058
तद्भव [ tad-bhava ]
-- a. derived from that, viz. Sanskrit (applied to Prkrit and South Indian words); -bhva, m. becoming that; becoming (--); his sentiments or intentions; -bhta, pp. being therein.
58) तद्भव (p. 74) tad-bhava derived from that,


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p106c1-b17/ p074-057 
तद्रस [ tad-rasa ]
-- m. essence of it; -rga, m. suffix attached to the name of a people to designate their king; -rpa, a. of such kind or appearance; of the same kind; -vamsya, m. relative of that ruler; -vaktri, m. propounder of that; -vat, 1. ad. in this way, thus; similarly, likewise, also; 2. a. possess ing or containing that: -t, f. conformity, harmony; -vayas, a. of the same age; -vd, a. knowing or versed in that; m. connoisseur; -vidha, a. of such a kind, such, such-like; corresponding thereto: -tva, n. corresponding nature; -vishaya, a. belonging to that category; having that as an object; -vritti, a. living according to that; -vrata, a. fulfilling duties towards him, her, or them.
57) तद्रस (p. 74) tad-rasa essence of it;


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{ta.na.}/ / {tn} vs. {taan} / {tn}

UKT 171031: The prefixes  /  {tn} 'tying string' (in row #4) and   / {tm} (in row #5) are interesting, however they are not as important as the prefix / {td} 'that' (in row #4) is an important prefix.
{td} - UHS PMD0430c2 - n. that
{tn-ta.} - UHS PMD0432c2 - UKT based on UHS: loom, strings (warp and woof) on the loom, continuity similar to unbroken warp and woof, formula (for pattern).
Usage from Google: The Constitution and the Declaration of Independence are the warp and woof of the American nation.
{tn} - UHS PMD0426c1 - UKT from UHS: . n. that, that object, that mass. ni. therefore, because of those facts. . to you
See my note on Nasal codas : the true nasals and semi-nasals


p106c2-b01/ not online
तन् [ . TAN ] , VIII,
tan-o -- stretch; extend; reach; cover; shine afar; continue, endure; spread out (web); propagate; augment, increase; direct (steps); utter; perform (rites); make render (2 ac.) : pp. tata , spread out, extended; wide; covered with (in,-);. ati, pp. very haughty. adhi, string (a bow): pp. covered with (in). abhi, extend over (ac.). ava, descend;spread over, cover; relax, , spread over, pervade; illumine; stretch oneself, strain or strive towards (ac); gain a footing (padam); spread out, stretch; diffuse, effuse; produce, cause; display, betray: pp.       tata, extended; distended. taut. abhi‿ ,get into one power, vi‿ ,produce, cause. sam-, id. ni, penetrate; cause to take root. pari, clasp; surround. pra, spread; diffuse; cause; show; make, render (2 ac). vi, spead; cover, pervade, fill; stretch out, extend; draw (bow or bowstring); string (bow); make steps (padni)=stride; put in front (yoke); apply ointment to (lc.); arrange, per form, carry out (rites etc.); display; cause, produce; make, render (2 ac); pp. extended; extensive, wide. pra-vi, pp. extended; extensive, wide. pra-vi, pp.extended; far-spreading; wide. sam, make continuous, uninterrupted, continuous; connected.




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p106c2-b02/ not online 
तन् [ . TAN ] IV. P.
tanya , (V.) -- roar, resound


p106c2-b03/ p074-056
तन् [ . tn ]
-- f. duration: in. continually.
56) तन् (p. 74) 3. tn duration: in. continually.


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p106c2-b03/ p074-055
तनय [ tn-aya ]
-- a. continuing a family; belonging to one's own family; m. son; , f. daughter; n. progeny; race, family; child.
55) तनय (p. 74) tn-aya continuing a family;


p106c2-b04/ p074-054
तनयीकृत [tanay-krita]
- pp. made a son.
54) तनयीकृत (p. 74) tanay-krita made a son. 


p106c2-b05/ p074-053
तनिका [ tan-ik ]
- f. rope, cord; -i-tri, m. extender, performer.
53) तनिका (p. 74) tan-ik rope, cord;


p106c2-b06/ p074-052
तनिमन् [ tn-i-man ]
- m. thinness; shallowness; weakness; -ishtha, spv., -yas, cpv. of tan.
52) तनिमन् (p. 74) tn-i-man thinness;


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UKT 171102: {ta.nu.Ba-wa.} 'First House' denoting 'personal self' is the most important House in delineating a person's life. See Cusp in Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cusp_(astrology) 171102



p106c2-b07/ p074-076
तनु [ tan- ]
- a. (brev;, v-) thin; small; slender; scanty, moderate (in amount); delicate, weak; u, , f. body, person, form; one's self (=refl. prn.: also pl.); manifestation: rartym tanur manyoh=frown of anger; iyam tanur mama, I here; svak tanuh, one's own person.
  76) तनु (p.74) tan- (ŭ̂, v-) thin; small;
BPal: {ta.nu.} - UHS PMD0432c1
  UKT from UHS: mfn. thin (opp. thick), smallness. n. self (physical body), skin

See my note on Twelve bhavas or divisions of a person's life.

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p106c2-b08/ p074-075
तनुच्छद [ tanu-kkhada ]
-- m. feather; armour, cuirass; -ga, m. son: , f. daughter; -t, f. smallness; meagreness, slenderness; condition of having a body; -tyag, a. abandoning the body, dying; risking life, brave; -tyga, m. sacrificing or risking one's life.
75) तनुच्छद (p. 74) tanu-kkhada feather; armour, cuirass;


p106c2-b09/ p074-074
तनुत्र [ tanu-tra ]
-- n. armour, cuirass; -trna, n. id.; -tr-in, a. armoured.
74) तनुत्र (p. 74) tanu-tra armour, cuirass;


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{ ta.nu.da.}

p106c2-b10/ p074-073
तनुदान [ tanu-dna ] 
-- n. giving up the body; scanty gift; -bhva, m. slenderness, scantiness; -bhrit, m. embodied being, esp. human being; -mat, a. possessing a body; -madhya, n. waist; a. slender-waisted; -madhyama, a. slender-waisted; -ruha, n. feather; -sam gama, m. personal union.
73) तनुदान (p. 74) tanu-dna giving up the body;


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p106c2-b11 / p074-072
तनू [ tan ]
-- f., v. tan-.
72) तनू (p. 74) tan-uN tan-.


p106c2-b12 / p074-071
तनूकरण [ tan-karana ]
-- n. attenuating; -kar tri, m. diminisher.
71) तनूकरण (p. 74) tan-karana attenuating;


p106c2-b13 / not online
तनूकृ [tan-kri]
-- attenuate, lop; diminish; lay aside (shame)


p106c2-b14/ p074-070
तनूज [ tan-g ]
-- a. born from the body; m. son: , f. daughter; -tyag, a. risking one's life, desperate; -d&usharp;shi, a. injuring life.
70) तनूज (p. 74) tan-g born from the body;


p106c2-b15/ p074-069
तनूनपात् [ tn-npt ]
-- m. son of himself, ep. of Agni; fire; -naptri, m. id.
69) तनूनपात् (p. 74) tn-npt son of himself,

UKT 180617: The entry तनूनपात् tn-npt reminds me human cloning. The following website gives interesting info on the subject:
- https://www.speakingtree.in/allslides/was-human-cloning-known-to-the-vedic-sages 180617
"Cloning is the creation of a genetically identical copy of a living being by reproduction of cells and tissue. The possibility of human cloning has raised controversies. Many ethical concerns have prompted several nations to pass laws regarding human cloning and its legality. But if I say cloning was known to man even in the Pauranic era, does it sound absurd? Perhaps not! There are lots of indications in various Hindu Puranas and Shastras. Lets explore"


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p106c3-b01/ p074-068
तनूभव [ tan-bhava ]
-- m. son; -ruha, n. hair (on the body); plumage; wing; m. son.
68) तनूभव (p. 74) tan-bhava son;

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p106c3-b02/ p074-067
तन्ति [ tan-t ]
-- f. (also ) cord, rope (esp. for tying calves).
67) तन्ति (p. 74) tan-t ) cord,


p106c3-b03/ p074-066
तन्तु [ tn-tu ]
-- m. thread, cord, string; fibre, warp; uninterrupted course of a sacrifice; propagator of a race; lineage.
  66) तन्तु (p. 74) tn-tu thread, cord, string;
BPal: {tn~tu.} - UHS PMD0432c2
  UKT from UHS: m. spun thread, a single (unspun) fiber, sowing thread, tuning string


p106c3-b04/ not online
तन्तुक [tantu-ka],
-- (-a.) string, thread; -mat , a. threadlike; ep. of Agni (continuous as a thread); -vya , m. weaver

तन्तुक [tantu-ka],
Skt: तन्तुक [tantu-ka] - (-a.) string, thread; - Mac106c3
Skt: तन्तुक tantuka - rope, thread. m. kind of serpant - SpkSkt
BPal: {tn~tu.ka.} - UHS PMD0432c2
  UKT from UHS: m. strand of thread

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p106c3-b05/ p074-065
तन्त्र [ tn-tra ]
Skt: -- n. loom; warp; groundwork, underlying principle, essence; system; standard; main point; rule, doctrine; manual; section in a manual; a class of magical and mystical treatises; spell; physic, specific; government; --, line, rank, troop; a. chiefly concerned with, dependent on (--).
  65) तन्त्र (p. 74) tn-tra loom;
BPal: {tn~ta.} - UHS-PMD0432
- - UHS-PMD0432 
  UKT from UHS: n. loom, thread (the warp thread and the weft thread), prescribed method.

See my note on Buddhist tantra : Now recognized as one of the three Buddhist sects: Mahayana, Hinayana, and Vajrayāna  वज्रयान = व ज ् र य ा न  {wiz~ra.ya-na.} .

After reading Tantric Buddhism by Paul Harrison (given in my note), I am sure that the Path of Waizza {waiz~za} practiced in Myanmar at present under the umbrella of Theravada (= Hinayana?) is not Tantric. However what some of the Pagan Arigyis had practiced is still anybody's guess. -- UKT120309 .
See Buddhism: Critical Concepts Vol3, ed. Paul Williams, 2005, in TIL HD-PDF and SD-PDF libraries
- PWilliams-BuddhCriticalConcepts<> / Bkp<> (link chk 180617)


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UKT 180618: Remember TOC is in Pal-Myan which is somewhat rhotic. Bur-Myan dialect of the Irrawaddy basic is non-rhotic, whereas the dialect of the Rakhine State is rhotic as in Pal-Myan.

p106c3-b06/ p074-128
तन्त्रक [ tantra-ka ]
-- a. coming from the loom, quite new; -- a. doctrine, manual.
128) तन्त्रक (p. 74) tantra-ka coming from the loom, quite new;


p106c3-b07/ p074-153
तन्त्रकार [ tantra-kra ]
-- m. composer of a manual.
153) तन्त्रकार (p. 74) tantra-kra composer of a manual.

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p106c3-b08/ p074-096
तन्त्रय [ tantra-ya ]
-- den. P. follow; perform; pro vide for (ac.): pp. tantrita, dependent on (--).
96) तन्त्रय (p. 74) tantra-ya P. follow;


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p106c3-b09/ p074-095
तन्त्रवाय [ tantra-vya ]
- m. weaver.
95) तन्त्रवाय (p. 74) tantra-vya weaver. 


p106c3-b10/ p074-094
तन्त्रिन् [ tantr-in ]
- m. soldier.
94) तन्त्रिन् (p. 74) tantr-in soldier.


p106c3-b11/ not online
-- m. N.


p106c3-b12/ p074-093
तन्त्री [ tan-tr ]
-- f. (nm. -s) string; music of a stringed instrument.
  93) तन्त्री (p. 74) tan-tr -s) string;
BPal: {tn~ti.} - UHS-PMD0432c2
  UKT from UHS: f. tuning, tuning of harp, process, process in Pali, lineage


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p106c3-b13/ not online
[TAND] I. .
- tanda , relax, flag


p106c3-b14/ p074-092
तन्द्रय [ tandra-ya ]
-- den. . grow weary.
92) तन्द्रय (p. 74) tandra-ya . grow weary.


p106c3-b15/ p074-091
तन्द्रा [ tand-r ]
-- f. lassitude; laziness, sloth.
91) तन्द्रा (p. 74) tand-r lassitude; 


p106c3-b16/ p074-090
तन्द्राय [ tandr-ya ]
-- den. . grow weary.
90) तन्द्राय (p. 74) tandr-ya . grow weary.


p106c3-b17/ p074-089
तन्द्रालु [ tandr-lu ]
-- a. weary, fatigued.
89) तन्द्रालु (p. 74) tandr-lu weary, fatigued.


p106c3-b18/ p074-088
तन्निमित्त [ tan-nimitta ]
-- a. caused by him or thereby: -tva, n. being the cause thereof; -nishtha, a. thoroughly devoted to that.
88) तन्निमित्त (p. 74) tan-nimitta caused by him or thereby:


p106c3-b19/ p074-087
तन्मनस् [ tan-manas ]
-- a. absorbed therein; -maya, a. consisting thereof, full of, identified therewith: -t, f., -tva, n. identity with him, her, it, or that; -mtra, a. only so much or little; atomic; n. trifle (ab. (angry) about a mere trifle); atom, rudimentary undifferentiated, subtile element (from which a gross element is produced): -ka, n. only just so much; -mnin, a. passing for that; -mla, a. based on that; occasioned thereby: -tva, n. condition of being the root thereof or of being based thereon.
87) तन्मनस् (p. 74) tan-manas absorbed therein;


p106c3-b20/ 074-086
तन्यतु [ tan-ya-t ]
-- m. roaring; thunder.
86) तन्यतु (p. 74) tan-ya-t roaring; \


p106c3-b21/ p074-085
तन्वङ्ग [ tanu‿aṅga ]
-- a. () delicate-limbed, slenderly built; m. N.
85) तन्वङ्ग (p. 74) tanu̮aṅga () delicate-limbed,


p106c3-b22/ p074-084
तन्वी [ tanv- ]
-- f. (of tanu) slender maiden.
84) तन्वी (p. 74) tanv- tanu) slender maiden.


p106c3-b23/ not online

तप् [ TAP ] I.P. ()
tapa , be warm or hot, shine (of the sun); heat, warm, make hot: illuminate; scorch, burn; torment, distress; suffer pain; mortify the flesh; do penance (often with the ac. tapas); ps. tapy or IV.

 P.. tpya, be heated, burn (int.); be parified; suffer; feel remorse; mortify the flesh, do penance (often with ac. tapas); pp. tapta, hot, glowing; molten; tortured, distressed; performed (penance); having mortified flesh (with tapas); cs. tpya, heat; torment, distress, anu, ps. suffer pain; feel remorse; cs.cause to grieve, d abhi, warm, heat; illuminate (of the pain, torment, distress; ps. feel pain, suffer; cs. scroch. abhi‿ , torment . ud, heat; torment, affict; pp. ttapta, heated, glowing; purified (metal); filled with pain ( -- ). upa,

suffer pain, feel unwell; ps, id.; cs. afflict. nis.( nish-lap), scorch; purify (gold). pari, ps. suffer pain; cs. torment; pp. tpita. pra, P. be hto, burn, shine (sun); warm, heat, illuminate; display one's dplendour; torment with heat, torture, harass; cs. warm,

heat, sam-pra, pp. greatyly distressed. prati, heat. sam, heat; feel pain or remorse; torment with heat; feel pain or remorse; torment with heat, torture; ps. feel pain, suffer; cs. warm, heat; torment by heat; distress, afflict.

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UKT notes

Buddhist tantra

UKT: 120309,171103

See also: Buddhist tantra by N.Dutt, 1960?, in TIL PDF libraries, HD-PDF & SD-PDF
- NDutt-BuddhistTantricBuddhism<> / Bkp<>

When King Abiraza came from northern India to northern Myanmar long before the birth of the Buddha, what form of religion did he bring? I suppose it must be Vedic with its chants. Since Sanskrit, especially that developed by Panini, was developed about the time of the Buddha, Vedic chants in their oldest form, especially the gods and goddesses to which they were directed would be different from those of Brahmins {poaN~Na:}.

A formula, or Tantra must be followed on the loom to bring out the desired pattern of the fabric. So also in the Tantric religion, there must be no deviation from the formula. To constantly remind the practitioner, the prescribed Mantra must be recited.

Some chants, similar to the Buddhist Paritta chants, might be oaths not connected to any entities. Paritta chants owe their power to the "truth" of the statement - an idea foreign to most outside Myanmarpr. As an example in the Anguli-mala parritta, the ex-murderer stated that he had not taken a single life after becoming a monk. And the "power that lies within the truth of statement" is responsible for the wellbeing of foetus in the womb of its mother who was having difficulty in delivering the child. There is no god or goddesses involved. In fact the Theravada Buddhists of Myanmarpr have more faith in the "power of truth" over the power of any gods or goddesses.

And when the second group of northern Indians - the relatives of the Buddha - came into northern Myanmarpr during his lifetime of the Buddha, they would have brought in the earliest form of Buddhism and also the Vedic religion.

And during the time of Nalanda university (5th or 6th century CE to 1197 CE) the monks from India continually brought in their religion into northern Myanmar. Now we must ask what was the brand or brands of Buddhism? Since there were many brands of Buddhism, and also other religions, they would be bringing in many. Please remember that there are overland routes between northern India and northern Myanmar. And Tantric Buddhism of the Arigyis would be one of them. And so in the time of King Anawratha, there must have been many brands Tantric, one being the worship of the scantily dressed teenage Goddess Tara.

A devout whilst performing sex, must keep Tara in mind while he or she is following the prescribed formula or Tantra, while slowing chanting the associated Mantra. In that way the sexual powers of the human mind would be brought out. Then they could be tamed for the elevation of the practitioner's mental capacity leading to Moksha or Liberation from the cycle of birth and rebirth. To follow such a discipline would be extremely difficult, and surely many cheaters would appear, sullying the name of the Tantras.

Some say it was the Tantra. Was it the same as Vajrayana that is given by Wikipedia below? -- UKT 120309

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vajrayana 120309

Vajrayāna Buddhism (Skt: वज्रयान; Oriya: ବଜ୍ରଯାନ, Tibetan: རྡོ་རྗེ་ཐེག་པ་, rdo rje theg pa; Mongolian: Очирт хөлгөн, Ochirt Hlgn) is also known as Tantric Buddhism, Tantrayāna, Mantrayāna, Secret Mantra, Esoteric Buddhism and the Diamond Vehicle. [UKT ]

Vajrayana is a complex and multifaceted system of Buddhist thought and practice which evolved over several centuries. [1] Its main scriptures are called Tantras. [1] A distinctive feature of Vajrayana Buddhism is ritual, which are Skillful Means ( Upaya), which is used as a substitute or alternative for the earlier abstract meditations. [2] [3]

The period of Indian Vajrayana Buddhism has been classified as the fifth [4] or final [1] period of Indian Buddhism. Although the first tantric Buddhist texts appeared in India in the 3rd century and continued to appear until the 12th century, [5] scholars such as Hirakawa Akira believe that the Vajrayana probably came into existence in the 6th or 7th century, [4] while the term Vajrayana first came into evidence in the 8th century. [1]

According to Vajrayana scriptures Vajrayana refers to one of three vehicles or routes to enlightenment, the other two being the Hinayana and Mahayana.

UKT: More in the Wikipedia article.

From Paul Harrison in Tantric Buddhism - sexual pantheism
http://www.pantheism.net/paul/tantra.htm 120309

At first sight nothing seems more alien to the oldest form of Buddhism, Theravada, than Tantric Buddhism. Where Theravada urges us to reflect on the repulsiveness of the body, Tantric Buddhism tells us to revere it as a temple and to indulge its most sensual impulses. Theravada preaches the renunciation of all desires: Tantric Buddhism their over-fulfillment.

These are very real and significant differences. If we regard nirvana as an ultimate reality which is revered as virtually divine, then most Mahayana schools of Buddhism are pantheisms of the world-rejecting and world-denying varieties (see Varieties of Pantheism). [UKT ]

[The following two quotations are from 1. Treasury of Songs by Saraha, written in the eleventh or twelfth century AD, in Edward Conze et al eds, Buddhist Texts through the Ages, Harper Torchbooks, 1964.]

I have visited in my wanderings shrines and other places of pilgrimage,
But I have not seen another shrine blissful like my own body. [48]

Eat and drink, indulge the senses,
Fill the mandala (with offerings) again and again,
By things like these you'll gain the world beyond.

Tantric Buddhism is a pantheism of the world-accepting variety which sees nirvana in the midst of sense-phenomena.

Tantric Buddhism also laid great emphasis on mantras (incantations), on mudras (symbolic gestures) and on mandalas (symbolic diagrams of deities and cosmic forces), as well as on magic and a multiplicity of deities.

Yet it has two major points in common with its parent.

The first is that it aims at the abandonment or transcendence of the self. Once again, its favoured method - the ecstasy of ritual sexual intercourse and orgasm - is quite foreign to Theravada Buddhism. The Buddha scolded his pupil Ananda for giving in to female attractions.

The sexual aspect of Tantric Buddhism has attracted a great deal of attention, sometimes puritanical, sometimes prurient. Some of the Tantric sutras, such as the Guhyasamaja-tantra, describe elaborate rituals for group orgies. Many scholars claim that these passages are not to be taken literally. They are said to be symbolic of the union of wisdom (symbolized by the female) and means (the male).

However, some groups did practise the rituals literally and in the flesh. These are likely to have been primarily males of the higher classes, who could buy lower-caste women or high-class prostitutes to do what they liked with, or landless castes, who had no property to pass on, and for whom female virginity was less critical.

Tantric Buddhism shares another factor with many schools of Mahayana Buddhism. It claims that the existence of the physical world is illusory, and therefore there is no difference between samsara (the world of transmigration and shifting appearances) and nirvana.

If this is true, then all we need to be liberated is to realize it. As long as we do so, it makes no difference how we act. We can rape, murder, commit incest - as some of the more extreme Tantric texts encourage - and we will remain undefiled by the world of illusion. In this amoral position Tantric teachings resembled those of the Nicolaitan Gnostics and the Brethren of the Free Spirit.

Tantric sex rituals were elaborate. In the chakrapuja between eight and forty eight male and female celebrants gather and take cannabis. The priest anoints and has intercourse with a nude young girl, retaining his semen for the congregation to drink. Feasting and drinking follow, and the ceremony ends in ritual copulation accompanied by reciting of mantras. The purpose (allegedly) is not to have a good time, but to use sexual union and orgasm as a way to extinction of the self and fusion with the underlying reality and unity.

Tantric Buddhism probably began around 300 AD as an esoteric development among small circles of initiates, passed down from guru to pupil. It gathered momentum after 600 AD, and was espoused by the rulers of a kingdom known as Uddyana (possibly around Peshawar in modern Pakistan) and by the Pala dynasty in Bengal (750-1150). It was largely suppressed during the Moghul period.

[Harrison gives several quotations and their sources:]
1. Treasury of Songs by Saraha, written in the eleventh or twelfth century AD, in Edward Conze et al eds, Buddhist Texts through the Ages, Harper Torchbooks, 1964.
2.  Cittavisuddhiprakarana, of Aryadeva, 7th century, cited in W. T. de Bary, The Buddhist Tradition, Vintage Books, 1972.

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Nasal codas : the true nasals and semi-nasals

UKT 170818:

The group of syllables and words, with the nuclear vowel differing only in vowel-duration, and with a nasal coda are interesting because they can have similar meaning. They can end in at least two registers.

We will begin by referring to true nasals:

(r4c5)-coda: {tn} vs {taan}
(r5c5)-coda: {tm} vs {taam}.

Skt-Dev तन् tan (1 eye-blink vowel-duration) 'stretch, extend, ...' should be compared with Bur-Myan {tn:} (2 blnk + emphasis) 'line'. Keep in mind the registers of Bur-Myan:

(1/2 blnk), (1 blnk), (2 blnk + emphasis)
(1/2 blnk), (1 blnk), (2 blnk + emphasis)

The following, r1c5, is a semi-nasal, because it is a non-nasal in the onset. It is nasal only in the coda. I'm referring to  Newari-Dev न्या ; ङा 'fish' (2 blnk ?) and Bur-Myan {gna:} 'fish' (2 blnk + emphasis)
See: Newari-TibBur aka Nepal-Bhasa English to Nepal Bhasa Dictionary (Tib-Bur) by Sabin Bhuju सबिन भुजु , 2005. Downloaded files in TIL HD-PDF and SD-PDF libraries:
- SBhuju-NewarDict<> / bkp<> (link chk 170817)

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Twelve Divisions in Hindu Astrology

UKT 171103:

It came as a surprise to me to find the majority of people in Myanmarpr, do not know the importance of Sanskrit. They think that Burmese astrology is based on Pali-Myan, and the Bur-Myan spellings are written as in Pal-Myan. However, I maintain that the astrological terms are more related to Sanskrit than to Pali, and that they should be pronounced as in Sanskrit. Thus, {ra.} is rhotic, and for example {poat~ra.}, and {a.ri} must be pronounced with rhotic accent. It might be better to use the highly rhotic vowel of Sanskrit. In the specific case of {poat~ra.}, the conjunct part is a hanging 'ra'. However, if we were to show a hanging 'ra', it would  be confusing in Mon-Myan, and so the 'ra' is shown as a ra'ric.

Refer to:
1. Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hindu_astrology 171031
2. Rise of the Native Algorithmic Astrology, by Dev Bhattacharya, 2016
3. Pyinnya'p Paung'choat by Karlarsan (in Bur-Myan & Pali-Myan), 2006.
Note: By mentioning his work, I pay my respect to my late personal friend Saya Karlarsan.

The Celestial equator is divided into 12 divisions called Rasi. (Remember, there are no singular and plural in Bur-Myanmar).  Counting from the first point of Rasi, which falls between the 12th and the 1st, designated as 0000'00", each Rasi spans 30 deg of arc. The names of the Rasi and Bhava given below are in Bur-Myan: much easier to pronounce than Skt-Dev.

01. {mai~a.} मेष meṣa, 02. {prai~a.} वृषभ vṛṣabha,
03. {m-htoan} मिथुन mithuna, 04. {ka.ra.kT} कर्क karka
05. {aih} सिंह siṃha, 06. कन्या  kanyā
07. {tu} तुला tulā, 08. {braic~hsaz} वृश्चिक vṛścika
09. {Da.nu.} धनुष dhanuṣa, 10. {ma.ka-ra.} मकर makara
11. {kon} कुम्भ kumbha, 12. {main} मीन mīna

Taking note of a person's date of birth, time of birth, and the longitude and latitude of his birth place, his Lagna 'birth pointer' may fall any where within any Rasi. You can draw a Rasi chart for the person showing the Lagna.

However, if you move the Lagna exactly to the center of a division with 15 deg of arc on both sides, that division is called a Bhava. There are 12 Bhava for a person beginning with {ta.nu.} तनु tanu 'personal self'.

The Twelve Bhava 'part of a person's life'
01. {ta.nu.} तनु tanu,
02. {ka.Toam~ba.} Kutumba,
03. { a.ha.za.} Sahoth , 04. {bn~Du.} Bandhu, 
05. {poat~ra.} Putra,
06. {a.ri}? Ari  :   {a.ri} might be spelled with highly rhotic vowel as {a.Ri}
07. {pa.ta.ni} Patni,
08. {ma.ra.Na.} Marana,
09. {u.Ba.} Shuba ,
10. {km~ma.} Aspada,
11. {la-Ba.} Aaya,
12. {bya.ya.} Ripha

  Depending on the latitude of the birth-place, the Bhava may span more that 30deg of arc. Thus a person born in Myanmarp and a person born in Canada at the same time, would have different Cusps {n~Di.} 'House ending'. And the predictions of events would be different for the two persons. The idea of Cusps is rather complicated and the reader should refer articles such as in Wikipedia:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cusp_(astrology) 171102
"In astrology, a cusp (from the Latin for spear or point) is the imaginary line that separates a pair of consecutive signs in the zodiac or houses in the horoscope".

Note: The Bur-Myan astrologers usually indicate the Planets by Bur-Myan numbers. Here I'm using the Latin numbers. In the following, taken from Karlarsan, p105, for a person born in Rangoon, on 1987Apr13 on Monday at 10hr 8min 39sec, Rasi and Bhava charts are shown on right:

My self-study of B. V. Raman's Hindu Astrology was in the late 1960s. It is in English. The astrological terms are not in IAST and I could not get the Skt-Dev spellings.

One of the questions I was faced with is the choice of Rasi or Bhava chart when dealing with Aspects and Yogas. At that time, just for simplification, I took the Rasi chart.

The question is asked in : The Art of Prediction in Astrology by Gayatri Devi Vasudev , Delhi, 1st ed. 2008. [The author is the daughter of B. V. Raman from whose books I have learned Astrology,] However, because my study is on Linguistics, I will just take note of the book which I hope I will be able to study later. How the author answers the question would be interesting. Note the phrase "Art of Prediction" - it is not Science.

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