Update: 2019-02-05 01:15 AM -0500


A Practical Sanskrit Dictionary


by A. A. Macdonell, 1893,
http://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/scans/MDScan/index.php?sfx=jpg 1929.
Nataraj ed., 1st in 2006, 2012

Edited, with additions from Pali sources, by U Kyaw Tun (UKT) (M.S., I.P.S.T., USA), Daw Khin Wutyi, Daw Thuzar Myint and staff of Tun Institute of Learning (TIL) . Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone. Prepared for students and staff of TIL Research Station, Yangon, MYANMAR : http://www.tuninst.net , www.romabama.blogspot.com

MC-indx.htm | Top

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UKT 170815: This file was in progress when Ma Thuzar left. I had to pick up from where she left. It is now complete.

{ta.ka.} / {tak}
{ta.kSa.} : Pseudo-Kha

UKT 180613: In transformation between BPal and Sanskrit, the Pseudo-Kha undergoes a special change when row#2 which is somewhat fricative, is involved:
  {tic~hsa.} --> {ta.kSa.}
This, I believe is due to Skt-Dev row#2 being Affricate, whereas Bur-Myan row#2 is Plosive-stop. I'll have to see if it is the case in Mon-Myan: bk-cndl-{sa.}-row<)) :
Mon pronounce {sa.}/ {c} as /{kya.}/ showing a need for dedicated glyphs for row#2: {ca.}, (cha.), {ja.}.
An added bonus is in transliteration of English <church>:  {chaach} - avoiding the medial-conjunct {kya.} being under a viram.

{ta.gna.} / {tn}

{ta.sa.} / {tic}
{ta.a.} / {ti} 
  Case of missing Nya'gyi
: {t}

{ta.Na.} / {tN}

{tt} - for ref. see {ka.} - p061.htm
{ta.hta.} : Indic speakers should note that IAST tha is Bur-Myan {hta.}

Important passage in this file:
#1. "The Burmese tradition that Buddhaghosa (fl. 5th century AD) was a native of Thaton ..." in Hinduism and Buddhism: an historical sketch (complete) by - Sir Charles Eliot (1862-1931).  See Arahanta : {ra.hn-ta}
See downloaded txt in TIL HD-PDF and SD-PDF libraries:
  - CEliot-HinduismBuddhism01<> / Bkp<> (link chk 180620)
search: Hinduism and Buddhism volume 2 - Charles Eliot
search: Hinduism and Buddhism volume 3 - Charles Eliot

Personal note: My wife Daw Than Than and I, have come across an heirloom, a beautifully carved side-table from Myanmarpr, from Sir Charles in the home of the widow of his grandson Mrs. Margaret Eliot in Deep River, Ont., CANADA. We were staying as house-guests with Margaret. - "for a scientist like me, it's hard to believe in Karmic connections"!

UKT notes :
Arahanta : {ra.hn-ta}
Digital online dictionary from Univ.Chicago
  - the 2016 version with its own page number and entry number e.g. my entry number of p105c1-b00 became online p074-008. However, if the entry is not listed in the online version, you'll see only one number.
Sarayu river : mentioned in RigVeda and Ramayana
Use of familiar pairs to identify the origin of the language.

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UKT 170810, 171109, 180614:
Writers of Macdonell's period used an older form of script for Devanagari which is entirely different the modern form. Moreover, they  have used "vertical conjuncts" as in Pal-Myan. In the modern script, these have been turned into "horizontal conjuncts" which are more difficult to remember.


p105c1-b00 / p074-008 

त [ t ]
Skt: - prn. of the 3rd prs. (nm. sg. m. sa, f. s) he, she, it, they; that, those (a. or ɴ.); sts. attenuated to an article in mg.; correl. to (preceding) relative; with prns. of 1st & 2nd prs., e.g. soxham = I being such; repeated: this and that, each, several, various, respective; with relative (v) yah sa, whoever; yat tad, whatever, every, any; yo yah -sa sa, who ever -he; yad yad -tat tad, whatever -that; tad yath, that is as follows, that is to say.
  8) (p. 74) t 3rd prs. (nm. sg. m. sa, f. s) he, she, it, they;
Nep: त ta - , a particle with a slight adversative or contrasting force: then, now. -- ta ... ta either ... or. -- Emph. tai. [K. B. ta, L. , S. ta, ; -- < Sk. tāˊt: Aś. ta, Pk. ; -- or more prob. < Sk. tadāˊ: Pa. tadā; cf. Sk. tadāˊnīm: Pk. &abrevemacr; (after ta  after ja < Sk. ydi: otherwise Pischel Gr. Pk. 113); Rom. te and; M. taĩ  then; -- or poss. < Sk. tthā: Pa. tathā, Pk. taha; Rom. tha (?) and, K. ta. -- Pronom. stem ta-, v.s.v. tyo. -- Cf. .]
BPal: {tn} - UHS-PMD0426
  UKT frm UHS: . n. that, that article, that object. ni. therefore, because of that. . to you


p105c1-b01/ not online

तंम् [ tams ]
- pour out (desires); cs. tamsaya, P. shake


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{ta.ka.} / {tak}

p105c1-b02 / not online

तक् [ tak ] = त क ् = {tak}
- II. P. rush : pp. takt , rushing along


p105c1-b03/ p074-007

तक्मन् [ tak-mn ]
- m. fever.
7) तक्मन् (p. 74) tak-mn fever.


p105c1-b04/ p074-006 

तक्र [ tak-ra ] = त क ् र --> {ta.kra.}
Skt: तक्र [ tak-ra ] - n. buttermilk mixed with an equal amount of water. - Mac105c1
  6) तक्र (p. 74) tak-ra buttermilk mixed with an equal amount of water.
BPal: {tak~ka.} - UHS-PMD0426
  UKT from UHS: . m. speculation, thought. . n. buttermilk.

UKT170821: There are various kinds of buttermilk. What has been referred to above is the traditional buttermilk. See Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Buttermilk 170821


p105c1-b05/ p074-005 

तक्राट [ takra‿ata ]
- m. churning-stick.
5) तक्राट (p. 74) takra̮ata churning-stick.


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{ta.kSa.} : Pseudo-Kha

p105c1-b06 / not online

तक्ष् [ taksh ]
- i. tksh , v. p. takshno , hew, carve; split; fashion (esp. of wood) ; ...


p105c1-b07 / p074-004

तक्ष [ taksh-a ] --> {tak~Sa.}
- m. carpenter (--); N. of a son of Bharata: -k, m. cutter (--); N. of a serpent demon; -ana, n. cutting, carving; planing.
4) तक्ष (p. 74) taksh-a carpenter (--);

तक्ष [ taksh-a ]
Skt: तक्ष [ taksh-a ] {tak~Sa.} - m. carpenter (--); N. of a son of Bharata: - Mac105
BPal: {tic~hsa.}
- - UHS-PMD0427
  UKT from UHS: . m. carpenter, planer . . mfn. true. n. accurate


p105c1-b08/ p074-003

तक्षन् [ tksh-an ]
- m. wood-cutter; carpenter. 
3) तक्षन् (p. 74) tksh-an wood-cutter; carpenter.

UKT 120306: there's a world of difference between the two English words 'wood-cutter' and 'carpenter'. A woodcutter is the one who goes into the forest to cut wood by lopping off large branches (wood) from trees, or cutting down the whole tree (timber). A carpenter is the one who works with timber: splitting them into planks, planing them and making them into furniture or building them into houses.


p105c1-b09/ p074-002 

तक्षशिला [ taksha-sil ]
- f. N. of a city, the capital of the Gandhras: -tas, ad. from Takshasil.
  2) तक्षशिला (p. 74) taksha-sil -tas, ad. from Takshasil.
BPal: {tak~ka.i.la} - UHS-PMD0427
  UKT from UHS: f. Taxila

See Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Taxila 171109
"तक्षशिला takṣaśilā "City of Cut Stone".

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{ta.nga.} / {ting}/{tn}: {ng}-coda as Kinsi {tn~} 
  Kinsi {tn~} - for ref. see {ka.} with Pseudo-Kha & Kinsi - p061.htm


p105c1-b10/ not online

  त्ङगन [ taṅgana ]
- m. pl. N. of a people on the upper Saray

See my note on Sarayu river सरयु saryu :
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sarayu 170810

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{ta.sa.} / {tic}

p105c1-b11 / p074-001

तच्छील [ tak-khla ]
--> Skt: {tic~hsi-la.}
- a. having such a habit [UKT: 'a distinctive dress or costume']; similar.
1) तच्छील (p. 74) tak-khla having such a habit; similar.

UKT note: The Skt words तक्षशिला taksasila, तच्छील tacchila, and तर्क tarka should be compared to Pal-Myan. Pal: {tak~ka.} - UHS-PMD0426
  UKT from UHS: . m. speculation, thought. . n. buttermilk.


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p105c1-b12/ p074-051

तज्जीवन [ tag-gvana ]
- n. his livelihood; -ga, a. knowing that; --, familiar with, versed in; m. connoisseur.
51) तज्जीवन (p. 74) tag-gvana hislivelihood;


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{ ta.a.}

UKT 170815: Case of missing Nya'gyi: If only the Nya'l had been changed with the switch from Tib-Bur to IE, the following word would be non-nasal {t} 'stability'/ {ti} 

p105c1-b13/ not online 

[ ta ],
- VII. P. tankti , contract


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p105c1-b14/ not online

तट् [ tat ]
- i. p. tat , groan


p105c1-b15/ p074-050

तट [ tat-a ]
- m. (n.), , f. slope, bank; often -- of projecting parts of the body.
50) तट (p. 74) tat-a slope, bank;


BPal: {ta.Ta.} - UHS-PMD0428c1
  UKT from UHS: m. bank, cliff


p105c1-b16/ p074-023

तटद्रुम [ tata-druma ]
- m. tree on the bank; -bh, f. bank; -stha, a. standing on the slope; indifferent; neutral (as standing midway between summit and valley); approximate (definition); -sthita, pp. indifferent.
23) तटद्रुम (p. 74) tata-druma tree on the bank;


p105c1-b17 / p074-022 

तटाक [ tatka ]
- n. pond, lake.
22) तटाक (p. 74) tatka pond, lake.


p105c1-b18/ p074-021

तटिनी [ tat-in ]
- f. (having banks), river: -pati, m. ocean.
21) तटिनी (p. 74) tat-in (having banks), river:


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p105c1-b19/ not online

तड् [ tad ]
- cs. tdaya , p. strike, beat ; chastise; wound. pari , cs. belabour with (in.), pra , cs. strike down. vi , cs. wound; strike against (lc.)


p105c1-b20/ p074-020

तडाग [ tadga ]
- n. pond, lake: -bhedaka, m. burster of tanks.
20) तडाग (p. 74) tadga pond, lake:


p105c1-b21/ p074-019

तडित् [ tad-it ]
- f. lightning: -vat, a. containing lightnings, flashing; m. thunder-cloud.
19) तडित् (p. 74) tad-it lightning:


p105c1-b22/ p074-018 

तडिन्मय [ tadin-maya ]
- a. resembling lightning; -ml, f. flash of lightning.
18) तडिन्मय (p. 74) tadin-maya resembling lightning;


p105c1-b23 / not online

[ tadil-lat ]
- f. id. ; -lakh , f. id.


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{ta.Na.} / {tN}

UKT 170817: Pronunciations of {tN} (1 eye-blnk ) and {taaN} (2 blnk ) are expected to be different.

p105c1-b24 / p074-017

तण्डुल [ tand-ul ]
= त ण ् ड ु ल --> {tN~la.} : notice the double coda
- m. grain, esp. of rice; grain of rice as a weight: -kana, m. grain of rice; -kandana, n. bran.
17) तण्डुल (p. 74) tand-ul grain, esp. of rice; grain of rice as a weight:


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p105c1-b25/ p074-016

तत [ . tat ]
- m. father: vc. also my son.
16) तत (p. 74) 1. tat father: vc. also my son. 


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p105c2-b00/ p074-015

तत [ . ta-t ]
- pp. of √1. tan.
15) तत (p. 74) 2. ta-t √1. tan.

See my note on the Use of familiar-pairs, papa, mama, dada, as of linguistic origin.


p105c2-b01/ p074-014

ततस् [ t-tas ]
- ad. = ab. sg. du. pl. of prn. ta, thence; there; thither; thereupon, then; therefore; itas tatas, (from) here and there, hither and thither; tatah katham, how is it then that --? tatah kim, what next? = pray go on; what would be the use of it? what can be the harm of it? does it not come to the same thing? tatah kshant, -kshanam, immediately after; tatah param, besides this, more over; thereupon, afterwards; tatah paskt, after that, then; tatah prabhriti, thence forward; tatas tatah, (from) here and there, hither and thither, everywhere; what next? = pray go on; tatoxnyatah, to some other place; tatoxnyatra = tasmd anyasmin ; tatoxparam, later, afterwards, another time; yatas tatah, from whomsoever = indiscriminately; (from) wherever; yato yatah - tatas tatah (from) wherever - there (thence); whithersoever - thither.
14) ततस् (p. 74) t-tas ta, thence; there; thither;


p105c2-b02 / p074-013  

ततस्त्य [ tatas-tya ]
- a. coming from thence.
13) ततस्त्य (p. 74) tatas-tya coming from thence.


p105c2-b03/ p074-012

ततामह् [tat-mah]
- m. grandfather
12) ततामह (p. 74) tat-mah grandfather.


p105c2-b04/ p074-011

तति [ . t-ti ]
- a. pl. so many (nm., ac. tti).
11) तति (p. 74) 1. t-ti so many (nm., ac. tti).

p105c2-b05/ p074-010

तति [ . ta-ti ]
- f. multitude, troop.
10) तति (p. 74) 2. ta-ti multitude, troop.


p105c2-b06/ p074-009

ततिथ [ tati-th ]
- a. ( ) the so-manieth.
9) ततिथ (p. 74) tati-th () the so-manieth.


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/ {tt}

UKT 171030: You'll see on p106.htm that the prefix  / {td} 'that' is an important pre-fix.
{td} - UHS PMD0430 - n. that . However, it's counterpart / {tt} does not seem to be so.
UHS-PMD gives 4 meanings for a specific example: {tt~ta.} (gloss by UKT based on UHS)
- . mfn. extremely hot (temperature), extremely bright (light energy) (as in gold smelting, when impurities are turned into slag and discarded)
- . n. purity
- . n. (to become) (caused to become)?
- 4. mfn. state of becoming satisfied 

p105c2-b07 / p074-031

तत्कर्तव्य [ tat-kartavya ]
= त त ् क र ् त व ् य
- fp. n. (necessity to do that), appropriate course of action; -karma-krin, a. following the same occupations; -krin, a. doing the same thing; -kla, m. that time, that particular time, previous time: -m, at that time, at the same time; instantly, at once; a. happening at the same time or at once, -parikary, f. immediate hospitality; -klna, a. being at or belonging to that time; simultaneous; -krita, pp. caused thereby; -kshana, m. the same moment: -m, ab., lc., --, straightway, instantly.
31) तत्कर्तव्य (p. 74) tat-kartavya (necessity to do that), appropriate course of action;


p105c2-b08 / p074-030 

तत्तीर [ tat-tra ]
= त त ् त ी र
-- n. its bank.
30) तत्तीर (p. 74) tat-tra its bank.


p105c2-b09 / p074-029 

तत्त्व [ tat-tva ]
- n. (that-ness), very essence, true nature, truth, reality; principle (esp. one of the 25 in the Sṅkhya philosophy); in the Vednta philosophy the word is artificially analysed into "tat tvam", that (art) thou, as expressing the identity of the multiform phenomenal world (tvam) with the one undifferentiated invisible Brahma (tad): in., -tas, --, in reality; truly; exactly; thoroughly.
29) तत्त्व (p. 74) tat-tva (that-ness), very essence, true nature, truth, reality;


p105c2-b10/ p074-028

तत्त्वज्ञ [ tattva-ga ]
- a. knowing thoroughly (--); -gna, n. knowledge of real essence, true knowledge; -darsin, a. seeing or knowing the truth; -dris, a. id.; -bodha, m. knowledge of the truth; title of two works; -bhva, m. true being or essence; -bhta, pp. true; -vid, a. knowing thoroughly (-- or g.); -suddhi, f. exact knowledge of the truth.
28) तत्त्वज्ञ (p. 74) tattva-ga knowing thoroughly (--);


p105c2-b11/ p074-027

तत्त्वाख्यानोपमा [ tattva‿khyna‿upam ]
- f. simile implied in stating a truth (e. g. "thy mouth is not a lotus" implies "thy mouth is like a lotus"); -‿apahnava-rpaka, n. simile implied in denying the truth (e.g. "thy eyes are not eyes but two bees" implies "thy eyes are like two bees"); -‿abhiyoga, m. prosecution based on facts; -‿artha, m. matter of fact, truth; true sense of (--): -vid, a. knowing the true sense.
27) तत्त्वाख्यानोपमा (p. 74) tattva̮khyna̮upam simile implied in stating a truth (e. g. ʻthy mouth is not a lotusʼ implies ʻthy mouth is like a lotusʼ);


p105c2-b12/ p074-041

तत्पद [ tat-pada ]
- n. its place; the word tad; -padav, f. his path: y-m padam dh, set foot in his path = imitate or vie with him; -para, a. . following upon that; . (having that as the highest), occupied with that only; exclusively devoted to, intent on, (lc., --): -t, f. exclusive devotion, intentness; -par yana, a. having that as their final aim; -prsva, n. his side; -purusha, m. his servant: the example used to designate the class of determinative compounds (i.e. those in which the first part determines or limits the second, specifically those in which the first part has the sense of a case); -prva, a. happening for the first time; -pradhna, a. dependent on her; -prahrishta, pp. pleased with that.
41) तत्पद (p. 74) tat-pada its place; the word tad;

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p105c3-b01/ p074-040

तत्र [ t-tra ]
-  (V. also )- ad. = lc. of ta; there; thither; on this occasion, on account of that, in that case, then; tatra tatra, always in or on that (those); here and there, hither and thither; everywhere; yatra tatra, wherever, anywhere; whithersoever; at every opportunity: yatra tatra‿api, whithersoever.
40) तत्र (p. 74) t-tra (V. also ) ta; there; thither;

तत्र [ t-tra ]
Skt: तत्र [ t-tra ] -  ... there; thither; on this occasion, on account of that, in that case, then; - Mac105c3
BPal: {ta.tra.}
- - UHS-PMD0430
  UKT from UHS: there, in that case


p105c3-b02/ p074-039

तत्रचक्षुर्मनस् [ tatra-kakshur-manas ]
- a. directing eyes and thoughts thither.
39) तत्रचक्षुर्मनस् (p. 74) tatra-kakshur-manas directing eyes and thoughts thither.


p105c3-b03/ p074-038 

तत्रत्य [ tatra-tya ]
- a. being there.
38) तत्रत्य  (p. 74) tatra-tya being there.


p105c3-b04/ p074-037

तत्रभवत् [ tatra-bhavat ]
- a. respected; m. the gentleman there: -, f. the lady there (of persons absent from the stage).
37) तत्रभवत् (p. 74) tatra-bhavat respected;


p105c3-b05 / p074-036

तत्रस्थ [ tatra-stha ]
- a. being or abiding there.
36) तत्रस्थ (p. 74) tatra-stha being or abiding there.


p105c3-b06 / p074-035

तत्रान्तरे [ tatra‿antare ]
- lc. in the interval, meanwhile.
35) तत्रान्तरे (p. 74) tatra̮antare in the interval, meanwhile.


p105c3-b07/ p074-034

तत्संख्याक [ tat-saṅkhy-ka ]
- a. the same in number; -sama, a. equal to, synonymous with (--); -samaksham, ad. before his eyes; -sampe, lc. near him; -sambandhin, a. connected with that; -sprishtin, a. touching that or those.
34) तत्संख्याक  (p. 74) tat-saṅkhy-ka

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{ta.hta.} : Indic speakers should note that IAST tha is Bur-Myan {hta.}

p105c3-b08/ p074-033

तथा [ t-th ]
- ad. so, thus (corr. to yath, as, that; iva, as; yena, that); that is so; so be it, well, yes; so truly (in oaths); in like manner, also, likewise; tath ka, similarly, so also; tath‿api, id.; nevertheless, yet (gnly. with corr. yadi‿api, api yadi, kmam, varam); tath hi, for so (it is), so for instance, that is to say, namely; tath‿eva, just so, like wise, similarly (ka and api sometimes added); tath--yath, so-that; (so long) -till; yath tath, in whatever way, in this way or that, by all means; by commentators used to indicate that a word is used adverbially (in such a manner that it is --): with na, by no means, practically not; yath yath-tath tath, in whatever way --so, the more --the more; na tath, not so, untrue.
33) तथा (p. 74) t-th so, thus (corr. to yath, as, that; iva, as;


p105c3-b09/ p074-049

तथागत [ tath-gata ]
- pp. faring or behaving thus, so conditioned, such; m. a Buddha; a Buddhist; -guna, a. having such virtues: -tva, n. the being such, true state, real nature: -bhavitavya-t, f. necessity of such a result: -bhvin, a. destined to become such; -bhta, pp. being such, -in such a plight or condition: -mukha, a. facing the same way.
49) तथागत (p. 74) tath-gata faring or behaving thus, so conditioned, such; m. a Buddha;

तथागत [ tath-gata ]
Skt: तथागत [ tath-gata ] - pp. faring or behaving thus, so conditioned, such; m. a Buddha; a Buddhist; - Mac105c3
BPal: {ta.hta-ga.ta.} - UHS-PMD0430 
- - UHS-PMD0430
  UKT from UHS: m. Gautama Buddha behaving exactly like the previous Buddhas, Arahanta, creature.

UKT 170812: See my note below on Arahanta , तथागत [ tath-gata ], UHS-PMD surface-meaning, and Shin Buddhaghosa's opinion. I opine that because Gautama Buddha referred to himself as Tathagata, the word was obviously being used as a personal pronoun in his time and in his homeland Magadha Mahajanapada.


p105c3-b10/ p074-048

तथायतम् [ tath‿yatam ]
- ad. in the same direction.
48) तथायतम् (p. 74) tatḫyatam in the same direction.


p105c3-b11/ p074-047

तथारूप [ tath-rpa ]
- a. so formed, so shaped, of such an appearance; -rpin, a. id.; -vidha, a. of such a kind, being in such a condition or plight: -m, ad. so, thus, in such wise; -vidhna, a. acting thus; -vrya, a. of such might; -vrata, a. observing such a course.
47) तथारूप (p. 74) tath-rpa so formed, so shaped, of such an appearance;


p105c3-b12/ p074-046

तथ्य [ tath-ya ]
- a. true; n. truth: in., -tas, in accordance with truth; -vakana, n. promise.
46) तथ्य (p. 74) tath-ya


p105c3-b13/ p074-045

तद् [ t-d ]
-- prn. nm., ac. n. of  ta: also base --; ad. there; thither; so, thus, then, in regard to that (in the Brhmanas); then, in that case (corr. yadi, ked); therefore, accordingly (corr. yad, yatah, yena); now (common in Brhmanas as a particle of transition); tad api, even that, even then (corr. ked); nevertheless (corr. yadi‿api); tad yath, this is as follows, thus for instance.
45) तद् (p. 74) t-d ta: also base --; ad. there;

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UKT notes

Arahanta : {ra.hn-ta}

- UKT 170812: We are here dealing with the word "Arahanta" given by UHS PMD surface meaning for the word "Tathagata".

UKT opinion: "Because Gautama Buddha referred to himself as Tathagata, the word was obviously being used as a personal pronoun. Since by the time of Buddhaghosa (fl. 5th century AD) who was claimed by Mon-Myan as a native of Thaton kingdom in southern Burma, but who was acclaimed by the Indians as an Indian from southern India, the personal pronouns used in Magadha Mahajanapada in Buddha's time would have been forgotten, hair-splitting interpretations would be just futile. Just as, the personal pronouns used in present-day Bur-Myan as "Khin'bya" (for "you") and "Kyun'daw" (for "I, me, myself") does not refer to "Master-Servant" relationship and the idea of "slavery", - {ta.ta.}-{ta.hta} तत-तथा (see : p105c1-b25/ p074-016 for तत ), did not involve the idea of Arahanta. The suffix {ga.ta.} is added to emphasise the speaker. (see p081.htm for {ga.ta.}" - It is just my personal opinion.

The following is an excerpt from Google book-preview of Hinduism and Buddhism: an historical sketch (complete) by Sir Charles Eliot (1862-1931) (in 3 volumes), First publ. 1921
- https://books.google.ca/books?id... Buddhaghosa ...native...Thaton...Burma... Buddhaghosa-native-Thaton-southern-Burma... 170817

My next quest is to find in which particular volume is a similar reference to Buddhaghosa. I find it in volume 3, chapter xxxv, Ceylon:
"Even in its main outline the story is not very coherent for one would imagine that, if a Buddhist from Magadha went to Ceylon to translate the Sinhalese commentaries, his object must have been to introduce them among Indian Buddhists. But there is no evidence that Buddhaghosa did this and he is for us simply a great figure in the literary and religious history of Ceylon. Burmese tradition maintains that he was a native of Thaton and returned thither, when his labours in Ceylon were completed, to spread the scriptures in his native language. This version of his activity is intelligible, though the evidence for it is weak."

To get the deeper meaning you must understand:
{rh: Bu.ra:} with the word {to.} - pl. of previous Buddhas who are said to be as many as the grains of sand of the Ganges river.
{mrt-swa-Bu.ra:} - (by common usage) the Gautama Buddha
{ra.hn-ta} - Arahanta. By implication the one who has attained nirvana just as the Buddha. The only difference being, the Buddha was the originator who discovered the Four Noble Truths, etc., without a teacher, and the Arahanta, is the latter are those who followed Buddha's teachings.
{t~ta.wa} - creature, m. or f. By implication anyone (devas, humans, animals, inmates of hells, etc.) who can become a Buddha eventually.

UKT 170812: तथागत [ tathā-gata ] is used by Gautama Buddha, and some of his disciples as their personal pronoun. See Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tath%C4%81gata 170812
"The word's original significance is not known and there has been speculation about it since at least the time of Buddhaghosa, who gives eight interpretations of the word, each with different etymological support, in his commentary on the Digha Nikaya, the Sumangalailasini : [1] "

From: Dhamma Wheel forum
http://www.dhammawheel.com/viewtopic.php?f=19&t=1417 120307

To the query: "Can laypersons become arahata? posted 090517,
the best answers seems to be:
1. by Bhikkhu Pesala, 090517:
   "Yes. There are a few examples, such as Uggasena. It is said that such Arahants must ordain or they will die within seven days."
2. by cooran , 090517 [UKT note: the following is my excerpt]
   "This was one of the subjects of discussion between King Milinda and the arahat Ngasena, as described in the Questions of King Milinda. ... This issue deals with the parinibbna of the arahat who is a layman. There are two kinds of parinibbna: the full extinction of defilements (kilesa parinibbna) and the full extinction of the khandhas (khanda parinibbna). In this issue, parinibbna stands for the full extinction of the khandhas, the final passing away of the arahat. He will not be reborn." -- Milindas Questions, Seventh Division, no 2 .
3. to Jechbi: Ghatikara {Ga.ti.ka-ra.), this mikenz66 , 090517 responded noting the difference Arahanta and Non-returner.
   "As I understand it, Ghatikara was a non-returner, not an Arahant. There is a Samyutta Nikaya conversation between him (as a Deva) and the Buddha 1:50 {s i 35-36} (page 125 in Bhikkhu Bodhi's translation). There's a nice talk about the MN Sutta by Ajahn Brahm at http://www.bswa.org/audio/podcast/SuttaStudy.rss.php "

See Wikipedia : https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Householder_(Buddhism) 171110
for householders Ghatikara in the time of Kassapa Buddha, and Citta in the time Gautama Buddha. The story of Ghatikara appears in MN 81 - Ghatikara Sutta - http://www.vipassana.info/081-ghatikara-e1.htm 171110
"Great king, the potter Ghatikara supports his blind decayed mother and father. Great king, the potter Ghatikara has destroyed the five lower bonds to the sensual world, is born spontaneously, will not proceed from that world and will extinguish in that same birth."

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Digital online dictionary

- UKT 170810

At the beginning of my study of Sanskrit in Devanagari in 2012, I had used the online version from University of Chicago. Below is the original navigation of Mac-Chicago, and will not work unless you are online.
If you are just a user, use Windows navigation.

<Previous Page [104]     <Page 105>     Next Page [106]>
See this page in simple ASCII
Back to the Search Page   |   Back to the DDSA Page

The entries were given not only in HTML (which is very misleading) but also in simple ASCII which can be easily related to IAST . I am removing the so-called HTML which were in [...] and substituting simple ASCII.

Unfortunately, the version I needed for my work is presented in a form with missing and mixed-up pages. Still, it was a great help to find a word, such as those which begins with {ta.}. It was a great help in spelling, and how it was rendered. I would not be able to make any meaningful progress to go through all the 382 pages with more than 30,000 entries.

Now, after Daw Thuzar Myint has left me, and with Daw Khin Wutyi has taken up a new job (doing whatever she could for me in her spare time), I have to continue alone. I have to start with entries on {ta.}. I went online and search for digital version, and became shocked. It's format is entirely different from the old jumbled-up version I was used to. See the new version - MC-indx.htm > Digital-Chicago (link chk 170810)

Note from the present online version:
"NOTE: as of 5/11/2016, the Macdonell Sanskrit Dictionary is running under different software. You will notice slight differences in display, but the dictionary data is entirely the same."

The new version of 2016 has entries jumbled-up in a different way. It's presentation, with its own page number and entry number is entirely different from:
- http://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/scans/MDScan/index.php?sfx=jpg 1929.
- ink-on-paper Nataraj ed., 1st in 2006, 2012 
- my TIL version ( aka SED online), because of which you will see two sets of numbers. 
The entries are on p.074, when they begin on p105 in both Univ. Cologne , Nataraj, and my TIL version. Thus, for the very entry you'll see: p105c1-b00 / p074-008

Luckily, my assistants and I have already downloaded all pages from Univ. Cologne many years ago. It is also currently available on line.

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Sarayu river

- UKT120306, 170810: Are the Vedas and Ramayana formerly Tib-Bur accounts which are taken over of Hindu Poannars {poaN~Na:}, altered, and made into their own?

From Wikipedia:
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sarayu 170810
- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sarayu 120306

The Sarayu (also Sarju; Dev. सरयु saryu- f., later Dev. सरयू sarayū-) is a river that flows through the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. This river is of ancient significance, finding mentions in the Vedas and the Ramayana. The Sarayu forms at the confluence of the Karnali (or Ghaghara) and Mahakali (or Sharda) in Bahraich District. The Mahakali or Sharda forms the Indian-Nepalese border. Ayodhya is situated on the banks of river Sarayu.

On Ram Navami, the festival that celebrates the birthday of Lord Rama [the god of Vaishnavite Hinduism], thousands of people take a dip in the Sarayu River at Ayodhya.[1]

UKT 170811: Based on Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rama_Navami 170811
We should compare this festival to our new-year "water festival" which is actually the transit of the Sun from the 12th Rasi to the First of the celestial equator marking the beginning of a new Luni-solar year, which usually occurs about the middle of March to middle of April. Since the weather is becoming hot, people would throw water on each other, and take dips in streams and rivers. The Sun being the source of all life on this Earth is worshipped in one form or another by all the peoples of the Earth. As such Rama maybe the anthropomorphized Solar disc.


The name is the feminine derivative of the Sanskrit root सर् sar "to flow"; as a masculine stem, saryu- means "air, wind", i.e. "that which is streaming".

Significance: traditional

The river is mentioned three times in the Rigveda. The banks of the Sarayu are the location of the slaying of two Aryas at the hands of Indra in RV 4.30.18. It is listed together with western tributaries to the Indus: Rasā, Anitabha, Kubha, Krumu, and the Sindhu itself as obstacles crossed by the Maruts in RV 5.53.9. In this verse, Purisini appears as its epithet. At this stage of the earlier Rigveda, it apparently was a river west of the Indus system that corresponds to Iranian Harayu (Avestan acc. Harōiium, Old Persian Haraiva, modern Harē), the Herat river. It is invoked together with Sindhu and Sarasvati (two of the most prominent Rigvedic rivers) in the late hymn RV 10.64.

Later on, according to Ramayana 1.5.6, the Sarayu flowed beside the ancient city of Ayodhya, which is in the modern day Uttar Pradesh. It was a tributary of the Gogra. This Sarayu played a vital role for the city and life of Ayodhya, and according to the great Sanskrit epic Ramayana, is where Rama, the seventh Avatar of Vishnu immersed himself to return to his eternal, real Mahavishnu form, when he retired from the throne of Kosala. His brothers Bharata and Shatrughna also joined him, as did many devoted followers. The Sarayu is also the river upon whose banks King Rama was born.

According to a sub-story within the Ramayana, the banks of the River Sarayu is also the place where King Dashratha accidentally killed Shravan Kumar.

It is also called the only river flowing beneath the earth.

In ancient times Aciravati was one of the tributaries of the Sarayu.[2]

Significance: traditional

While the Sarayu river plays an important role in RigVeda and Atharva Veda along with Ramayana. Ayodhya, capital of King Rama is mentioned on the banks of Sarayu river. Sarayu river is mentioned in great details in Ramayana. In modern times there still exist Ayodhya on the banks of river Sarayu in Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. It is a tributary of the Ganges which meets two other rivers at the confluence (sangam) in U.P. See modern Sarayu picture

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Use of familiar-pairs, papa, mama, dada, as indicators of linguistic origin

-- UKT 120507

Note: {ta.ta.} 'father' is from the familiar-pair for 'father-mother'. The familiar for 'mother' is given on p136.htm as: नना nana [ nanấ ] -- f. mother (familiar like tata).

It reminds me of other pairs, {pa-pa} & {ma-ma}, and {hp-hp} & {m-m} of Bur-Myan. You'll note that {ta.ta}-{na.na} uses the dental plosive-stops whereas {pa-pa}-{ma-ma} and {hp-hp}-{m-m} use labial plosive-stops. I wonder whether this differentiation is an indicator of the linguistic origin of the speakers, because these father-mother familiar-pairs are the very ones a baby learning to speak would start to use. -- UKT120507

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End of TIL file