Update: 2018-06-18 03:50 AM -0400


A Practical Sanskrit Dictionary



by A. A. Macdonell, 1893,
http://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/scans/MDScan/index.php?sfx=jpg; 1929.
Nataraj ed., 1st in 2006, 2012.


Edited, with additions from Pali sources, by U Kyaw Tun (UKT) (M.S., I.P.S.T., USA) and staff of Tun Institute of Learning (TIL) . Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone. Prepared for students and staff of TIL Research Station, Yangon, MYANMAR :  http://www.tuninst.net , www.romabama.blogspot.com

For comparing Pali and Sanskrit, it necessary to go into the Roots, and Verb-forms, for which I rely on:


index.htm | Top

Contents of this page

BEPS consonants
Consonants of dental {ta.}, {hta.}, {da.}, {Da.}, {na.}

Files from older works:
Consonant-onsets - MCc-indx.htm > MC-c41-indx.htm/ MC-c51-indx.htm
With regards to entries, I've found the old files only up to p161.htm found cut into groups, later files up to p237-1.htm are found uncut. Approximants begin at p237-2.htm are found in presentable form.

I've finished modifying the names of old grouped entries up to MC-c41-indx.htm :
> p110.htm , p106.htm , p107.htm - update 2017Aug
Covered percent, counting from : 107/382 = 28.01 %

The following links are for both the new files (with individual entries), and old files (with grouped entries). The divider || separates the two.
UKT to TIL editor: to get into new files, follow:
 MC-indx.htm > MCc4pp-indx.htm
What you're interested is the pair Mac-gr (grouped) and Mac-sp (split) for both new and old files. You can get to them only thru folders: (SED-MCc folder) > (MC-c41 folder) > (p106 folder).
You can see the links in Microsoft Front Page editor page:

> {ta.} त p105.htm* , p106.htm ,|| p107.htm, p108.htm , p109.htm
> p110.htm, p111.htm, p112.htm , p113.htm , p114.htm ,
> {hta.} थ p115-1.htm , {da.} द p115-2.htm , p116.htm , p117.htm , p118.htm , p119.htm 
> p120.htm , p121.htm , p122.htm , p123.htm , p124.htm ,
> p125.htm , p126.htm , p127.htm , p128.htm , p129-1.htm , {Da.} ध p129-2
> p130.htm , p131-1.htm , p131-2.htm , p132.htm , p133.htm , p134.htm , p135-1.htm
> {na.} न p135-2.htm , p136.htm , p137.htm , p138.htm , p139.htm 
> p140.htm , p141.htm , p142.htm , p143.htm , p144.htm 
> p145.htm , p146.htm , p147.htm , p148-1.htm
> p148-2.htm҂, p149.htm ,
> p150.htm , p151.htm , p152.htm , p153.htm , p154.htm ,
> p155.htm , p156.htm , p157.htm , p158.htm , p159.htm
> p160.htm  p161.htm  p162.htm  p163.htm  p164.htm
> p165.htm  p166.htm  p167.htm  p168.htm  p169.htm
> p170.htm  p171.htm  p172.htm  p173.htm  p174.htm
> p175.htm  p176.htm  p177.htm  p178.htm  p179.htm
> p180.htm  p181.htm  p182.htm  p183.htm  p184.htm
> p185.htm  p186.htm  p187.htm  p188.htm  p189.htm
> p190.htm  p191.htm  p192.htm  p193.htm  p194.htm
> p195.htm  p196.htm  p197.htm  p198.htm  p199.htm
> p200.htm  p201.htm  p202.htm  p203.htm  p204.htm
> p205.htm  p206.htm  p207.htm  p208.htm  p209.htm 
> p210.htm  p211.htm  p212.htm  p213.htm  p214.htm
> p215.htm  p216.htm  p217.htm  p218.htm  p219.htm 
> p220.htm  p221.htm  p222.htm  p223.htm  p224.htm 
> p225.htm  p226.htm  p227.htm  p228.htm  p229.htm
> p230.htm  p231.htm  p232.htm  p233.htm  p234.htm
> p235.htm  p236.htm  p237-1.htm 

*Page {ta.} त p105.htm is a special case, because Ma Thuzar had done the first half and I had completed the rest. With completion I have moved this to page-by-page group. It is on this indx to have it together with other files still remaining in the old file group.
Scanned page for p123.htm not available
Whole p148.htm of the ink-on-paper has been split into p148-1.htm &  p148-2.htm to separate {ta.}- & {pa.}-groups. The link to p148.htm has been removed, but not the file itself is still in {ta.}-group. The first file in the {pa.}-group is p148-2.htm : it is in MC-v06 group.
҂ Though {pa.} p148-2.htm and the rest of row#5 are linked to MCc5pp-indx, they are presented here for easy searching. Row #4 {ta.} and row #5 {pa.} rows are readily found in many languages. They are ended by true nasals {na.} and  {ma.}.


UKT170728: When Thuzar left, she had cut and pasted txt from older files, only up to p105.htm . Now, I will have to continue her work, and I will follow a new method which I've been trying since p099.htm .

UKT notes :
Doggie's Tale - copy-paste

Contents of this page

BEPS Consonants
and the failure of IPA to represent them for everyday use

- UKT 150713, 170818

"BEPS" - acronym for Burmese, English, Pali, & Sanskrit spoken languages {sa.ka:} written in respective script {sa}: Myanmar, IPA-Latin, Myanmar, Devanagari. I have been trying to come up with a reliable inter-language transcription, or at least a transliteration, between Bur-Myan and English since my early teens.

However, only after retiring from the study of Chemistry and work as a university Chemistry teacher between 1950 to 1988, could I go back to my life long wish of an inter-language transcription.

You must realized that BEPS belongs to different language groups, IE (Indo-European), and Tib-Bur (Tibeto-Burman). It must also be compatible with Mon-Myan (Mon speech in Myanmar akshara). Mon-Myan is an Aus-Asi (Austro-Asiatic).

Speakers of different language groups tend to use different sets of vocal muscles. Changing vowel sounds of one group into another is almost an impossibility when the speaker has passed puberty: for males with a change in voice and for females with the beginning of menstrual flow.

The human voice production has been studied continuously in the East for thousands of years, resulting in our Abugida-Akshara system of writing popularly and erroneously known as Brahmi. However, it was the script used by King Asoka (a Buddhist king), whereas his scribes for most of his edicts on his numerous stone inscriptions were Brahmins aka Poanna {poaN~Na:} (Hindus - worshippers of innumerable gods and goddesses), I opine that the script should be called Asokan or at least Asokan-Brahmi.

The ancient phoneticians have studied the individual sounds, in individual units (vowels), in small units (syllables), and in longer units (phrases and sentences). The vowels can be divided into two kinds, the short and the long. They relate the length of duration of the vowel to the time the speaker takes to blink his eye. The individual sound unit can be modified by restrictions (consonants) in the mouth. The vowel modified by consonants are the syllables. The consonants can be differentiated by the places of articulation (POA). Because of its nature, we can claim the study of Phonetics and Phonology has its beginning in the East since thousands of years ago. The Western study of Phonetics and Phonology is but a few hundreds of years old.

The first recorded writing as seen on the Asokan stone inscriptions tells us about this study of Phonetics in the Indian subcontinent. The Myanmar system of writing, the ThinboanGyi , is related to the Asokan. It is our Phonetics. When we compare the Asokan and Myanmar consonants we find at least 33% similarity.

ThinboanGyi was taught to Bur-Myan children before the British incursion into Myanmarpr in the late 19th century. The Westerners and their erstwhile native students, not understanding its true nature and its worth, but thinking it to be the basis of monastic education and the main prop of Theravada Buddhist monks, have tried to stamp it out, and is no longer taught in our public schools.

The Western invention, the IPA is a poor substitute for Thinboan Gyi as can be seen below, in which two classes of phonemes, the c1 tenuis and the c4 deep-H (which is probably vd-pharyngeal) are absent. For 5 phonemes of Bur-Myan & Pal-Myan, IPA has only 3. IPA classifies c1 & c2, and c3 & c4 to be allophones: the IPA phoneticians fail to hear them as distinct sounds. To us, they are legitimate phonemes in their own rights.


Contents of this page

UKT notes

Doggie's Tale

-- UKT 130613

Mnemonic The Doggie Tale: 
Little doggie cringe in fear -- ŋ (velar),
  Seeing Ella's flapping ears -- ɲ (palatal)
  And, the Shepard's hanging rear -- ɳ (retroflex).
Doggie so sad he can't get it out
  What's that Kasha क्ष when there's a Kha ख ?
  And when there's Jana ज्ञ what I am to do with Jha झ?
On top of all there're hissers, Sha श /ʃ/ and Ssa ष /s/,
  when I am stuck with Theta स /θ/ !" 

Note to digitizer: you can copy and paste the following:
Ā ā Ē ē Ī ī Ō ō Ū ū
Ḍ ḍ Ḥ ḥ Ḷ ḷ Ḹ ḹ Ṁ ṁ Ṃ ṃ
Ṅ ṅ Ṇ ṇ Ṛ ṛ Ṝ ṝ Ś ś Ṣ ṣ Ṭ ṭ ɕ ʂ
Instead of Skt-Dev ः {wic~sa.} use "colon" :
Avagraha ऽ use apostrophe
Root sign √ ; approx ≅
IAST Dev: च ca छ cha  श ś [ɕ] /ʃ/ ; ष ṣ [ʂ] /s/; स s [s] /θ/ ; ऋ {iRi.} & ॠ {iRi},
  viram ् , rhotic ऋ ृ
Skt-Dev special phonemes: Ksa
Undertie in Dev transcription: ‿ U203F
IPA-, Pali- & Sanskrit nasals: ŋ ṅ ṅ ,  , ɳ ṇ ṇ, n n n , m m m
  Pali- & Skt {::ting}: aṁ , aṃ 
IPA symbols: ɑ ɒ ə ɛ ɪ ɯ ʌ ʊ ʃ ʒ ʧ ʤ θ ŋ ɲ ɳ ɴ ɔ ɹ ʔ /kʰ/ /ː/
  <church> /ʧɜːʧ/ (DJPD16-097)
  <success> /sək'ses/ (DJPD16-515)
  <thin> /θɪn/ (DJPD16-535), <thorn> /θɔːn/ (DJPD16-535)
  circumflex-acute :
  ấ U+1EA5 , ế U+1EBF
  upsilon-vrachy  ῠ 
  small-u-breve  ῠ ŭ

Go back Dog-tale-note-b

Contents of this page

End of TIL file