Update: 2017-08-18 11:39 PM -0400


A Practical Sanskrit Dictionary



by A. A. Macdonell, 1893,
http://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/scans/MDScan/index.php?sfx=jpg; 1929.
Nataraj ed., 1st in 2006, 2012.


Edited, with additions from Pali sources, by U Kyaw Tun (UKT) (M.S., I.P.S.T., USA) and staff of Tun Institute of Learning (TIL) . Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone. Prepared for students and staff of TIL Research Station, Yangon, MYANMAR :  http://www.tuninst.net , www.romabama.blogspot.com

For comparing Pali and Sanskrit, it necessary to go into the Roots, and Verb-forms, for which I rely on:


index.htm | Top

Contents of this page

BEPS consonants
Consonants of dental {ta.}, {hta.}, {da.}, {Da.}, {na.}

Files from older works:
Consonant-onsets - MCc-indx.htm > MC-c41-indx.htm/ MC-c51-indx.htm
With regards to entries, I've found the old files only up to p161.htm found cut into groups, later files up to p237-1.htm are found uncut. Approximants begin at p237-2.htm are found in presentable form.

I've finished modifying the names of old grouped entries up to MC-c41-indx.htm :
> p110.htm , p106.htm , p107.htm - update 2017Aug
Covered percent, counting from : 107/382 = 28.01 %

> p105.htm , p106.htm , p107.htm, p108.htm , p109.htm ,
> p110.htm, p111.htm, p112.htm , p113.htm , p114.htm , ...

UKT 170817: I will temporarily suspend the following "consolidating old to new"  beginning with
p106.htm  p107.htm, and concentrate on "modifying the old files" as a preparation to the following programme.

I've finished consolidating old to new up to 
p060-3.htm ... p105.htm  p106.htm  p107.htm - update 2017Aug
Covered percent: 105/382 = 27.48 %

UKT170801: note to TIL editor 
Beginning with {ta.}, I've to use the new 2016 Chicago-format, in addition the old format in addition to what w've downloaded from the old format some years ago.
I'm using new method of transf. from old files to new format beginning with new p099.htm
In old folders beginning with {ta.} (and {pa.}) bookmarks, you'll see that my formerly used of "top" has been changed to " 00". Older bookmarks are not the same with newer ones. The new bookmarks are based on Univ Cologne Scanned pages checked with Nateraj ed.
The 2016 version Chicago has its own page and entry numbers. This results, for example, in my entry number of p105c1-b00 / p074-008 , and p105c1-b01 / not online. If the entry is not listed in the online version, you'll see "not online". See: Digital online dictionary from Univ.Chicago in my note on p105.htm .

UKT170814: note to TIL editor
The method of transf. from old files to new used for p099.htm is not longer tenable from new p106.htm onwards.
The method used is:
old p106.htm is copied intact to new p106.htm
Firstly, remember to modify the bookmarks of old files under MC-c41-indx.htm (& MCa-indx.htm)
as for example - old p106c1-b01 (group of 2)

Note the order in TOC:

p105.htm  p106.htm  p107.htm  p108.htm  p109.htm

p110.htm  p111.htm  p112.htm  p113.htm  p114.htm  p115-1.htm p115-2.htm  p116.htm  p117.htm  p118.htm  p119.htm

p120.htm  p121.htm  p122.htm  p123.htm  p124.htm  p125.htm  p126.htm  p127.htm  p128.htm  p129-1.htm p129-2.htm

p130.htm  p131.htm  p132.htm  p133.htm  p134.htm  p135-1.htm  p135-2  p136.htm  p137.htm  p138.htm  p139.htm

p140.htm  p141.htm  p142.htm  p143.htm  p144.htm  p145.htm  p146.htm  p147.htm  p148-1.htm

UKT170728: When Thuzar left, she had cut and pasted txt from older files, only up to p105.htm . Now, I will have to continue her work, and I will follow a new method which I've been trying since p099.htm .

UKT notes :
Doggie's Tale - copy-paste
Older form of Devanagari

Contents of this page

BEPS Consonants
and the failure of IPA to represent them for everyday use

- UKT 150713, 170818

"BEPS" - acronym for Burmese, English, Pali, & Sanskrit spoken languages {sa.ka:} written in respective script {sa}: Myanmar, IPA-Latin, Myanmar, Devanagari. I have been trying to come up with a reliable inter-language transcription, or at least a transliteration, between Bur-Myan and English since my early teens.

However, only after retiring from the study of Chemistry and work as a university Chemistry teacher between 1950 to 1988, could I go back to my life long wish of an inter-language transcription.

You must realized that BEPS belongs to different language groups, IE (Indo-European), and Tib-Bur (Tibeto-Burman). It must also be compatible with Mon-Myan (Mon speech in Myanmar akshara). Mon-Myan is an Aus-Asi (Austro-Asiatic).

Speakers of different language groups tend to use different sets of vocal muscles. Changing vowel sounds of one group into another is almost an impossibility when the speaker has passed puberty: for males with a change in voice and for females with the beginning of menstrual flow.

The human voice production has been studied continuously in the East for thousands of years, resulting in our Abugida-Akshara system of writing popularly and erroneously known as Brahmi. However, it was the script used by King Asoka (a Buddhist king), whereas his scribes for most of his edicts on his numerous stone inscriptions were Brahmins aka Poanna {poaN~Na:} (Hindus - worshippers of innumerable gods and goddesses), I opine that the script should be called Asokan or at least Asokan-Brahmi.

The ancient phoneticians have studied the individual sounds, in individual units (vowels), in small units (syllables), and in longer units (phrases and sentences). The vowels can be divided into two kinds, the short and the long. They relate the length of duration of the vowel to the time the speaker takes to blink his eye. The individual sound unit can be modified by restrictions (consonants) in the mouth. The vowel modified by consonants are the syllables. The consonants can be differentiated by the places of articulation (POA). Because of its nature, we can claim the study of Phonetics and Phonology has its beginning in the East since thousands of years ago. The Western study of Phonetics and Phonology is but a few hundreds of years old.

The first recorded writing as seen on the Asokan stone inscriptions tells us about this study of Phonetics in the Indian subcontinent. The Myanmar system of writing, the ThinboanGyi , is related to the Asokan. It is our Phonetics. When we compare the Asokan and Myanmar consonants we find at least 33% similarity.

ThinboanGyi was taught to Bur-Myan children before the British incursion into Myanmarpr in the late 19th century. The Westerners and their erstwhile native students, not understanding its true nature and its worth, but thinking it to be the basis of monastic education and the main prop of Theravada Buddhist monks, have tried to stamp it out, and is no longer taught in our public schools.

The Western invention, the IPA is a poor substitute for Thinboan Gyi as can be seen below, in which two classes of phonemes, the c1 tenuis and the c4 deep-H (which is probably vd-pharyngeal) are absent. For 5 phonemes of Bur-Myan & Pal-Myan, IPA has only 3. IPA classifies c1 & c2, and c3 & c4 to be allophones: the IPA phoneticians fail to hear them as distinct sounds. To us, they are legitimate phonemes in their own rights.


Contents of this page

UKT notes

Doggie's Tale

-- UKT 130613

Mnemonic The Doggie Tale: 
Little doggie cringe in fear -- ŋ (velar),
  Seeing Ella's flapping ears -- ɲ (palatal)
  And, the Shepard's hanging rear -- ɳ (retroflex).
Doggie so sad he can't get it out
  What's that Kasha क्ष when there's a Kha ख ?
  And when there's Jana ज्ञ what I am to do with Jha झ?
On top of all there're hissers, Sha श /ʃ/ and Ssa ष /s/,
  when I am stuck with Theta स /θ/ !" 

Note to digitizer: you can copy and paste the following:
Ā ā Ē ē Ī ī Ō ō Ū ū
Ḍ ḍ Ḥ ḥ Ḷ ḷ Ḹ ḹ Ṁ ṁ Ṃ ṃ
Ṅ ṅ Ṇ ṇ Ṛ ṛ Ṝ ṝ Ś ś Ṣ ṣ Ṭ ṭ ɕ ʂ
Instead of Skt-Dev ः {wic~sa.} use "colon" :
Avagraha ऽ use apostrophe
Root sign √ ; approx ≅
IAST Dev: च ca छ cha  श ś [ɕ] /ʃ/ ; ष ṣ [ʂ] /s/; स s [s] /θ/ ; ऋ {iRi.} & ॠ {iRi},
  viram ् , rhotic ऋ ृ
Skt-Dev special phonemes: Ksa
Undertie in Dev transcription: ‿ U203F
IPA-, Pali- & Sanskrit nasals: ŋ ṅ ṅ ,  , ɳ ṇ ṇ, n n n , m m m
  Pali- & Skt {::ting}: aṁ , aṃ 
IPA symbols: ɑ ɒ ə ɛ ɪ ɯ ʌ ʊ ʃ ʒ ʧ ʤ θ ŋ ɲ ɳ ɴ ɔ ɹ ʔ /kʰ/ /ː/
  <church> /ʧɜːʧ/ (DJPD16-097)
  <success> /sək'ses/ (DJPD16-515)
  <thin> /θɪn/ (DJPD16-535), <thorn> /θɔːn/ (DJPD16-535)
  circumflex-acute :
  ấ U+1EA5 , ế U+1EBF
  upsilon-vrachy  ῠ 
  small-u-breve  ῠ ŭ

Go back Dog-tale-note-b

Contents of this page

Older form of Devanagari script

- UKT 150708

Macdonell, Monier-Williams and Childers use an older form of Devanagari script.  A full set of vowels and consonants used are presented below.

Go back Old-Dev-note-b

Contents of this page

End of TIL file