Update: 2017-08-08 05:38 AM -0400


A Practical Sanskrit Dictionary


by A. A. Macdonell, 1893,
http://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/scans/MDScan/index.php?sfx=jpg 1929.
Nataraj ed., 1st in 2006, 2012

Edited, with additions from Pali sources, by U Kyaw Tun (UKT) (M.S., I.P.S.T., USA) and staff of Tun Institute of Learning (TIL) . Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone. Prepared for students and staff of TIL Research Station, Yangon, MYANMAR :  http://www.tuninst.net , www.romabama.blogspot.com

MC-indx.htm | Top

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UKT notes :
UKT 141112: UHS-PMD0426 does not list any entry. I cannot understand why it is so, because if Pal-Myan had been brought into northern Myanmarpr since the days of King Abhiraza of Tagaung, we should expect some entries. Is it possible that U Hoke Sein had overlooked the Pali grammar?
Dhaka : Old Dhaka
Retroflex consonants of Akshara-Matrix

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See my note on Retroflex consonants of Akshara-Matrix.





ढक्क [ dhakka ]
- m. kind of edifice; N. of a locality; , f. large drum.

See my note on Dhaka 
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dhaka 170808
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Old_Dhaka 170808



ढक्कदेशीय [ dhakka-desya ]
- a. peculiar to the country of Dhakka .



[ dhakka-na]
- or -ma , n. N.


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ढामरा [ dhmar ]
- f. goose.



ढाल [ dhla ]
- n. shield.


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ढेङ्क [ dheṅka ]
- m. kind of bird; , f. kind of dance.

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ढोल [ dhola ]
- m. drum.


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[ dhauk ]
- I. . [ dhauka] - approach (ac.) : ...




ढौकन [ dhauk-ana ]
- n. offering, present.


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UKT notes


- UKT 170808

I am interested in history of the area before the Muslim incursion. And my note is on the historical city.

From Wikipedia:
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Old_Dhaka 170808

The existence of a settlement in the area that is now Dhaka dates from the 7th century. The city area was ruled by the Buddhist kingdom of Kamarupa and the Pala Empire before passing to the control of the Hindu Sena dynasty in the 9th century. The name of the town may have derived after the establishment of the Goddess Dhakeshvari's temple by Ballal Sena in the 12th century.

After the Sena Empire, Dhaka was successively ruled by the Sultanate of Bengal as well as interruption of governors from the Delhi Sultanate before being taken over by the Mughals in 1608. Dhaka started to grow from 1610 under the Mughal Subedhars. [7] The oldest standing mosque was built in 1454 by Bakht Binat during the rule of Nasiruddin Mahmud Shah. [7]

From Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pala_Empire 170808

The Pala Empire (8th century12th century) was an imperial power during the Late Classical period on the Indian subcontinent, which originated in the region of Bengal. It is named after its ruling dynasty, whose rulers bore names ending with the suffix of Pala, which meant "protector" in the ancient language of Prakrit. [UKT ]

UKT 170808: By "Prakrit" is meant a local language, from which Skt-Dev - the self-claimed "refined language" was derived. The Prakrit of this period and before wrote in Asokan Brahmi the modern form of which is the Myanmar script.

The main Buddhist university of this period was the Nalanda university  {na-ln-da} नालंदा in Bihar - mainland India - where the Mahayana and Tantric Buddhism flourished. One of the Tantric schools uses sexual intercourse between the Master and the Pupils as a form of Mental-concentration. It was because of this sex-oriented Tantric practise that King Anawrahta of Pagan, wiped out the Arigyis (Burmese-speakers), and introduced the Theravada monks (at that time mostly Mon) from the southern kingdom of Thaton. The Buddhist sangha of Pagan started to have strong exchange of ideas and customs with the Theravada Buddhists of Lanka - the island kingdom - at the southern tip of Indian subcontinent. The Pali language, derived from Magadhi and Lankan languages, made its way to northern Myanmarpr, and corrupted the Old Magadhi which had come from the Magadha Mahajanapada where Gautama Buddha was born and died. Thus the Pali-Myan which is now currently used in Myanmarpr, is Old Magadhi under the influence of Lankan Pali.

They were followers of the Mahayana and Tantric schools of Buddhism. The empire was founded with the election of Gopala as the emperor of Gauda in 750 CE. [3] The Pala stronghold was located in Bengal and Bihar, which included the major cities of Vikrampura, Pataliputra, Gauda, Monghyr, Somapura, Ramvati (Varendra), Tamralipta and Jaggadala.

The Palas were astute diplomats and military conquerors. Their army was noted for its vast war elephant cavalry. Their navy performed both mercantile and defensive roles in the Bay of Bengal. The Palas were important promoters of classical Indian philosophy, literature, painting and sculpture. They built grand temples and monasteries, including the Somapura Mahavihara, and patronised the great universities of Nalanda and Vikramashila. The Proto-Bengali language developed under Pala rule. The empire enjoyed relations with the Srivijaya Empire, the Tibetan Empire and the Arab Abbasid Caliphate. Islam first appeared in Bengal during Pala rule, as a result of increased trade between Bengal and the Middle East. Abbasid coinage found in Pala archaeological sites, as well as records of Arab historians, point to flourishing mercantile and intellectual contacts. The House of Wisdom in Baghdad absorbed the mathematical and astronomical achievements of Indian civilisation during this period.[4]

At its height in the early 9th century, the Pala Empire was the dominant power in the northern subcontinent, with its territory stretching across parts of modern-day eastern Pakistan, northern and northeastern India, Nepal and Bangladesh.[3][5] The empire reached its peak under Emperors Dharmapala and Devapala. The Palas also exerted a strong cultural influence under Atisa in Tibet, as well as in Southeast Asia. Pala control of North India was ultimately ephemeral, as they struggled with the Gurjara-Pratiharas and the Rashtrakutas for the control of Kannauj and were defeated. After a short lived decline, Emperor Mahipala I defended imperial bastions in Bengal and Bihar against South Indian Chola invasions. Emperor Ramapala was the last strong Pala ruler, who gained control of Kamarupa and Kalinga. The empire was considerably weakened by the 11th century, with many areas engulfed in rebellion.

The resurgent Hindu Sena dynasty dethroned the Pala Empire in the 12th century, ending the reign of the last major Buddhist imperial power in the subcontinent. The Pala period is considered one of the golden eras of Bengali history.[6][7] The Palas brought stability and prosperity to Bengal after centuries of civil war between warring divisions. They advanced the achievements of previous Bengali civilisations and created outstanding works of art and architecture. They laid the basis for the Bengali language, including its first literary work, the Charyapada. The Pala legacy is still reflected in Tibetan Buddhism.

Go back Dhaka-nb

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Retroflex consonants of Akshara-matrix

- UKT 160308:

The five retroflex plosive-stop consonants, r3c1 {Ta.}, r3c2 {HTa.}, r3c3 {a.}, r3c4 {a.}, & {Na.}, are probably the remnants of an ancient language, preceding the Asokan and Sanskrit. Since by "language" is meant not only the spoken part {sa.ka:}, but the script {sa} as well, I have used the hyphenated word, {sa.ka:}-{sa} in most of my work on BEPS, and I will have to re-specify "Asokan" as Magadhi-Asokan, and "Sanskrit" as Skt-Dev.

Of the retroflex consonants, the least met in Skt-Dev & Pal-Myan is {Na.} - the retroflex nasal. Macdonell lists only 5 entries. The first entry for these should have been {Na.} with open-front vowel as the intrinsic vowel, but it is not so. It is {Ni.} with the close-front vowel. It is also noteworthy that there are only 9 entries under this head in U Hoke Sein PMD0426, and all deal with a grammatical property ( {pc~s:} 'root ?' ) of this nasal. Franklin Edgerton in Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Grammar and Dictionary (BHS) does not list any - BHS-indx.htm (link chk 160308).

It is also noteworthy that R.C. Childers in A Dictionary of the Pali Language (in Pal-Lat) 1874, p.253-297, did not list any. [Note: the Pal-Lat alphabet for {Na.} is "N with dot below" Ṇ & ṇ , and Childers would have listed this character with other N's differentiated by diacritics such as Ṅ & ṅ for {nga.}, & for Nya'l {a.}, N & n for {na.}.]
Similarly, PTS Pali-English dictionary, available in TIL research station in Yangon (ink-on-paper reprint of 1999 which I bought in Canada), does not list any entry for {Na.}].

The second least-known retroflex in Skt-Dev is {a.}. Macdonell lists only 9 entries. You may argue that the second least-known is r3c2 {HTa.}. However, since r3c1 {Ta.} & r3c2 {HTa.} are so close that they may be treated together, I don't consider it on par with {a.}. U Hoke Sein PMD0425-0426 does not list any.

There are 11 entries in Franklin Edgerton's BHS. It is one reason why I consider BHS to be Sanskritized Magadhi similar to Nwari-Asokan now written in Devanagari. See: English to Nepal Bhasa Dictionary by Sabin Bhuju सबिन भुजु , 2005
- SBhuju-NewarDict<> / bkp<> (link chk 160221)
and, A Comparative and Etymological Dictionary of Nepali Language by R L Turner
- http://dsal.uchicago.edu/dictionaries/turner/ (link chk 160119)

Go back Retroflex-conson-note-b

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End of TIL file