Update: 2017-06-05 08:33 PM -0400


A Practical Sanskrit Dictionary


by A. A. Macdonell, 1893,
http://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/scans/MDScan/index.php?sfx=jpg; 1929.
Nataraj ed., 1st in 2006, 2012.

Edited by U Kyaw Tun (UKT) (M.S., I.P.S.T., USA), Daw Khin Wutyi, Daw Thuzar Myint and staff of Tun Institute of Learning (TIL) . Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone. Prepared for students and staff of TIL Research Station, Yangon, MYANMAR :  http://www.tuninst.net , www.romabama.blogspot.com

To turn this dictionary into a learning tool, the first task is to digitize the original ink-on-paper copy. Macdonell's entries were in 3 columns-per-page from which we had to cut out the individual entries. For this purpose, we use the scanned images from the University of Cologne, and the digitized copy from the University of Chicago. This TIL version is finally checked with the ink-on-paper copy of Nataraj ed., 1st in 2006, 2012 in TIL library. Then comes an unexpected obstacle because Devanagari akshara used by Macdonell is in the older form, whereas the present form is quite different. To overcome this problem, I have to find out what the Older Form of Devanagari used by Macdonell's contemporaries.

The TOC is in Akshara order, which is very difficult to follow unless you know the Akshara matrices of vowels and consonants. The intermediary language is Romabama based on Pali-Myanmar & Sanskrit-Myanmar.

For reference to Pal-Myan words, we rely on Pali-Myanmar Dictionary by U Hoke Sein, Min. of Religious Affars, Govt. of Burma, first print 1954, pp1180. 
- U Hoke Sein, Pali-Myanmar Dictionary (in Pal-Myan) (UHS-PMD) ,
- U Hoke Sein, The Universal Burmese-English-Pali Dictionary, (UHS-BEPD)

index.htm | Top

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BEPS consonants
Consonants of dental {ta.}, {hta.}, {da.}, {Da.}, {na.}

UKT 150927: Do not forget to refer to my older works
  Consonant-onsets - MCc-indx.htm - update 141217 (link chk 150928)
UKT 160312: The digitized ( jumbled ) text from MAC-Chicago for these files are
in TIL SD-Library MAC-Chicago<> / bkp<> (link chk 160312)
UKT 160314: Remember that my previous collection of MAC-CUT columns from the
http://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/scans/MDScan/index.php?sfx=jpg; 1929.
stored in TIL SD-Library is found to be unsatisfactory for further cuts into individual entries mainly because of the slants of the individual columns. The MAC-CUT is no longer used, and new downloads have been prepared and stored as ~~MAC-UNCUT.

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p110.htm  p111.htm  p112.htm  p113.htm  p114.htm  p115-1.htm p116.htm  p117.htm  p118.htm  p119.htm
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p120.htm  p121.htm  p122.htm  p123.htm  p124.htm  p125.htm  p126.htm  p127.htm  p128.htm  p129-1.htm
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p130.htm  p131.htm  p132.htm  p133.htm  p134.htm  p135-1.htm  p136.htm  p137.htm  p138.htm  p139.htm
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p140.htm  p141.htm  p142.htm  p143.htm  p144.htm  p145.htm  p146.htm  p147.htm  p148-1.htm


UKT notes :

Doggie's Tale - copy-paste
Older form of Devanagari

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BEPS Consonants
and the failure of IPA to represent them for everyday use

- UKT 150713

"BEPS" - acronym for Burmese, English, Pali, & Sanskrit spoken languages written in respective aksharas - is my coined word. I have been trying to come up with a reliable inter-language transcription between Bur-Myan and English since my early teens. However, only after retiring from the study of Chemistry, and work as a university Chemistry teacher between 1950 to 1988, could I go back to my life long wish of an inter-language transcription.

You must realized that BEPS belongs to different language groups, IE (Indo-European), and Tib-Bur (Tibeto-Burman). Speakers of different language groups tend to use different sets of vocal muscles and changing vowel sounds of one group into another is almost an impossibility when the speaker has passed puberty: for males with a change in voice and for  females with the beginning of menstrual flow.

The human voice production has been studied continuously in the East for thousands of years, resulting in our Akshara system of writing. The ancient phoneticians has studied the individual sounds, in individual units (vowels), in small units (syllables), and in longer units (phrases and sentences). The vowels can be divided into two kinds, the short and the long. They relate the length of duration of the vowel to the time the speaker takes to blink his eye. The individual sound unit can be modified by restrictions (consonants) in the mouth. The vowel modified by consonants are the syllables. The consonants can be differentiated by the places of articulation (POA). Because of its nature, we can claim the study of Phonetics and Phonology has its beginning in the East since thousands of years ago. The Western study of Phonetics and Phonology is but a few hundreds of years old.

The first recorded writing as seen on the Asokan stone inscriptions tells us about this study of Phonetics in the Indian subcontinent. The Myanmar system of writing, the ThinboanGyi , is related to the Asokan. It is our Phonetics. When we compare the Asokan and Myanmar consonants we find at least 33% similarity.

ThinboanGyi was taught to Bur-Myan children before the British incursion into Myanmarpr in the late 19th century. The Westerners and their erstwhile native students, not understanding its true nature and its worth, but thinking it to be the basis of monastic education and the main prop of Theravada Buddhist monks, have tried to stamp it out, and is no longer taught in our public schools.

The Western invention, the IPA is a poor substitute for Thinboan Gyi as can be seen below, in which two classes of phonemes, the c1 tenuis and the c4 deep-H (which is probably vd-pharyngeal) are absent. For 5 phonemes of Bur-Myan & Pal-Myan, IPA has only 3. IPA classifies c1 & c2, and c3 & c4 to be allophones: the IPA phoneticians fail to hear them as distinct sounds. To us, they are legitimate phonemes in their own rights.


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UKT notes

Doggie's Tale

-- UKT 130613

Mnemonic The Doggie Tale: 
Little doggie cringe in fear -- ŋ (velar),
  Seeing Ella's flapping ears -- ɲ (palatal)
  And, the Shepard's hanging rear -- ɳ (retroflex).
Doggie so sad he can't get it out
  What's that Kasha क्ष when there's a Kha ख ?
  And when there's Jana ज्ञ what I am to do with Jha झ?
On top of all there're hissers, Sha श /ʃ/ and Ssa ष /s/,
  when I am stuck with Theta स /θ/ !" 

Note to digitizer: you can copy and paste the following:
Ā ā Ē ē Ī ī Ō ō Ū ū
Ḍ ḍ Ḥ ḥ Ḷ ḷ Ḹ ḹ Ṁ ṁ Ṃ ṃ
Ṅ ṅ Ṇ ṇ Ṛ ṛ Ṝ ṝ Ś ś Ṣ ṣ Ṭ ṭ ɕ ʂ
Instead of Skt-Dev ः {wic~sa.} use "colon" :
Avagraha ऽ use apostrophe
Root sign √ ; approx ≅
IAST Dev: च ca छ cha  श ś [ɕ] /ʃ/ ; ष ṣ [ʂ] /s/; स s [s] /θ/ ; ऋ {iRi.} & ॠ {iRi},
  viram ् , rhotic ऋ ृ
Skt-Dev special phonemes: Ksa
Undertie in Dev transcription: ‿ U203F
IPA-, Pali- & Sanskrit nasals: ŋ ṅ ṅ ,  , ɳ ṇ ṇ, n n n , m m m
  Pali- & Skt {::ting}: aṁ , aṃ 
IPA symbols: ɑ ɒ ə ɛ ɪ ɯ ʌ ʊ ʃ ʒ ʧ ʤ θ ŋ ɲ ɳ ɴ ɔ ɹ ʔ /kʰ/ /ː/
  <church> /ʧɜːʧ/ (DJPD16-097)
  <success> /sək'ses/ (DJPD16-515)
  <thin> /θɪn/ (DJPD16-535), <thorn> /θɔːn/ (DJPD16-535)
  circumflex-acute :
  ấ U+1EA5 , ế U+1EBF
  upsilon-vrachy  ῠ 
  small-u-breve  ῠ ŭ

Go back Dog-tale-note-b

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Older form of Devanagari script

- UKT 150708

Macdonell, Monier-Williams and Childers use an older form of Devanagari script.  A full set of vowels and consonants used are presented below.

Go back Old-Dev-note-b

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End of TIL file