Update: 2017-08-09 07:42 PM -0400


A Practical Sanskrit Dictionary


by A. A. Macdonell, 1893,
http://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/scans/MDScan/index.php?sfx=jpg; 1929.
Nataraj ed., 1st in 2006, 2012.

Edited, with additions from Pali sources, by U Kyaw Tun (UKT) (M.S., I.P.S.T., USA) and staff of Tun Institute of Learning (TIL) . Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone. Prepared for students and staff of TIL Research Station, Yangon, MYANMAR :  http://www.tuninst.net , www.romabama.blogspot.com
For comparing Pali and Sanskrit, it necessary to go into the Roots, and Verb-forms, for which I rely on:



index.htm | Top

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Consonants of row #3 :
retroflex: {Ta.} ट , to {Na.}/ {N}

UKT 170709: Working row#3, and more so with row#2, always makes me unsure of myself. But remembering Gautama Buddha's allowance, 

and my motto: Script unites / Speech divides gives me peace. Remember Sanskrit sounds, represented by symbol <)), and Burmese sounds, & Mon-Myan sounds are very much unlike. However, if the language we are trying to pronounce is Pali, we can understand what has been said to some extent. But if it is not Pali, we end up being locked up in the Tower of Babel . To see what I mean, by listening to how the Palatal aksharas are like:
- bk-cndl-{sa.}-row<)) : Mon pronounce {sa.} as /{kya.}/

Now, let's listen to the sounds of Sanskrit Akshara, even though the speaker refers to it as Alphabet:
- SanskritLY<)) .
- from Lakhya Yoga: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-wTDvmElnlM 170726

Files from older works:
Consonant-onsets - MCc-indx.htm 

Note the order in TOC:

p104-1.htm p104-2.htm  p104-3.htm p104-4.htm  p104-5.htm  p104-6.htm


UKT notes :
UKT 170808: " ण् {Na.} - only occurs in loanwards from Sanskrit, and then initially only in its own name. In inherited Nepali words it is sometimes written for preceded by a nasalized vowel." - Turn269
A Comparative and Etymological Dictionary of Nepali Language by R L Turner . Downloaded files TIL HD-nonPDF and SD-nonPDF libraries:
 - Turn-NepalDict<> / bkp<> (link chk 170808) 

Note the relationship in the shapes of Asokan aksharas of r3c2 & r4c2, and r3c5 & r4c5. My question now is: Was {Na.}/ {N} the remnant of a much older script, from which Myanmar akshara and Asokan akshara were derived. It would be a case similar to Myanmar approximant {a.}/ {} which has disappeared. It has survived only as a conjunct in Pali. Would I be able to resurrect it, as I did for Nya'gyi {a.}/ {} ?

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Retroflex consonant

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Retroflex_consonant 120301

A retroflex consonant is a coronal consonant where the tongue has a flat, concave, or even curled shape, and is articulated between the alveolar ridge and the hard palate. They are sometimes referred to as cerebral consonants, especially in Indology. Other terms occasionally encountered are domal and cacuminal.

In the IPA (International Phonetic Alphabet), retroflex consonants are indicated with a hook in the bottom right, such as [ʂ ʐ ʈ ɖ ɳ ɭ ɽ ɻ] . Alternatively, especially for those sounds with a relatively forward articulation (e.g. in the alveolar or postalveolar region rather than the hard palate), they can be indicated with a retracted diacritic (underbar); this occurs especially for [s̱ ẕ] . (Other sounds indicated this way, such as [ṉ ḻ ḏ] , tend to refer to alveolo-palatal rather than retroflex consonants.)

UKT: More in Wikipedia article.

Go back retroflex-note-b

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End of TIL file