Update: 2017-08-12 05:04 AM -0400

TIL

A Practical Sanskrit Dictionary

p102.htm

by A. A. Macdonell, 1893,
http://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/scans/MDScan/index.php?sfx=jpg 1929.
Nataraj ed., 1st in 2006, 2012

Edited, with additions from Pali sources, by U Kyaw Tun (UKT) (M.S., I.P.S.T., USA) and staff of Tun Institute of Learning (TIL) . Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone. Prepared for students and staff of TIL Research Station, Yangon, MYANMAR : http://www.tuninst.net , www.romabama.blogspot.com

MC-indx.htm | Top
MCc2pp-indx.htm

Contents of this page

{zi-wa.} - cont- cont
  p102c1
{zi-wi.}
  p102c2
{zu.}
{zu.ra.} : repha
{zu.Sa.}
{zu.ha.}
{zu}
{zRi.}
  p102c3

{z}
{z:}
{zau:}

{za} / {za.} : Pseudo-Za
  We already have the term Ya'pin {ya.pn.}: now Nya'pin {a.pn.} for BEPS.

UKT notes :
Hypothesis of Nya'gyi in Old Magadhi : {a.pn.}
Jetavana - {z-ta.wn kyaung:tau}
Jivaka the physician
Jivaloka {zi-wa.ka.} - the physician
Marut & Sakka Sutta {ak~ka.oat}
Undead : {kyt} aka {kyt tic~hs}
{z~a} ज्ञ (Pseudo Za)

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{zi-wa.} - cont

p102c1

p102c1-b01

जीव [ gv- ]
- a. living, alive; living on (--); causing life; m. principle of life, (individual) soul; N. of one of the Maruts; m. n. living being, creature.

See my note on Marut of the Hindus
and Sakka Sutta {ak~ka.oat} of Bur-Myan Theravada Buddhists.

 

p102c1-b02

जीवक [ gva-ka ]
- a. (ik) living, alive; living on (--); -grham, ad. (with grah), (take) alive; -ghtin, a. killing living creatures (beast of prey); -ga, a. born alive; -gvaka, m. francolin partridge; -m-gvaka, m. id.

See my note on the physician Jivaka {zi-wa.ka.}

 

p102c1-b03

जीवत्पतिका [ gvat-pati-k ]
- f. woman whose husband is alive; (d)-bhartrik, f. id.

 

p102c1-b04

  जीवदत्त [ gva-datta ]
- m. N.: -ka, m. id.; -dya-ka, a. life-giving.

 

p102c1-b05

जीवन [ g&isharp;v-ana ]
- a. () quickening, animating; restoring to life (--); n. restoration to life; existence, life; subsistence; manner of life; maintenance by (-- or in.); water: -yoni, a. having its origin in life; -hetu, m. means of subsistence.

 

p102c1-b06

[ giva-ns ]
- a (nm. -nt ) in which life is destroyed

 

p102c1-b07

जीवनीय [ gv-anya ]
- fp. one should live; life-giving; n. water.

 

p102c1-b08

जीवन्मरण [ gvan-marana ]
- n. living death; -mukta, pp. having obtained final liberation while yet alive; -mukti, f. liberation during life; -mrita, pp. living and yet dead, half dead: -ka, a. id.

See my note on Undead
UKT170804: The "living death" of the above is not the same as "undead".

 

p102c1-b09

जीवपति [ gva-pati ]
- m. living husband; -patn, a. f. whose husband is alive; -pitri: -ka, a. whose father is still alive; ()-putra, a. whose son or children are alive; m. N. of a Rishi and of a hymn composed by him; -praga, a. having children still alive; -maya, a. animate, living.

 

p102c1-b10

जीवल [ gva-l ]
- a. animating; m. N.

 

p102c1-b11

जीवलोक [ gva-lok ]
- m. world of the living, mankind; -vadha, m. killing a living being; -vishaya, m. duration of life; -vishna, n. horn of a living animal; -sams, m. community of the living; -sesha, a. having life only as a remnant, having bare life; -siddhi, m. N.; -s, a. f. bearing a living child.

See my note on Jivaloka
Differentiate between the Buddhist (non-axiomatic Anatta) and Hindu (axiomatic Atta.) ideas.

 

p102c1-b12

[giv-s-e] V.
-- inf. of √giv

 

p102c1-b13

जीवातु [ gv-tu ]
- f. life.

 

p102c1-b14

जीवात्मन् [ gva‿tman ]
- m. individual soul; -‿apeta, pp. lifeless; -‿sa, a. attached to life; -‿saṅkin, a. supposing any one to be alive; -‿astikya, m. the category of soul.

 

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{zi-wi.}

p102c1-b15

जीविका [ gv-ik ]
- f. life; manner of life; means of subsistence, livelihood.

 

p102c1-b16

  जीवित [ gv-it ]
- pp. (√gv) alive; n. living being; life; duration of life; livelihood, means of subsistence.

 

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p102c2

p102c2-b00

जीवितक्षय [ gvita-kshaya ]
- m. loss of life, death; -gridhnu-t, f. great love of life; -ntha, m. lord of one's life, husband; -priya, a. dear as life; -bhta, pp. having been alive, dead.

 

p102c2-b01

जीवितव्य [ gv-i-tavya ]
- fp. n. to be lived (with in. of subject = will live); n. possibility of living; allotted term of life; possible restoration to life: -vishaya, m. duration of life; -samdeha, m. danger to life.

 

p102c2-b02

जीवितसम [ gvita-sama ]
- a. dear as life.

 

p102c2-b03

जीविताकाङ्क्षिन् [ gvita‿kṅkshin ]
- a. wishing to remain alive; -‿atyaya, m. danger of losing one's life; -‿anta, m. end of life, death: -ka, m. ender of life, Siva, -kara, a. threatening life; -‿sa, f. desire to live, hope of life.

 

p102c2-b04

जीवितेश [ gvita‿sa ]
- m. lord of life, Yama; lover, husband; , f. sweetheart, mistress; -‿svara, m. ep. of Siva.

 

p102c2-b05

जीविन् [ gv-in ]
- a. living (for, -- after expressions of time); subsisting by or on (gnly. --); m. living being; -ya, fp. n. to be lived; n. life.

 

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{zu.}

p102c2-b06

जुगुप्सा [ gu-gup-s ]
- (des.) f. disgust, aversion.

 

p102c2-b07

[ gugup-si-ta]
-- (des.pp.) n. id.; atrocity

 

p102c2-b08

जुटिका [ gut-ik ]
- f. tuft of hair.

 

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{zu.ra.} : repha

p102c2-b09

जुर् [ gur ]
- (V.) P. VI. [ gur ], IV. [ gurya ] - age, decay, perish; pp. grn , decrepit

 

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{zu.Sa.}

p102c2-b10

[ gush ]
- VI. gush, taste with pleasure, relish, hear favourably, like, rejoice in, enjoy (ac. g.); be pleased: with tanvs, enjoy oneself, be lad; cs. goshya, . (P.) like, love, caress; aprove. anu, visit any one (ac.). abhi, be fond of; visit, frequent. pra, pp. delighting in (lc.). prati, be tender towards (ac.); rejoice in (ac.).

 

p102c2-b11

जुष् [ gush ]
- a. devoted to; dwelling in; possessing; like, similar to (--).

 

p102c2-b12

जुष्ट [ gsh-ta ] (or -t)
- pp. acceptable (to, in., d., g.); frequented or visited by, exposed to, furnished with (--, in.).

 

p102c2-b13

जुष्टि [ gsh-ti ]
- f. favour; satisfaction.

 

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{zu.ha.}

p102c2-b14

जुहुराण [ gu-hur-n ]
- pr. pt. . of √hvri.

 

p102c2-b15

जुहू [ gu-h&usharp; ]
- f. [caller: √hv] tongue (esp. of Agni); flame; sacrificial butter-ladle (for pouring ghee on the fire).

 

p102c2-b16

जुहूषु [ gu-h-shu ]
- a. wishing to sacrifice (ac.).

 

p102c2-b17

जुहोति [ gu-ho-ti ]
- m. (3 sg. of √hu) technical designation of the sacrifices denoted by the term guhoti (not by yagati ).

 

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{zu}

p102c2-b18

जू [ g ]
- (V.) I. . gva  IX. P. gun - speed; urge, inspire; further; pp. gt . pra, speed onwards 

 

p102c2-b19

जूट [ gta ]
- m. braid of hair.

 

p102c2-b20

जूर [ gra ]
- m. injury.

 

p102c2-b21

जूर्ण [ gr-n]
-- pp. of √gur

 

p102c2-b22

[ grv ]
- I.P. grva - consume with heat, scorch, burn

 

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{zRi.}

p102c2-b23

[1. gri ]
- I. . gra (V.) - crackle (of fire); call, invoke

 

p102c2-b24

[2. gri ]
- I. . gra (V.) - awake; move, approach

 

p102c2-b25

[ grimbh ] 
- I. . (P.) grmbha, yawn; open; spread, increase; arise; revive, take courage; be at ease. ud, open wide; arise, appear. sam-ud, spread; endeavour (to, inf.) vi, yawn; increase; expand; arise, appear; pp. -grimbhita, yawning; expanded, blossomed, flowering. sam, appear.

 

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p102c3

p102c3-b01

जृम्भ [ grimbh-a ]
- m. yawning; opening; , f. id.; (a)-kara, a. producing yawning; -ana, n. yawning; blossoming; stretching; slackness (of limbs): -ik, f. yawning; -ita, (pp.) n. appearance.

 

p102c3-b02

[ gr ]
- I. P. gra (V.) - make old, wear out; IV. P. (. rare) ... 

 

 

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{z}

p102c3-b03

  जेतवन [ geta-vana ]
- n. Geta(r)'s forest, N. of a forest near Srvast, where Buddha preached his doctrine.

See my note on Jetavana
{z-ta.wn kyaung:tau}

 

p102c3-b04

जेतव्य [ ge-tavya ]
- fp. to be conquered; -tri, m. winner; conqueror; N. of a Buddhistic prince; -ya, fp. to be conquered.

 

p102c3-b05

जेन्य [ gn-ia ]
- a. of noble race.

 

p102c3-b06

[gela-ka]
-- m. N. 

 

p102c3-b07

[ geh ],
- I. . geha - gape; pant

 

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{z:}

p102c3-b08

जैत्र [ ga-tra ]
- a. () victorious, triumphant; n. victory: -ytr, f. triumphal procession; -ratha, m. triumphal car.

 

p102c3-b09

जैन [ gaina ]
- a. () relating to the Ginas; m. Jain: , f. doctrine of the Jains.

 

p102c3-b10

जैमिनि [ gaimini ]
- m. N. of a teacher, founder of the Prva-Mmms school of philosophy: -ya, f. relating to Gamini; m. adherent of Gaimini; n. Gaimini's work.

 

p102c3-b11

जैव [ gaiva ]
- a. () relating to the individual soul.

 

p102c3-b12

जैवातृक [ gaivtri-ka ]
- a. long-lived, who may live long.

 

p102c3-b13

जैह्म्य [ gaihm-ya ]
- n. fraud, cheating.

 

p102c3-b14

जैह्व [ gahva ]
- a. relating to the tongue (gihv).

 

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{zau:}

p102c3-b15

जोङ्ग [*goṅga],
- ˚क  -ka - n. aloe-wood.

 

p102c3-b16

जोष [ gsh-a ]
- m. satisfaction: -m, ad. at will, as one pleases; gladly; gosham s, be silent.

 

p102c3-b17

जोषण [ gosh-ana ]
- n. delighting in; choosing (--).

 

p102c3-b18

जोहूत्र [ goh&usharp;tra ]
- a. roaring; neighing loud.

 

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School-education and Higher-knowledge

UKT 170812: What is the meaning of Pseudo-Za? Does it mean the same as True-Za from which {Zaan} is derived? I've been pondering since 120301. So far in more than 5 years, I think the word "knowledge" derived from Pseudo-Za indicates "knowledge about mundane affairs" or "School-education", whereas {Zaan} derived from True-Za is "higher knowledge such as the First Jhana (in-born of Prince Siddhartha), the Second Jhana, the Third Jhana, etc.

p102c3-b19

ज्ञ [ g ] - moved from old p103.htm
= ज ् ञ  --> {z~a.}   Pseudo-Za
Skt: ज्ञ [ g ] - a. knowing, understanding, familiar with (--, sts. g. or lc.). - Mac102c3
Pal: {zi~a} = : rhymes with {pi~a} 'education'
- - UHS-PMD0406
   UKT from UHS: to be known

UKT 120301: In Skt: ज ् ञ , note the position of the viram. Moving it to the end gives:
ज ञ ् --> जञ् . Now arbitrarily add a second ञ {a.}, and you get जञ् ञ = जञ्ञ = {zi~a}. Is it how Sanskrit changes into Pali? Please note that a similar word Jāna is pronounced in English-IPA: /dʒəˈnɑːnə/. See my note on Jāna . You'll notice that a schwa is inserted after /ʤ/ which means that the conjunct has to be pronounced as a disyllable.

 

p102c3-b20

ज्ञता [ ga-t ]
- f. intelligence, knowledge; familiarity with (--); -tva, n. intelligence.

 

p102c3-b21

ज्ञप्ति [ gap-ti ]
- f. comprehension; ascertainment: -ka, id. -- a.

 

p102c3-b22

ज्ञंमन्य [ gam-manya ]
- a. thinking oneself intelligent.

 

p102c3-b23

ज्ञशक्ति [ ga-sakti ]
- f. faculty of thinking.

 

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{za} /  {za.}.

See my assumption of Nya'gyi in Old Magadhi

p102c3-b24-cut0

[ g ]
- IX. g-n, -ni, -n, know; be acquainted with, have knowledge of, recognise (by, in.); perceive; learn, ascertain; approve; know to be, consider, assume, suppose (2 ac.); become acquainted with (g.); remember (g.); know how to (inf.); . *have to do with:

p102c3-b24-cut1

gne (use parenthetically), I know; na g, know nothing of, disregard; ka evam gnite, with ft. who knows but mrish y, consider untrue: pp. gtam, known; thought; understood, learned, experienced; considered (nm.); may gtam, I thought; cs. gpaya, teach, instruct, inform; declare, report, make acquainted with (2 ac.): pp. gapta or gapita; des. gigsa, . (E. also P.) wish to know, learn, or understand; investigate, test; ascertain; des. cs.

p102c3-b24-cut2

gpass, P. wish to make acquainted with (2 ac.) anu, grant; promise; approve; admit; follow; pardon (iny one (g.); authorize, permit, give leave to (ac.); permit to depart, dismiss; cs. ask any one (ac.) for permission; take leave of (ac.). abhi‿anu, grant anything (ac.) to (g.); permit to (inf.); assent to, approve; authorize; dismiss; take leave of (ac.)

p102c3-b24-cut3

sam-anu, dismiss; cs. take leave of (ac.). abhi, understand, perceive, know recognise or regard as (2 ac.); *remember (with ft.) prati‿abhi, rcognise; understand; regain consciousness; cs. recall to mind.

p102c3-b24-cut4

ava, look down upon, despise, disregard; surpass; deny; pp. accompanied with contempt. , mark, observe; perceive, hear; understand; consider; cs. command; order any one (ac.) to (d., lc.). sam-, recognize, observe; pp. known as (nm.); cs. command.

p102c3-b24-cut5

upa, devise. sam-upa, id. nis, distinguish, find out. pari, carefully observe, ascertain; know fully; recognises as (2 ac.); pp. known; knows as (-), pra, discern, recognise; find out; understand, now about: pp. known; well known; known as (nm.); common; cs. show the way; betray. anu-pra, find out the way after. prati, admit; promise something (ac.) to (d., g.); confirm, affirm, answer (.); assert; discuss (.); recognise; learn; satyam-, promise solemnly. sam-prati, promise.

p102c3-b24-cut6

vi, distinguish, discern; understand; know exactly; gain knowledge; learn from, g.); find out, ascertain; consider (the fate of); observe that (2 ac. or yad); recognise in (lc.): look upon as (2 ac.); ps. vigyate, it is recognised = prescribed (by authorities):

p102c3-b24-cut7

mvigyi, let this (nm.) not be regarded as; cs. declare, - to be (2 ac.); make known, announce; address; request, as (regarding, -artham, prati, or d.); inform about (2 ac.)

p102c3-b24-cut8

abhi-vi, learn, perceive. prati-vi, gratefully acknowledge. sam-vi, agree; advise; cs. recite. sam, . agree with (lc., *in., *ac.); . obey (d.); cs. appease, satisfy; quiet (sacrificial animal); make signs to (ac.).

 

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UKT notes

The Hypothesis of Nya'gyi in Old Magadhi

UKT 170806:

I will now make the bold assumption that there in the Old Magadhi ( Prakrit from which Sanskrit was derived), was the approximant Nga'gyi { a.}.

We now see that, there is the possibility that in {z~a.} and {z~a}, the hanging-on akshara was not nasal Nya'le { a.}, but the approximant Nya'gyi {a.} as allowable in Mon-Myan: {z~a.}.
See: - NaiMgToe-MonMyan<> / Bkp<> (link chk 170623)
On p047 you'll see {a.hsw:}. However, on p048 you'll see that {za.} is not among the aksharas under which {a.} can be hung. This means that {za.} is not realized in Mon-Myan. But remember that {a.} of Nai Mg Toe belongs to row#2, which in BEPS is {a.}. And, I maintain that {za.} is allowable in BEPS. Whatever the case may be, to avoid confusion of terms, I'll use the term Nya'pin {a.pn.}.

Go back Nyagyi-OldMagadhi-note-b

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Jetavana

-- UKT 141110: Read in UTM-PDMD072 how the Jetavan Monastery {z-ta.wn kyan:tau} for the Gautama Buddha was built.

Read also the description given by the Chinese pilgrim, Fa-hsien, who visited the place in A.D 399-414, in A Record of Buddhistic Kingdoms, Chapter 20, by Fa-hsien,
https://ebooks.adelaide.edu.au/f/fa-hien/f15l/contents.html  141110.

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jetavana 120229

Jetavana was one of the most famous of the Buddhist monasteries in India. It was the second monastery donated to Gautama Buddha, after the Veluvana in Rajagaha. Jetavana is located just outside the old city of Savatthi. There was also an important Jetavana monastery in Sri Lanka.

Jetavana was the place where the Buddha gave the majority of his teachings and discourses, having passed at Jetavana 19 (out of 45) rainy seasons (Pāli, vassas, a traditional time of monastic retreat), more than in any other monastery [1]. It is said that after the Migāramātupāsāda (a second monastery erected at Pubbarama, close to Savatthi) came into being, the Buddha would dwell alternately in Jetavana and Migāramātupāsāda, often spending the day in one and the night in the other (SNA.i.336).

Go back Jetavana-note-b

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Jivaka the physician 

-- UKT 141109

Few would not know that the word "doctoring" is to "falsify" and is applicable to crooks and criminals.

v. doctored doctoring doctors Informal v. tr. 3. a. To falsify or change in such a way as to make favorable to oneself: doctored the evidence. b. To add ingredients so as to improve or conceal the taste, appearance, or quality of: doctor the soup with a dash of sherry. See note at adulterate . -- AHTD

Thus someone who practices medicine to cure disease by means of medicinal drugs should be called a "physician", and who practices surgery a "surgeon". The physician would attach a prefix, Dr., to his name, and the surgeon just a plain, Mr.. An academician who professes to have mastered an academic discipline also might use the prefix Dr., but it is the not the practice in Canada and the U.S.

From http://www.buddhanet.net/e-learning/buddhism/lifebuddha/2_19lbud.htm 120228

(Part Two) 19. Jivaka {zi-wa.ka.}, the Buddha's Doctor Jivaka {zi-wa.ka.} was the most celebrated doctor in India during the Buddha's time. Immediately after his birth, Jivaka was placed in a wooden box and thrown away by his mother, a courtesan, on a rubbish heap beside the road.

The same morning baby Jivaka was abandoned, Prince Abhaya, a son of King Bimbisara, happened to pass by the rubbish dump on his way to the palace. When the prince discovered that the baby was still alive, he was moved by compassion and ordered it to be brought up as his adopted son.

When he grew up, Jivaka studied medicine for seven years under a famous teacher. Soon his unusual skill as a physician and a surgeon became known. He was called upon to treat kings and princes, including King Bimbisara himself. But of all the distinguished people Jivaka attended to, his greatest pleasure was to attend to the Buddha, which he did three times a day.

Jivaka helped in many ways. When Devadatta threw down a rock splinter and injured the Buddha's foot, it was Jivaka who healed him.

Realising the advantages of having a monastery close to his house, Jivaka built one in his mango garden. He invited the Buddha and his disciples to the monastery, offered alms and donated the monastery to the Buddha and the monks. After the blessing ceremony of this monastery, Jivaka attained the first stage of sainthood (sotapanna).

Later, when King Ajatasattu asked him where he could go for religious discussions, Jivaka brought him to see the Buddha. Although the king had killed his father under the evil advice of Devadatta, King Ajatasattu became a distinguished lay follower of the Buddha and supported the First Buddhist Council after the Buddha's death.

Go back Jivaka-note-b

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Jivaloka

-- UKT 141109:

Differentiate between the Buddhist (non-axiomatic Anatta) and Hindu (axiomatic Atta.) ideas. Of course the Jains who also would not accept the idea of Creator would hold an intermediate view.

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jiva 120228

In Hinduism and Jainism, a jiva (Skt: जीव, jīva alternate spelling, jiwa) is a living being, [1] or more specifically, the immortal essence of a living organism (human, animal, fish or plant etc.) which survives physical death. [2] [3] It has a very similar usage to atma, but whereas atma refers to "the cosmic self", jiva is used to denote an individual 'living entity' or 'living being' specifically. [4] The terms Paramatma and jivatma are used to avoid confusion.

The word itself originates from the Sanskrit Jivs, with the root jīv- 'to breathe'. It has the same Indo-European root as the Latin word Vivus: "alive".

Definition

In the Bhagavad Gita, the jiva is described as immutable, eternal, numberless and indestructible. [5] [6] [7] [8] It is said not to be a product of the material world (Prakrti), but of a higher 'spiritual' nature. [9] At the point of physical death the jiva takes a new physical body depending on the karma and the individual desires and necessities of the particular jiva in question.

Goals

Some Jain and Hindu scriptures describe the ultimate goal of the jiva as being one or more of the following (depending on the particular philosophical tradition):

'liberation' from material existence (moksha)
obtaining pure love of God (bhakti)
becoming liberated from the happiness and distress of the world, while still being existent within it (jivanmukta).

Go back Jivaloka-note-b

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Marut

UKT 120228, 141109:

As a physical scientist, I always try to have a balance view. However, as an individual born and brought up in Burma or Myanmarpr, my own beliefs and disbeliefs are always tainted by the language and culture of the land (Bur-Myan), the religion (Theravada Buddhism), my schooling (monastic, vernacular, Anglo-vernacular, European-code), my parents (who spoke more than one language), my outside study (Astrology, Nat-worship, Indigenous medicine, ...), and my travels abroad and contacts with peoples of many lands.

It was a shock to me to find that many of my contemporaries, particularly my fellow university teachers (the top intellectuals of the land), are very much narrow-minded in their outlooks, and their views are not always balanced. My present study of BEPS (Burmese-English-Pali-Sanskrit written in Myanmar-IPA-Devanagari) is another endeavor to improve myself and share the result of my efforts with my friends, inside and outside the land of Myanmar -- the Elders of Myanmar -- through the medium of the English language.

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maruts 120228

In Hinduism the Marutas (Skt: मरुत = म र ु त --> {ma.ru.ta.}), also known as the Marutagana and sometimes identified with Rudras, are storm deities and sons of Rudra and Diti  and attendants of Indra. [UKT ]

UKT 141108: Diti is the deified Earth that we live on, and Aditi the deified Sky above us. They are supposed to be sisters and are not female Dvas. They are the Mothers {m-tau}, probably the Mother-goddesses of the aboriginal peoples the Indian-subcontinent extending into Myanmarpr. I came to this conclusion after years of study of BEPS. Indra is not the name of an individual but the official position of the king in the sky.

There are many Indras, and according to our Myanmar Buddhist tradition the present one was a human from Magadha - the Young-Man of Magadha {ma-ga.lu.ln}. Since he was a pious youth as a human, the adulterous Indra of the Hindus was somebody else. The present sky-king who was {ma-ga.lu.ln} is known as King Sakka {i.kra:mn:}. He is a devout disciple of the Gautama Buddha.

See Sakka Sutta {ak~ka.oat}: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/%C5%9Aakra_Buddhism 141109

"Śakra (Skt: शक्र = श क ् र --> {sha.k~ra.}) or Pal: Sakka {ak~ka.}) is the ruler of the Trāyastriṃśa Heaven according to Buddhist cosmology. ... In East Asian traditions, Śakra is known as Dshtiān (帝釋天) or Sht Hunyīn (釋提桓因) in Chinese, and also as Taishakuten (帝釈天) in Japan.

"In China, Śakra is sometimes compared to the Taoist Jade Emperor (Yhung Dd 玉皇大帝 often simplified in Yhung 玉皇); both share a birthday on the ninth day of the first lunar month of the Chinese calendar (usually in February) [ {ta.po.tw: la.hsm} 9th day - about the same time as Saraswati Puja of the Hindus. I was born just minutes before the Moon became full, and I was astrologically predicted to be a life-long seeker of Knowledge.] ...

"Śakra is married to Sujā, [2] daughter of the chief of the Asuras, Vemacitrin (Pāli Vepacitti). Despite this relationship, a state of war generally exists between the thirty-three Dva-gods and the Asuras, which Śakra manages to resolve with minimal violence and no loss of life. Śakra is mentioned in many Buddhist sūtras, and is often shown consulting the Buddha on questions of morality. ... a protector of the Buddhist religion."

The number of Maruts varies from two to sixty (three times sixty in RV 8.96.8). They are very violent and aggressive, described as armed with golden weapons i.e. lightning and thunderbolts, as having iron teeth and roaring like lions, as residing in the north, as riding in golden chariots drawn by ruddy horses.

In the Vedic mythology, the Marutas, a troop of young warriors, are Indra's companions. According to French comparative mythologist Georges Dumzil, they are cognate to the Einherjar and the Wild hunt.

According to the Ramayana, the Marutas' mother, Diti, either seven or seven times seven in number, hoped to give birth to a son who would be more powerful than Indra. She remained pregnant for one hundred years in hopes of doing so; Indra prevented it by throwing a thunderbolt at her and splintering the fetus into the many less powerful deities.

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Harut_and_Marut 120228

Harut and Marut (Arabic: هاروت وماروت‎) are two angels mentioned in the second Surah of the Qur'an, who were sent down to test the people at Babel or Babylon by performing deeds of magic. (Sura Al-Baqara, verse 102). The Qur'an indicates that although they warned the Babylonians not to imitate them or do as they were doing, some members of their audience failed to obey and became sorcerers, thus damning their own souls.

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Undead

UKT 170804:

See Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Undead 170804
"The undead are beings in mythology, legend, or fiction that are deceased but behave as if alive. A common example of an undead being is a corpse re-animated by supernatural forces [ {auk-lm: pi~a}], by the application of the deceased's own life force, or that of another being (such as a demon {hpoat} aka {hpoat tic~hs}). The undead may be incorporeal like ghosts {tic~hs}, or corporeal like vampires and zombies {kyt} aka {kyt tic~hs}." 

UKT 170804: In my childhood days, {kyt} stories were common. In a typical story, a village of long ago, would be seized by sudden plague (such as pneumonic plague) and killed everyone overnight. The inhabitants did not even realized that they had died, and go on "living" as {kyt}. When a living person would come to a such a "dead" village, the {kyt} would receive him and treat him hospitably. The living would have a good night sleep, only to discover when he woke up in full daylight, that he had slept on barren ground with no one around him.

Read also:
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kwaidan:_Stories_and_Studies_of_Strange_Things 170804
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ghost_story 170804

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{z~a.} ज्ञ (Pseudo Za)

  = Bur-Myan basic consonant {Za.}
  = Mon-Myan basic consonant {Z}

UKT 170804: I had placed the following in the old p103.htm .
They have now been placed in the present file, i.e. p102.htm .
Below are two versions of my comment on Pseudo-Za, one from old p103.htm
and the second from new p102, which must be merged.

UKT 120301, 141110: ज्ञ jna {z~a.} cannot be pronounced as a monosyllable. If we were to take the pronunciation of Jāna in English-IPA: /dʒəˈnɑːnə/ as a guide, you would pronounce it as a disyllable with a schwa inserted. Or, if you would like to pronounce it as in Bur-Myan {Zaan}, pronounce it as {Za.} with a slight nasal sound. 

Though both {za.} and {Za.} are voiced, the latter is pronounced with a deep 'throaty' or 'deep' {ha.} sound -- not an aspirate <h> -- as in the case of {ga.} and {Ga.}. Every Myanmar-Buddhist male (boy or man) is taught to differentiate the sounds of {ga.} and {Ga.}, by the mentor-monk at preparatory training before entering the Buddhist order which is a must by tradition in Myanmarpr. My own experience has been when as a boy I was about to enter the order for a few days at the Rangoon Eighth-mile Ma-so-rain monastery of Shw-gin Buddhist sect: the example word chosen was {n-Gau:}.

There is a marked difference in pronunciations of Bur-Myan {Za.} and Mon-Myan {Z} which is also shown as with a {ha.hto:}-like attachment. See:
Basic Mon-Myanmar Language (in Burmese) by Naing Maung Toe, Rangoon, 2007. See downloaded pages in TIL HD-PDF and SD-PDF libraries
- NaiMgToe-MonMyan<> / Bkp<> (link chk 170804)
Mon-Myan Language: Speech and Script : note inherent vowels of white aksharas ending in /a./, and those of blue aksharas ending in //.
- bk-cndl-{ka.}-row<)) 
  bk-cndl-{sa.}-row<)) : Mon pronounce {sa.} as /{kya.}/
- bk-cndl-{Ta.}-row<)) 
- bk-cndl-{ta.}-row<)) 
  bk-cndl-{pa.}-row<))
- bk-cndl-{ya.}-row<))
  bk-cndl-{ha.}-row<)) 

Remember, Bur-Myan are well acquainted with the sound of {Za.} which is realized in a very common word {Z:} 'bazaar'. See my notes on Jāna and retroflex consonants .

UKT 160306: There are two unusual conjuncts to bedevil you - the Pseudo-Kha and the Pseudo-Za which are not present in Pal-Myan. You'll find the Pseudo-Za as a "hanging-on" conjunct in Mon-Myan, which has led me to suggest that Bur-Myan Nya'gyi {a.} is a Palatal-Approximant, similar to Velar-Approximant {ya.} (which was in Palatal position in IPA), and that the sole occupant of r2c5 is Nya'l. This is the reason why Nya'gyi gives a "hanging-on" conjunct similar to {ya.}.

UKT 160311: Now we have 4 contenders for cell r2c4 of BEPS Akshara-matrix:
  - Bur-Myan {Za.},
  - Mon-Myan {Zha.} (with its alternate version {Za.}),
  - Skt-Myan Pseudo-Za {za.} (derived aks-to-aks from Skt-Dev ज्ञ = ज ् ञ ), and
  - Skt-Dev झ.
The next cell r2c5 - the Palatal nasal - is in no better position. There are 2 contenders,
  - the Bur-Myan Nya'gyi {a.}, and
  - Pal-Myan Nya'l {a.} (long-foot) which is commonly mistaken for the Vowel-Letter {U.} (equal-foot). Note: Romabama has to shorten the long-foot of Nya'l {a.} to an extreme shortness for its vertical conjuncts.

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