Update: 2019-06-24 11:30 PM -0400


Practical Sanskrit Dictionary for Buddhists and Hindus


A Practical Sanskrikt Dictionary, by A. A. Macdonell, 1893,
http://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/scans/MDScan/index.php?sfx=jpg; 1929.
- Nataraj ed., 1st in 2006, 2012.
- https://dsal.uchicago.edu/dictionaries/macdonell/ 190516
The Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Grammar and Dictionary, BHS, vol.2, by F. Edgerton, pp. 627.
- FEdgerton-BHSD<> / Bkp<> (link chk 180627)
The Student's Pali English dictionary , by U Pe Maung Tin, 1920.
- (ref: UPMT-PEDxxx).  Downloaded copies in TIL HD-PDF and SD-PDF libraries:
- UPMT-PaliDict1920<> / bkp<> (link chk 190113)
  Pali-Myanmar Dictionary (in Pal-Myan), by U Hoke Sein,
- (ref: UHS-PMD). The dictionary in printed form is in TIL Research Library.
Latin-English Vocabulary II, by Hans H rberg, 1998
- HHOrberg-LinguaLatina<> / Bkp<> (link chk 190624)

Edited by U Kyaw Tun (UKT) (M.S., I.P.S.T., USA), Daw Khin Wutyi, Daw Thuzar Myint, Daw Zinthiri Han and staff of Tun Institute of Learning (TIL). Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone. Prepared for students and staff of TIL  Research Station, Yangon, MYANMAR 
 - http://www.tuninst.net , www.romabama.blogspot.com 

MC-indx.htm | Top


Contents of this page

{za.na.} / {za.ni.} - cont


UKT notes :
Gita Govinda
  - 'Love songs of Krishna' by Jayadeva
Hydrophobia - tribute to chemist Louis Pasteur :
  UKT 170801 - this note has been moved from old p100.htm
Jamadagni - the father of Parashurama
  - UKT 141105: a case of extreme wife abuse in modern sense
Jarita - the female bird
Manasa - the goddess of snakes and poisons
{ya.pn.}-medials : the Hanging Nyale {~a.} in Skt-Dev transcribed into Skt-Myan,
  and the Hanging Nyagyi {~a.} in Mon-Myan

UKT 170802: Quest for Basic Nya'gyi {a.}/ {} :
Basic Nya'gyi, which can be under Virama, is present only in Bur-Myan & in Mon-Myan. In Pal-Myan it is not a basic akshara. It is a conjunct, and it breaks up under Virama: = ~. This why we pronounce the Pali-derived word, Pyinnar as /{pi~a}/ 'education'.

UKT 180607: In BEPS, we have to account for both Nyal {a.}, and Nya'gyi {a.}. I have now assign Nyale {a.} to r2c5 plosive-stop cell, and Nyagyi {a.} to approximant row, palatal-column cell after moving {ya.} to velar-column. Because of these movements, we can have hanging Nyale (as in Sanskrit), and hanging Nyagyi (as in Mon)


Contents of this page

{za.na.} / {za.ni.}  - cont


p099c1-b00/ p072-005

जनित्र [ gan--tra ]
- n. birth-place, origin: pl. parents; blood-relations.
5) जनित्र (p. 72) gan--tra birth-place, origin:


p099c1-b01/ p072-004

जनित्व [ gani-tva ]
- n. wifehood; -divasa, m. birth-day; -mat, a. wedded; having an origin; m. creature, man.
4) जनित्व (p. 72) gani-tva wifehood;


p099c1-b02/ p072-003

जनिमन् [ gn-i-man ]
- n. birth, origin; progeny; creature; race, kind.
3) जनिमन् (p. 72) gn-i-man birth, origin;


p099c1-b03/ p072-002

जनिष्य [ gan-ishya ]
- a. yet to be born, future.
2) जनिष्य (p. 72) gan-ishya yet to be born, future.


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p099c1-b04/ p072-001

जनुस् [ gan-s ]
- m. n. birth, origin; creation; kind: in. by nature.
1) जनुस् (p. 72) gan-s birth, origin;


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p099c1-b05/ p072-016

जनेन्द्र [ gana‿indra ]
- m. chief of men, king; [ -‿sa, -‿svara, m. id.
16) जनेन्द्र (p. 72) gana̮indra chief of men, king;


p099c1-b06/ p072-015

जन्तु [ gan-t ]
- m. offspring; creature, being; man (sg. also coll.); person; attendant; vermin: --, worm of a = tiny; sarvo gantuh, every one.
15) जन्तु (p. 72) gan-t offspring; creature, being;


p099c1-b07/ p072-014

जन्मकाल [ ganma-kla ]
= ज न ् म क ा ल  {zn~ma.ka-la.}
- m. hour of birth; -krit, m. father; -krita, pp. produced by birth; -kshetra, n. birth-place; -ganman, n. every birth: lc. in every life; -ganma‿antara, n. every future life; -gyeshtha, a. eldest by birth; -tas, ad. by birth; by age; -tithi, m. birth-day; -da, m. father; a. causing the birth of (--); -dina, n. birth-day.
14) जन्मकाल (p. 72) ganma-kla hour of birth; -krit, m. father;


p099c1-b08/ p072-013

जन्मन् [ gn-man ]
- n. birth, origin, production; appearance; life, existence; birth-place; father; creature, being; race, kind; nature; way, manner; m. offspring of (--).
13) जन्मन् (p. 72) gn-man birth, origin, production;


p099c1-b09/ p072-012

जन्मपादप [ ganma-pdapa ]
- m. tree of one's home; -pratishth, f. mother; -bandha, m. bonds of (repeated) birth; -bh, -bhmi, f. land of birth; -bhm-bh, become the land of --'s birth (-- ).
12) जन्मपादप (p. 72) ganma-pdapa tree of one's home; -pratishth, f. mother;


p099c1-b10/ p072-011

जन्मर्क्ष [ ganma‿riksha ]
- n. natal constellation; -vat, a. born, living: -t, f. existence, life; -vasudh, f. land of birth; -sthna, n. birth place.
11) जन्मर्क्ष (p. 72) ganma̮riksha natal constellation; -vat, a. born, living: -t, f. existence, life; -vasudh, f. land of birth; -sthna, n. birthplace.


p099c1-b11/ p072-010

जन्मान्तर [ ganma‿antara ]
- n. another birth, previous or future existence: -gata, pp. born again; -‿antarya, a. belonging to or performed in a previous existence; -‿andha, a. blind by birth; -‿spada, n. birth-place.
10) जन्मान्तर (p. 72) ganma̮antara another birth, previous or future existence:


p099c1-b12/ p072-009

जन्मिन् [ ganm-in ]
- m. creature, man.
9) जन्मिन् (p. 72) ganm-in creature, man.


p099c1-b13/ p072-008

जन्य [ 1. gan-ya ]
- fp. that is born or produced; arising from (--); n. body.
8) जन्य (p. 72) 1. gan-ya that is born or produced;


p099c1-b14/ p072-007

जन्य [ 2. gn-ya ]
- a. belonging to the race, cognate; m. (countryman), groomsman; common man; , f. bridesmaid; n. people, tribe (also -y); battle.
7) जन्य (p. 72) 2. gn-ya belonging to the race, cognate;



-- gen. sg. of gni


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p099c1-b16/ not online

जप् [ gap ]
- i. gpa-ti , gpa-te  (rarer), repeat in an undertone, mutter ...


p099c1-b17/ p072-006

जप [ gp-a ]
- a. whispering; m. muttering (prayers etc.); murmured prayer.
6) जप (p. 72) gp-a whispering;


p099c1-b18/ p072-034

जपन [ gap-ana ]
- n. muttering of prayers; -anya, fp. to be muttered.
34) जपन (p. 72) gap-ana muttering of prayers; -anya, fp. to be muttered.


p099c1-b19/ p072-033

जपमाला [ gapa-ml ]
- f. rosary; -yaga, m. sacrifice of muttered prayer; -homa, m. sg. & pl. offering of muttered prayer: du. muttered prayer and an offering.
33) जपमाला (p. 72) gapa-ml rosary;


p099c1-b20/ p072-032

जपा [ gap- ]
- f. China rose.
32) जपा (p. 72) gap- China rose.


p099c1-b21/ p072-031

जपिन् [ gap-in ]
- a. muttering prayers.
31) जपिन् (p. 72) gap-in muttering prayers.


p099c1-b22/ p072-030 

जप्य [ gp-ya ]
- fp. to be muttered; n. prayer to be muttered.
30) जप्य (p. 72) gp-ya to be muttered;



चप्यक [gapya-ka]
-- m. N.


Contents of this page




जभ् [ gabh ], [ gambh ]
-- snap at, seize with the mouth (only aor.); cs. gambhya , crush, destroy; into, gagabhyte, open the jaws, snap.


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p099c2-b01/ p072-029

जमदग्नि [ gamad-agni ]
- m. N. of a Rishi: -vat, ad. like Gamadagni.
29) जमदग्नि (p. 72) gamad-agni Rishi: -vat, ad. like Gamadagni.

See my note on  Jamadagni - the father of Parashurama
- UKT 141105: a case of extreme wife abuse in the modern sense 


p099c2-b02/ p072-028

जम्बाल [ gambla ]
- n. (?) bog, mud.
28) जम्बाल (p. 72) gambla (?) bog, mud.


p099c2-b03/ p072-027

जम्बु [ gamb ]
- n. rose-apple; f. (also ) rose apple-tree.
27) जम्बु (p. 72) gamb rose-apple;


p099c2-b04/ p072-026

जम्बुक [ gambu-ka ]
- m. jackal; vile person.
26) जम्बुक (p. 72) gambu-ka jackal; vile person.


p099c2-b05/ p072-025  

जम्बुद्वीप [ gambu-dvpa ]
- m. Isle of the Jambu-tree, N. of the central terrestrial island (v. dvpa) comprising India, so called because overlooked by a gigantic Jambu-tree growing on the summit of mount Meru.
25) जम्बुद्वीप (p. 72) gambu-dvpa Isle of the Jambu-tree,

UKT 120222 : I remember seeing as a child a picture of five stone musicians with the five traditional musical instruments: {kr:}, {kro:}, {a.r}, {l}, {lak-hkoap}. They were supposed to have entertained King Alaungsithu of Pagan on his unsuccessful sea-voyage to mount Meru. See my note on
King Alaungsithu and five stone musicians


p099c2-b06/ not online

जम्बूक [ gamb-ka ]
- m. jackal.


p099c2-b07/ p072-023

जम्बूकुञ्ज [ gamb-kuga ]
- m. n. bower of rose apple; -khanda, m. n. = gambu-dvpa.
23) जम्बूकुञ्ज (p. 72) gamb-kuga bower of roseapple;


p099c2-b08/ p072-022

जम्भ [ gmbh-a ]
- m. tooth, fang; jaws; swallowing; -, m. crusher, devourer; N. of various demons (C.).
22) जम्भ (p. 72) gmbh-a tooth, fang;


p099c2-b09/ p072-021

जम्भक [ gmbh-aka ]
- a. crushing, devouring (-- ); m. N. of certain demons; -ana, a. () crushing; m. crusher; -ya, m. back-tooth, molar.
21) जम्भक (p. 72) gmbh-aka crushing, devouring (--);



[ gambhalik]
- f. kind of song


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p099c2-b11/ p072-020

जय [ gay-a ]
- a. conquering, gaining (--); m. (), victory, conquest (in battle, dispute, law suit, or play); N.: pl. ( gya), verses conducive to victory; , f. ep. of Durg; N. of an attendant of Durg.
20) जय (p. 72) gay-a conquering, gaining (--);

जय [ gay-a ]
Skt: -- a. conquering, gaining (--); m. (), victory, conquest (in battle, dispute, law suit, or play); N.: pl. (gya), verses conducive to victory; -- Mac099c2
BPal: {za.ya.}
- - UHS-PMD0408 
  UKT from UHS: m. success, medicinal plant named {ta.pa.hs:}


p099c2-b12/ p072-019

  जयक [ gaya-ka ]
- m. N.; -kugara, m. champion elephant that has conquered other elephants; -krit, a. conferring victory; -gupta, m. N.; -ghosha, m. shout of victory; -ghoshana, n., , f. id.; -kandra, m. N.
19) जयक (p. 72) gaya-ka champion elephant that has conquered other elephants;



[ gay-ati]
-- m. the root gi (3 sg. used as a noun)


p099c2-b14/ p072-018 

जयद [ gaya-da ]
- a. conferring victory; -datta, m. N.; -deva, m. N. of the author of the Gtagovinda.
18) जयद (p. 72) gaya-da conferring victory; -datta, m. N.; -deva, m. N. of the author of the Gtagovinda.

See my note on Gitagovinda
'Love songs of Krishna' by Jayadeva
UKT 170801: Just because you see the affix "deva", it refers to the axiomatic entity. "Jeyadeva" (c.1170 CE - c.1245) was a human poet and lyricist of the 12th century. See Wikipedia:
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jayadeva 170801
See Canto 6, p090-094, of his celebrated Gitagovinda by L. Siegel in Skt-Lat and English in TIL HD-PDF & SD-PDF
- LSiegel-JayadevaGitaGovinda<> / Bkp<> (link chk 170801)


p099c2-b15/ p072-017

जयद्रथ [ gayad-ratha ]
- m. N. (having a victorious car).
17) जयद्रथ (p. 72) gayad-ratha (having a victorious car).


p099c2-b16/ p072-049

जयध्वज [ gaya-dhvaga ]
- m. banner of victory.
49) जयध्वज (p. 72) gaya-dhvaga banner of victory.


p099c2-b17/ p072-048

जयध्वजाय [ gaya-dhvag-ya ]
- den. . represent a banner of victory.
48) जयध्वजाय (p. 72) gaya-dhvag-ya . represent a banner of victory.


p099c2-b18/ p072-047

जयन [ gay-ana ]
- a. () omnipotent.
47) जयन (p. 72) gay-ana () omnipotent. 


p099c2-b19/ p072-046

जयन्त [ gay-ant-a ]
- a. () victorious; m. N. of a son of Indra; N. of a king; , f. N. of a country.
46) जयन्त (p. 72) gay-ant-a () victorious; m. N. of a son of Indra; N. of a king; , f. N. of a country.


p099c2-b20/ p072-045

जयपताका [ gaya-patk ]
- f. flag of victory; -pargaya, m. du. or n. sg. victory or defeat; loss or gain; -pura, n. N. of various cities; -maṅgala, m. N. of an elephant; n. a cheer; -mat, f. N.; -malla, m. victorious combatant of (--); -rga, m. N.; -lakshm, f. goddess of victory; -lekha, m. record of a victory; -varman, m. N.; -saṅkha, m. conch of victory; -sabda, m. shout of victory, cheer; -sr, f. goddess of victory; -simha, m. N.; -sena, m., , f. N.; -skandha, m. N. of a minister of Yudhishthira; -stambha, m. column of victory; -sthala, n. N. of a village; -svmin, m. lord of victory (Siva): (i)-virokana, N. of a temple.
45) जयपताका (p. 72) gaya-patk flag of victory;  


p099c2-b21/ p072-044

जयाकर [ gaya‿kara ]
- m. source of victory; N.; -‿agaya, m. du. & n. sg. victory or defeat; -‿ditya, m. N.
44) जयाकर (p. 72) gaya̮kara source of victory;



-- f. N.



[ gaya‿nanda]
-- m. N.; -v-ra , m. N.; -‿pida , m. N. of a king


Contents of this page



जयाभट््टारिका [ gay-bhattrik ]
- f. N. of a locality; -simha, m. N.


p099c3-b01/ p072-042

जयावघोष [ gaya‿avaghosha ]
- m. shout of victory, cheer; -‿sis, f. invocation of victory, cheer.
42) जयावघोष (p. 72) gaya̮avaghosha shout of victory, cheer;



[gay-i-tri ]
-- a. ( tri ) victorious; -in , a. conquering (g or - )...


p099c3-b03/ p072-041

  जयेन्द्र [ gaya‿indra ]
- m. N.: -sen, f. N.; -‿s-vara, m. lord of victory (Siva); N. of a temple.
41) जयेन्द्र (p. 72) gaya̮indra lord of victory (Siva); N. of a temple.


p099c3-b04/ p072-040

जयोत्तर [ gaya‿uttara ]
- a. full of or sure of victory.
40) जयोत्तर (p. 72) gaya̮uttara full of or sure of victory.


p099c3-b05/ p072-039

जय्य [ gy-ya ]
= ज य ् य  {za.yya.}
Skt: -- fp. to be conquered or won. - Mac099c3
39) जय्य (p. 72) gy-ya to be conquered or won.
BPal: {z-yya.}
- - UHS-PMD0419
UKT from UHS: -- mfn. to be conquered or won. mfn. exceptionally large.

See my note on {ya.ping.} medials
with reference to Bur-Myan name {z-yya.} , and now the Hanging Nyale {~a.} in Skt-Dev transcribed into Skt-Myan, and the Hanging Nyagyi {~a.} in Mon-Myan


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p099c3-b06/ p072-052

जर [ gr-a ]
- m. wearing out; -atha, a. old, aged; violent; intense; -athita, pp. become violent or intense; -ana, a. decrepit, old: -, f. old age.
52) जर (p. 72) gr-a wearing out;


p099c3-b07/ p072-078

जरत् [ gar-at ]
- pr. pt. (-) of √gr, old, frail, decayed, tumble-down; m. old man.
78) जरत् (p. 72) gar-at (-) of √gr, old, frail, decayed, tumble-down;


p099c3-b08/ p072-278

जरतिका [ garat-ik ]
- f. old woman.
278) जरतिका (p. 72) garat-ik old woman.


p099c3-b09/ p072-038

जरत्कारु [ garat-kru ]
- m. N. of a Rishi; f. N. of his wife: -priy, f. id.
38) जरत्कारु (p. 72) garat-kru Rishi; f. N. of his wife: -priy, f. id. 

JARATKARU. An ancient sage who married a sister of the great serpent Vasuki, and was father of the sage Astika. : [Source: Dowson's Classical Dictionary of Hindu Mythology]  -- http://www.mythfolklore.net/india/encyclopedia/jaratkaru.htm 120223
UKT: To read more about जरत्कारु  Jaratkaru read my note on his wife, Manasa ,
the Goddess of Snakes and Poisons --  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manasa 120223


p099c3-b10/ p072-037 

जरदष्टि [ gard-ashti ]
- a. long-lived.
37) जरदष्टि (p. 72) gard-ashti long-lived.


p099c3-b11/ p072-036

जरद्गव [ garad-gava ]
- m. old bull; N. of a vulture.
36) जरद्गव (p. 72) garad-gava old bull; N. of a vulture.

UKT 120222: Jaradgava - the vulture is a character in हितोपदेशः hitopadeśa a collection of Sanskrit fables written in 12 century AD. The collection is on statecraft in a format easily digestible for young princes. [Need to check more.] -- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hitopadesha 170801
See  Hitopadesha translated by Edwin Arnold, 1861, indx, in TIL-nonPDF libraries:
- EArnold-Hitopadesha<> / Bkp<> (link chk 170802



जरस् [ gar-s ]
- f. aging, old age, decrepitude; -as-a, --, a. id.


p099c3-b13/ p072-062

जरा [ gar- ]
- f. . wearing out; growing old, old age; . roaring; shout; greeting.
62) जरा (p. 72) gar-aN 1. wearing out; growing old, old age; 2. roaring; shout; greeting.


p099c3-b14/ p072-061

जरायु [ gar-yu ]
- n. cast-off skin of a snake, slough; n. (f.) caul of the foetus; after-birth: -g, a. born from a womb, born alive.
61) जरायु (p. 72) garaN-yu cast-off skin of a snake, slough; n. (f.) caul of the foetus; after-birth: -g, a. born from a womb, born alive. 

UKT 120224: A caul (Latin: Caput galeatum, literally, "helmeted head") is a thin, filmy membrane, the amnion, that can cover a newborn's head and face immediately after birth.
-- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Caul 120224



p099c3-b15/ p072-060

जरावत् [ gar-vat ]
- a. old, aged; -sandha, m. N. of a prince of Magadha and Kedi.
60) जरावत् (p. 72) gar-vat old, aged; -sandha, m. N. of a prince of Magadha and Kedi.


p099c3-b16/ p072-059

जरिता [ gar-i-t ]
- (cs. pp.) f. N. of a fabulous bird: a‿ari, m. N. of Garit's eldest son (whose foes are demolished).
59) जरिता (p. 72) gar-i-t a̮ari, m. N. of Garit's eldest son (whose foes are demolished).

See my note on Jarita - the female Saranga bird in a story in the Puranas,
and listen to Mingun Sayadaw reciting  the Vutta aka Quail Paritta {gnom:mn:pa.rait}.
- Paritta06-Vatta<)) 



[ gar-i-tr]
-- m. invoker, singer, worshiper


p099c3-b18/ p072-058

जरिमन् [ gar-i-mn ]
- m. old age, decrepitude, death from old age.
58) जरिमन् (p. 72) gar-i-mn old age, decrepitude, death from old age.


p099c3-b19/ p072-057

जर्जर [ gar-gar-a ]
- a. decayed; decrepit, frail; ragged; riven; split, broken; dull (sound); torn asunder, disunited; m. split bamboo: -tva, n. decay.
57) जर्जर (p. 72) gar-gar-a decayed; decrepit, frail; ragged; riven; split, broken; dull (sound); torn asunder, disunited; m. split bamboo: -tva, n. decay.


p099c3-b20/ p072-056

जर्जरित [ gargar-ita ]
- pp. become worn out or decrepit; bruised, mangled, lacerated or pierced.
56) जर्जरित (p. 72) gargar-ita become worn out or decrepit; bruised, mangled, lacerated or pierced.



[gargar-kri ]
-- break, split; mangle; exhaust; -bh , become ragged; be split, broken or mangled


p099c3-b22/ p072-055

जर्भुर् [ gar-bhur ]
- intv. of √bhur.
55) जर्भुर् (p. 72) gar-bhur √bhur.


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p099c3-b23/ p072-054

जल [ 1. gal- ]
- n. (sts. pl.) water.
54) जल (p. 72) 1. gal- water.


p099c3-b24 / not online

जल jala [ 2. gala ]
-- a. ( = gada) stupid, foolish


p099c3-b25/ p072-053

जलकपि [ gala-kapi ]
- m. (river) dolphin; -kumbha, m. water-pot; -kumbhik, f. jar of water; -keli, m. f. sporting in the water; -kriy, f. libation of water to the dead; -krd, f. sporting in the water; -khaga, m. aquatic bird; -gandha‿ibha, m. fabulous animal; -kara, m. aquatic animal; fish; -krin, a. living in the water; m. aquatic animal; fish; -ga, a. water-born, existing or growing in water; m. aquatic animal, fish; shell; n. day-lotus; product of the sea, pearl: -kusuma, n. lotus blossom, -‿sana, m. ep. of Brahman (seated on a lotus)*; -gant, m. aquatic animal; -gvin, a. living in or on water; m. fisherman; -tumbik-nyya, m. in. like water and the gourd; -trsa, m. hydrophobia; -trsin, a. suffering from hydrophobia.
53) जलकपि (p. 72) gala-kapi (river) dolphin; -kumbha, m. water-pot; -kumbhik, f. jar of water; -keli, m. f. sporting in the water; -kriy, f. libation of water to the dead; -krd, f. sporting in the water; -khaga, m. aquatic bird; -gandha̮ibha, m. fabulous animal; -kara, m. aquatic animal; fish; -krin, a. living in the water; m. aquatic animal; fish; -ga, a. water-born, existing or growing in water; m. aquatic animal, fish; shell; n. day-lotus; product of the sea, pearl: -kusuma, n. lotus blossom, -̮sana, m. ep. of Brahman (seated on a lotus); -gant, m. aquatic animal; -gv- in, a. living in or on water; m. fisherman; -tumbik-nyya, m. in. like water and the gourd; -trsa, m. hydrophobia; -trsin, a. suffering from hydrophobia.

UKT 170802: *Brahman (seated on a lotus) - means Mahabrahma 'Creator' - one of the Hindu Trimurti
See my note on the great French chemist, Louis Pasteur (1822-1895) and his discovery of the cause, and cure of the disease Rabies or Hydrophobia


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UKT notes

Gita Govinda

-- UKT 141105

Gita Govinda is the 'Love songs of Krishna' by Jayadeva. However, we must note that the word 'gowinda' simply means a "cow-herder". Since Krishna is a deified human being, with due respect to my Hindu friends, I cannot calling it "Cowboy music of the Ancients". Since Krishna was a human being it may even be possible that the stories are of not one single individual but many.

From Wikipeda: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gita_Govinda 120222

The Gita Govinda (Skt: गीत गोविन्द) (Song of Govinda) is a work composed by the 12th-century poet, Jayadeva, who was born in Kenduli Sasan near Puri in Orissa. [UKT ]

UKT 141105: Connect the place Puri in Orissa with the Chariot Festival of Puri - the origin of the English word Juggernaut". See my notes in p098.htm (link chk 170801)

It describes the relationship between Krishna and the gopis (female cow herders) of Vrindavana, and in particular one gopi named Radha. This work has been of great importance in the development of the bhakti traditions of Hinduism.

The Gita Govinda is organized into twelve chapters. Each chapter is further sub-divided into twenty four divisions called Prabandhas. The prabandhas contain couplets grouped into eights, called Ashtapadis. It is mentioned that Radha is greater than Krishna. The text also elaborates the eight moods of Heroine, the Ashta Nayika in its verses, which over the years has been an inspiration for many a compositions and choreographic works in Indian classical dances. [1]

The first English translation of the Gita Govinda was published by Sir William Jones in 1792, where Kalinga (ancient Orissa) is referred to as the origin of the text. Since then, the Gita Govinda has been translated to many languages throughout the world, and is considered to be among the finest examples of Sanskrit poetry.

Barbara Stoler Miller's translated the book in 1977 as Love Song of the Dark Lord: Jayadeva's Gita Govinda (ISBN 0-231-11097-9). The book contains a foreword by John Stratton Hawley and includes extensive commentary on the verse and topic of the poem.

UKT: End of Wikipedia article

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Hydrophobia - Louis Pasteur

UKT 141106: The disease hydrophobia is commonly known as rabies in English, "rage" in French, or 'mad-dog disease'. However, it can infect almost all warm blooded mammals. In Myanmarpr, stray dogs, stray cats and bats are the common carriers, while in Canada and US, the lovable raccoons and deer which inhabit areas near human habitations are the common carriers. Intermittent supply electricity in Myanmarpr, and the loss of refrigeration - in storage and transportation - has been one of the causes of the serum becoming a source of infection.

A person or an animal suffering from it has an intense fear of water - hence the name "hydrophobia". In the final stages, frothing of saliva at the mouth is a common sign. The disease is almost 100% curable by giving serum antigen - which must be kept refrigerated - within hours of a dog bite.

The French chemist Louis Pasture (1822-1895) was the discover of cause of the disease. In many countries, including Burma, there are laboratories known as Pasture Institutes carrying on the work of the French chemist. The name of Pasture had been dropped in Myanmarpr - by a political decision supported by medical doctors - much to the sorrow of many chemists of my generation. In Burma, Pasture Institute was also the office of Chemical Examiner.

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Jamadagni - the father of Parashurama

-- UKT 141105

It has been for some time that I started transcribing Skt-Dev into Pal-Myan, and I find that for most words it is easy to give the orthography in Pali which does not allow explicit viram, but only conjuncts. However in some cases it is not, unless I put in the viram. Only then, could I rewrite in conjunct form without a viram. The name Jamadagni जमदग्नि is such a case. The procedure I follow:

जमदग्नि =  ज म द ग ् न ि
  --> {za.ma.dag~ni.} in Skt-Dev style with a viram
  --> {za.ma.dag~ni.} in Pal-Myan style without a viram

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jamadagni 120222

Whether this Rishi is a Great Sage or not is for me not to decide. But I find the story to be a case of extreme wife abuse in the modern sense. What right has the husband to decide whether his wife is to die or not? As a Bur-Myan Buddhist it is not easy for me to stomach such abuse. My culture would not allow such treatment on a woman. In our culture we hold the woman as equal to the man - even a lay woman can attain Nirvana without having to become a man first. I admit that to be a Buddha - a teacher - a woman has to become a man first. It is not sexual discrimination but for practical reasons. A woman even after she had become an Arahat is easily raped. Since it would be very improper to see her as a Buddha being raped, it is necessary for her to become a man first.

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jamadagni 120222

Jamadagni (or Jamdagni, Skt: जमदग्नि is one of the Saptarishis (Seven Great Sages Rishi) in the seventh, i.e. the present Manvantara. [1] He was a descendant of the sage Bhrigu, one of the Prajapatis created by Brahma, the God of Creation. Jamadagni has five children with wife Renuka, the youngest of whom was Parashurama, an avatar of Lord Vishnu.

Weapons of Dva-gods

-- UKT 120222, 141105

I hold that Mahabrama, Vishnu and Shiva are axioms whose existences are not to be disputed. They form the basis of various forms of Hinduism, two main forms being Vishnavism (worship of Vishnu), and Shaivism (worship of Shiva as the Creator). In Vishnavism Mahabrahma is the Creator, Vishnu the Dva-god who maintains Law & Order, and Shiva is the Dva-god of Destruction.

Based on Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Parashurama 120222

In the Ramayana, Parashurama the Sixth avatar of Dva-god Vishnu, came to the betrothal ceremony of Rama [a Kshatriya - therefore a Tib-Bur], the seventh avatar, to the princess Sita. During or just before the meeting Shiva's Bow was broken by Rama. However we must note that the weapon of choice of Shiva is the trident not the bow. So we must take the bow which was broken by Rama to be a celestial bow or Indra's bow, the bow being the weapon of choice of the peoples of large plains of central Asia -- the Indo-Europeans, and Indra is their celestial king.

The incident of breaking the celestial bow made Parashurama recognized who Rama truly was. If this incident were to be taken as a piece of history, we can estimate when the Indo-Europeans came into northern part of India. Soon there would be a great war between the northern-Indians and southern Indians in the form of the war between Rama and Ravana of Lanka.

UKT: more in the Wikipedia article

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Jarita - the Saranga bird 

-- UKT 140405, 170801:

The story of the great conflagration of the Great Forest in ancient India is told in the Vutta aka Quail Paritta {gnon:mn:pa.rait}. See also Paritta as Esoteric Buddhism and Paritta chants in Folk Elements in Buddhism -
- flk-ele-indx.htm > ch01-1.htm & ch01-2.htm

Listen to Pal-Myan recitation by Mingun Sayadaw Paritta06-Vatta<)) 
In plain text without diacritics, it reads:

From: http://www.bbt.org.sg/articles/paritta_entr.html#vatta 141105

Purentam bodhi sambhare,
nibbattam vatta jatiyam;
yassa tejena davaggi,
mahasattam vivajjayi.

Therassa sariputtassa,
loka nathena bhasitam;
kappatthayim mahatejam,
parittam tam bhanama he.

The story I have read - which I cannot get at this moment - is about a mother bird who tried to put out the fire around her nest with water she carried in her beak. In the nest were her little children who still could not fly. She was flying back and forth between the stream and her nest carrying water. The story is about perseverance, and the Dva-king Indra in recognition of her efforts saved her children.

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jarita 120224

Jarita (Skt: जरित) was a certain female bird of the species called Sarngika, whose story is told in the Mahabharata. The saint Mandapala, who returned from the shades because he had no son, assumed the form of a male bird, and by her had four sons. He then abandoned her. In the conflagration of the Khandava Forest she showed great devotion in the protection of her children, and they were eventually saved through the influence of Mandapala over the god of fire. Their names were Jaritari, Sarisrikta, Stambamitra, and Drona. They were "interpreters of the Vedas;" and there are hymns of the Rigveda bearing the names of the second and the third.

UKT: More in the Wikipedia article. The following is from:

http://www.mahabharataonline.com/rajaji/mahabharata_summary_20.php 120224

19. The Saranga Birds

In the stories narrated in the Puranas, birds and beasts speak like men, and sometimes they give sound advice and even teach spiritual wisdom. But the natural qualities of those creatures are adroitly made to peep through this human veil.

One of the characteristic beauties of the Puranic literature is this happy fusion of nature and imagination. In a delightful passage in the Ramayana, Hanuman, who is described as very wise and learned, is made to frolic with apish joy, when he imagined that the beautiful damsel he saw at Ravana's inner courtyard was Sita.

It is usual to entertain children with stories in which birds and beasts are made to speak. But the stories of the Puranas are meant for elderly people, and in them usually some background is given in explanation of animals having the gift of human speech.

The usual expedient employed is a previous birth when those creatures were human beings. For instance, a deer was a rishi in a previous birth, or a fox a king. The subsequent degradation being due to a curse.

In such cases the deer will act as a deer and yet speak as a rishi, and in the fox the clever nature is shot through with the characteristics of a wise and experienced king. The stories are thereby made interesting vehicles of the great truths they sometimes convey.

Khandavaprastha, that forest full of uneven places and thorns and prickles and cumbered with the crumbling vestiges of a long dead city, was indeed a frightful place when it came into the possession of the Pandavas.

Birds and beasts had made it their abode, and it was infested with thieves and wicked men. Krishna and Arjuna resolved to set fire to the forest and construct a new city in its place.

A saranga bird was living there with its four fledgelings. The male bird was pleasantly roaming about in the forest with another female bird neglecting wife and children. The mother bird looked after its young ones.

As the forest was set on fire as commanded by Krishna and Arjuna and the fire spread in all directions, doing its destructive work, the worried mother bird began to lament:

'The fire is coming nearer and nearer burning everything, and soon it will be here and destroy us. All forest creatures are in despair and the air is full of the agonising crash of falling trees. Poor wingless babies! You will become a prey to the fire. What shall I do? Your father has deserted us, and I am not strong enough to fly away carrying you with me."

To the mother who was wailing thus, the children said:

"Mother, do not torment yourself on our account. Leave us to our fate. If we die here, we shall attain a good birth in some future life. If you give up your life for our sake, our family will become extinct. Fly to a place of safety, take another mate and be happy. You will soon have other children and be able to forget us. Mother, reflect and do what is best for our race."

Despite this earnest entreaty, the mother had no mind to leave her children. She said: "I shall remain here and perish in the flames with you."

This is the background of the story of the birds. A rishi named Mandapala long lived faithful to his vow of perfect brahmacharya but when he sought entry to the higher regions, the gatekeeper said: "There is no place here for a childless man" and turned him back. He was then born as a saranga bird and lived with a female companion named Jarita. She laid four eggs. Then he left Jarita and wandered in the woods with another female companion, Lapita.

The four eggs of Jarita hatched in time and they were the four birds mentioned above. As they were the children of a rishi they could cheer and encourage their mother in the way they did.

The mother bird told her children: "There is a rat-hole by the side of this tree. I shall put you there. You can get into the hole and escape the fire. I shall close the mouth of the hole with earth and the fire will not touch you. When the fire dies down I shall let you out."

The children would not agree. They said: "The rat in the hole will devour us. It is better to perish in the flames than to die ignobly by being eaten up by rats."

The mother bird tried to relieve the fears of the children and said: "I saw an eagle devour the rat. There is now no danger for you inside the hole."

But the children said: "There are sure to be other rats in the hole. Our danger is not ended by the killing of one rat by the eagle. Kindly save your life by flying before the fire reaches us and this tree catches fire. We cannot get into the rat-hole. Why should you sacrifice your life for our sake? How have we merited it, who have done nothing for you? We have only brought you unhappiness since we came into the world. Take another mate and live happily."

The fire which destroyed the whole forest, mercifully left the baby birds unscathed. When the fire had subsided, the mother bird came back and saw with wonder that her children were safe and chirping merrily. She embraced them and was intensely happy.

While the fire was raging, the male bird, anxious for the safety of his young ones, had expressed his fears to his new love-bird Lapita. She had petulantly upbraided him. Hearing his repeated laments "Is it so?" she said: "I know your mind, I know that you desire to go back to Jarita, having had enough of me. Why falsely bring in the fire and the children? You have yourself told me that the children of Jarita would never perish in fire since the Fire god has given you that boon. You may as well tell the truth and go away, if you like, to your beloved Jarita. I shall only be another of the many trusting females betrayed by unworthy males and cast out wandering in the forest. You may go."

The bird Mandapala said: "Your assumption is untrue. I took birth as a bird for obtaining children and I am naturally anxious about them.

I shall just go and see them and then come back to you " Having thus consoled his new mate, be went to the tree where Jarita was seated.

Jarita paid no attention to her consort but remained absorbed in joy at finding her children alive.

Then she turned to her husband and asked in an indifferent tone why he had come. He replied with affection:

"Are my children happy? Who is the eldest among them?"

Then Jarita cut in icily: "Do you greatly care? Go back to her for whom you abandoned me. Be happy with her."

Mandapala philosophised: "A woman will not care for her husband after she has become a mother. Such is the way of the world. Even the blameless Vasishtha was thus ignored by Arundhati."

UKT: End of the article.

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King Alaungsithu and five stone musicians

Surfing the Net brings up a potential sources:

#1. "Five stone musicians in the ocean to entertain King Alaung Sithu - legend" - Brought up a PDF paper titled: The New Light of Myanmar - Floating Sensor Network - University of ... float.berkeley.edu/sites/default/files/Burma%20News%20NLM2012-05-17.pdf  . I downloaded the newspaper but did not find the info I was looking for.

#2. "King Alaung Sithu and five stone musicians in the ocean" brought up:
- https://nyiwin.wordpress.com/2010/page/3/ 170801
It mentions: "Anawratha reached the following during his travels: Bengalaar and had rock statues of musicians [made] playing Si / drum, Saung / harp, Nyinn, LinnKwinn / , See, Sote, SiPote, MuYoe, TaPoe, many Khayar / trumpets, Hne / flute, PaLway / flute and dancers made (which came to life and played when king Alaung Sithu  reached there."

King Alaungsithu reached the Rose-apple tree, and heard a fruit fall into the sea at which moment a gigantic fish described as {nga:kri: a.nn~da} rose up and swallowed the fruit. The sequence of sounds, music to the king, was duplicated by the royal musicians and was named {byau: n}.

During this voyage he also reached the country of {ma-la-yu.}. Facts to be checked.


From: https://myanmars.net/history/19170-the-legends-of-boats 180611

The legend of Hlaw Ka Taw Gyi Boat is associated with King Alaungsithu of Bagan Dynasty. The king was a great traveler who used his royal barge for his water journey. The royal barge had the supernatural power of transforming into water anywhere the King pointed at. When the barge halted at one island in the ocean, a big nest built of elephant tusks was found on it. The nest belonged to a monster reptile which killed elephants to eat their brains and used their tusks for its nest. As the creature was away hunting elephants the King's men broke up its nest and took the tusks on board. When the creature returned and seeing no more of its nest, it swam across the ocean to chase the royal barge. Being exhausted and unable to catch up, it showed its head, tail and four legs spread out to impress and frighten the King. Then it turned back. In memory of this encounter, the King ordered his men to make a boat in the shape of the monster reptile. That boat came to be called 'Hlaw Ka Taw Gyi" (The big royal boat with oars spread out like the legs of the great reptile).

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Manasa - the goddess of snakes and poisons

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manasa 120223

Manasā (Skt: मनसा , Bengali: মনসা, Manasha) is a Hindu folk goddess of snakes, worshipped mainly in Bengal and other parts of northeastern India, chiefly for the prevention and cure of snakebite and also for fertility and prosperity. Manasa is the sister of Vasuki, king of Nāgas (snakes) and wife of sage Jagatkāru (Jaratkāru).[1] She is also known as Vishahara (the destroyer of poison), Jagadgaurī, Nityā (eternal) and Padmavati.[2]

Her myths emphasize her bad temper and unhappiness, due to rejection by her father Shiva and her husband, and the hatred of her stepmother, Chandi (Shiva's wife, identified with Parvati in this context). In some scriptures, sage Kashyapa is considered to be her father, rather than Shiva. Manasa is depicted as kind to her devotees, but harsh to people who refused to worship her.[3] Denied full godhead by her mixed parentage, Manasas aim was to fully establish her authority as a goddess and to acquire steadfast human devotees.[4]


Originally an Adivasi (tribal) goddess, Manasa was accepted in the pantheon worshipped by Hindu lower caste groups. Later, she was included in a higher caste Hindu pantheon, where she is now regarded as a Hindu goddess rather than a tribal one.[3] As a Hindu goddess, she was recognized as a daughter of sage Kashyapa and Kadru, the mother of all Nāgas. By the 14th century, Manasa was identified as the goddess of fertility and marriage rites and was assimilated into the Shaiva pantheon as a relative of Shiva. Myths glorified her by describing that she saved Shiva after he drank poison, and venerated her as the "remover of poison". Her popularity grew and spread to southern India, and her cult began to r ival Shaivism itself. As a consequence, stories attributing Manasa's birth to Shiva emerged and ultimately Shaivism adopted this indigenous goddess into the Brahmanical tradition of mainstream Hinduism.[5]

UKT: More in the Wikipedia article.

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{ya.ping.} medials
with reference to Skt-Dev जय्य jayya

and now Hanging Nyale in Skt-Dev and Hanging Nyagyi in Mon-Myan

-- UKT 120223 , 141105:

Please note that Skt-Dev phonology is quite different from Bur-Myan. As for Pal-Myan, because it is derived directly from Magadhi, since the time of King Abiraza - long before Gautama Buddha appeared, the phonology is presumed to be the same as Bur-Myan. Both are of Tib-Myan linguistic group.

As for International Pali derived from Pali spoken in Sri Lanka, its phonology would be different form that of Pal-Myan. Pali spoken in Lanka was "invented" only after the Asokan missionaries had arrived bringing in Buddhism. Pal-Lanka is a mixture of Magadhi of the north, and Lanka - a Dravidian language of the south. Pal-Lanka is also under heavy influence of Sanskrit. Because of these facts, I hold that how the Gautama Buddha spoke would be closer to Pal-Myan, and NOT to International Pali.

After transcribing Skt-Dev into Skt-Myan, you are at liberty to pronounce as you like. But if you were a student of Skt-Dev, it is advised that you follow the Skt-Dev phonology. Romabama, is just a linking script to show the relationships of aksharas of different languages.

The Bur-Myan name {z-yya.} जे य्य is quite common in Myanmar. It was the name of the founder of the last dynasty of Burmese kings who is commonly known as Alaungpaya. His name was U Aung Zeya {U:aung-z-yya.}. The first part of the name {an} 'success' is derived from Pal-Myan {ON } or Skt-Dev ॐ Om . The medial {yya.} य्य is readily pronounceable in Bur-Myan.

The modern Bur-Myan has four medial formers, {ya.} य , {ra.} र, {wa.} व, {ha.} ह . Bur-Myan of the Pagan period had {la.} ल as a medial former and it is still retained in the Tavoyan dialect. In Mon-Myan, we have what are properly termed vertical conjuncts. Refer to
Speaking Mon-Myan Language  -- MV1874-indx.htm (link chk 141105) 
and proceed to Basic Method of Teaching Mon Speech and Script ,
by Naing Maung Toe - Mon-Bur-NMT.pdf (link chk 141105).
We see what are called the Hanging consonants (I am giving the glyphs only) such as Nyagyi-hsw , La-hsw , and Wa-hsw . Though Mon-Myan uses alternate glyphs, the idea is to show that a consonant is found hanging under the first consonant. Articulating these carefully shows that they produce disyllables. The result is a means to differentiate between a medial as a monosyllable, and a conjunct as a disyllable.

The medial {yya.} य्य is derived from the approximant {ya.} य . The POA of {ya.} य was thought to be palatal. However, from pronunciations of syllables ending in killed consonants, I have found that Nyagyi {a.} is the palatal approximant, which means that {ya.} is the velar approximant. The reader must note that I can no longer include IPA and IAST transcriptions because they lack Nyagyi {a.} as a basic consonant. 

My interest at this point is the medials formed from:

{ka.} क --> {kya.} क्य 

Remember the POA of {ka.} क is velar.  {ya.} य is now considered to be velar, and they can be articulated together producing a monosyllable.

In the case of {tya.} त्य , the articulation is from the dental to the velar

{ta.} त  --> {tya.} त्य  
- not realized as a monosyllable but only as a disyllable

The POA of {ta.} त is dental which is far from velar. The tongue has difficulty in going from dental to velar, and the syllable is not properly pronounced, and is pronounced as a disyllable with a schwa inserted. In fact Bur-Myan pronounced {tya.} त्य as a disyllable with a schwa inserted: /tə.ja/ . Note: IPA /ja./ and IAST ja are different.

However, the case of {pya.} प्य does not depend on the tongue doing rapid changes. {pa.} pronunciation involves only the lips, and the tongue tip can stay put against the lower front teeth. The velar {ya.} is articulated by the rear of the tongue:

{pa.} प --> {pya.} प्य  
- produced as a monosyllable 

I have been observing that when the POAs are near to each other or the same, the medial is easily pronounced as in the case of {kya.} क्. This medial is never pronounced properly by English-speakers because English is not a phonetic language. It is easily pronounced by speakers of Indic languages when I point out the correspondence in their respective graphemes to Myanmar.

When I look at the two languages, Pali written in Myanmar script and Sanskrit written in Devanagari script, not only are the pronunciations very similar, but the underlying meanings are the same.

जय्य jayya [ gy-ya ]
= ज य ् य  {za.yya.}
Skt: -- fp. to be conquered or won. - Macdonell 099c3
Pal: {z-yya.}
- - UHS-Pali-Myanmar-Dictionary 0419

UKT from UHS: -- mfn. to be conquered or won. mfn. exceptionally large.

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