Update: 2019-06-24 11:26 PM -0400


Practical Sanskrit Dictionary for Buddhists and Hindus


A Practical Sanskrikt Dictionary, by A. A. Macdonell, 1893,
http://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/scans/MDScan/index.php?sfx=jpg; 1929.
- Nataraj ed., 1st in 2006, 2012.
- https://dsal.uchicago.edu/dictionaries/macdonell/ 190516
The Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Grammar and Dictionary, BHS, vol.2, by F. Edgerton, pp. 627.
- FEdgerton-BHSD<> / Bkp<> (link chk 180627)
The Student's Pali English dictionary , by U Pe Maung Tin, 1920.
- (ref: UPMT-PEDxxx).  Downloaded copies in TIL HD-PDF and SD-PDF libraries:
- UPMT-PaliDict1920<> / bkp<> (link chk 190113)
  Pali-Myanmar Dictionary (in Pal-Myan), by U Hoke Sein,
- (ref: UHS-PMD). The dictionary in printed form is in TIL Research Library.
Latin-English Vocabulary II, by Hans H rberg, 1998
- HHOrberg-LinguaLatina<> / Bkp<> (link chk 190624)

Edited by U Kyaw Tun (UKT) (M.S., I.P.S.T., USA), Daw Khin Wutyi, Daw Thuzar Myint, Daw Zinthiri Han and staff of Tun Institute of Learning (TIL). Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone. Prepared for students and staff of TIL  Research Station, Yangon, MYANMAR 
 - http://www.tuninst.net , www.romabama.blogspot.com 

MC-indx.htm | Top


Contents of this page

{si.na.} - cont
{su-a.} : the first member of this row is not realized

{sRRi.} चृ : from highly rhotic Skt-Dev vowel


57) चर्षणी (p. 68) karshan unfaithful wife: -dhrt, a. protecting men; -dhrti, f. protection of men; -sh, a. ruling men.
76) चाx{093c}ट (p. 68) kta cheat, rogue.
178) चिकित् (p. 68) ki-kt knowing; shining.


UKT notes :
Jungle leech
Tirtha and Kshetra
Tonsure - head shave :
 The head-dress of Tibetan Lamas shows that they
  are not Rahan. They are Rath.


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{si.na.} - cont


p095c1-b01/ p068-110

चिन्तक [ kint-aka ]
= च ि न ् त क
- a. thinking of, caring for, superintending, familiar with (--); -ana, n. thinking of, reflecting on, care for (g., --); cares, troubles; -anya, fp. to be thought of or devised; -ayi-tavya, fp. to be thought of or remembered.
110) चिन्तक (p. 68) kint-aka thinking of, caring for, superintending, familiar with (--);


p095c1-b02/ p068-158

चिन्ता [ kint- ]
- f. thought, reflection, consideration; uneasiness, apprehension; solicitude regarding (lc. or --); anxiety about (g., lc., or upari); N.: -para, a. engrossed by (sad) reflections, thoughtful; -mani, m. magical thought-gem (fulfilling its possessor's every wish); philosopher's stone; T. of various works, esp. --; -moha, m. bewilderment of thought; -visha-ghna, a. destroying the poison of care.
158) चिन्ता (p. 68) kint- thought, reflection, consideration;


p095c1-b03/ p068-157

 चिन्तित [ kint-ita ]
- pp. √kint; n. thought; purpose; cares: -‿upanata, pp. appearing as soon as thought of; -‿upasthita, pp. id.
157) चिन्तित (p. 68) kint-ita thought; purpose; cares:


p095c1-b04/ p068-156

चिन्त्य [ kint-ya ]
- fp. to be thought of; still to be considered, doubtful, questionable.
156) चिन्त्य (p. 68) kint-ya to be thought of;


p095c1-b05/ p068-155

चिन्मय [ kin-maya ]
- a. intellectual; -mtra, a. pure intelligence.
155) चिन्मय (p. 68) kin-maya intellectual;


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p095c1-b06/ p068-154

चिपिट [ kipita ]
- a. blunt, flattened, flat: -ghrna, -nsa, a. flat-nosed; -nsika, a. id.
154) चिपिट (p. 68) kipita blunt, flattened, flat:



Skt: [kipit-kri] - flatten - Mac095c1
Skt: चिपिट cipiṭa - adj. flattened - SpkSkt
Skt: चिपिटीकृत cipiṭīkṛta - adj. flattened - SpkSkt

चिपिटक cipiṭaka - m. flattened rice - SpkSkt


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p095c1-b08/ p068-153

चिबुक [ kibuka ]
- n. chin.
153) चिबुक (p. 68) kibuka chin.


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p095c1-b09/ p068-152

चिर [ ki-r ]
- a. long (time); of long standing; old (friend); belonging to the olden time: -m, ad. long, for a long time; slowly; long ago; too long; -m kri, be long, delay; --, in., d., ab., g., lc. after a long time; for a long time, long; d., ab., g. also at last, too late; only now; n. delay.
152) चिर (p. 68) ki-r long (time); of long standing;


p095c1-b10/ p068-151

चिरकार [ kira-kra ]
- a. slow, tardy; dilatory; -kr-i, -kr-in, a. id.: i-ta, f., i-tva, n. tardiness, dilatoriness; -kla, a. belonging to the olden time; m. long time: -m, --, for a long time; ab. after a long time; on account of the long interval; -krita, pp. long practised; -gvin, a. long-lived; m. N. of a crow; -dtri, m. N. of a prince; -nirvhya, fp. taking a long time to carry out.
151) चिरकार (p. 68) kira-kra slow, tardy; dilatory;


p095c1-b11/ p068-150

चिरण्ढी [ kirandh ]
- f. female still living in her father's house.
150) चिरण्ढी (p. 68) kirandh female still living in her father's house.


p095c1-b12/ p068-149

चिरन्तन [ kiran-tana ]
- a. old, ancient.
149) चिरन्तन (p. 68) kiran-tana old, ancient.


p095c1-b13/ p068-128

चिरपुर [ kira-pura ]
- n. N. of a town; -pravsin, a. long absent from home; -pravritta, pp. of long standing: -esha panthh, this is an old story; -bhvin, a. being far off (in time); -mitra, n. old friend; -mokana, n. N. of a Trtha.
128) चिरपुर (p. 68) kira-pura -pravsin, a. long absent from home;

See my note on Tirtha and Kshetra
Bur-Myanmar equivalent of kṣētra : {hkt~ta.ra} .


p095c1-b14/ p068-138

चिरय [ kira-ya ]
- den. (. rare) be long, delay, tarry.
138) चिरय (p. 68) kira-ya (. rare) be long, delay, tarry.


p095c1-b15/ p068-176

  चिररात्र [ kira-rtra ]
- m.(?) long time: d. after a long time, at length; -viraha-ga, a. arising from long separation; -vel, f. late time of day: in. at so late an hour; -samkita, pp. long accumulated; -sthita, pp. having stood for a long time.
176) चिररात्र (p. 68) kira-rtra after a long time, at length;


p095c1-b16/ p068-175

चिराय [ kir-ya ]
- den. be long, tarry: pp. kiryita, tarrying long.
175) चिराय (p. 68) kir-ya be long, tarry:


p095c1-b17/ p068-174

चिरायुष [ kira‿yusha ]
- a. granting long life; -‿yushya, a. destined to live long: -t, f. abst. ɴ.; -‿yus, a. long-lived.
174) चिरायुष (p. 68) kira̮yusha granting long life;


p095c1-b18/ p068-173

चिरि [ kiri ]
- m. parrot.
173) चिरि (p. 68) kiri parrot.


p095c1-b19/ p068-172

चिरोषित [ kira‿ushita ]
- pp. long absent from home.
172) चिरोषित (p. 68) kira̮ushita long absent from home.


p095c1-b20/ p068-171

चिर्भटिका [ kirbhat-ik ]
- f. kind of cucumber; -, f. id.
171) चिर्भटिका (p. 68) kirbhat-ik cucumber;


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p095c2-b00/ not online

चिर्भिट [kirbhita]
Skt: चिर्भिट [kirbhita] - n., , f. id. - Mac095c2
Skt: चिर्भिटा cirbhiṭā - f. another kind of gourd - SpkSkt


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p095c2-b01/ p068-170

चिल्लि [ killi ]
- m. a certain bird of prey; f. (also ) kind of vegetable.
170) चिल्लि (p. 68) killi ) kind of vegetable.


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p095c2-b02/ p068-169

चिन्ह [ ki-hn-a ]
= च ि न ् ह
- n. [√khan] mark, sign, token, indication, attribute: --, a. marked or characterised by: -ka, n. jot, tittle.
169) चिन्ह (p. 68) ki-hn-a [√khan] mark, sign, token, indication, attribute:


p095c2-b03/ p068-168

चिन्हय [ kihna-ya ]
- den. P. mark: pp. kihnita, marked; symbolized; pari, id.: pp. signed.
168) चिन्हय (p. 68) kihna-ya P. mark: pp. kihnita, marked; symbolized; pari, id.: pp. signed.


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UKT 160302: Remember the existence of the pair of short-long vowels, {si.} (1 eye-blink) & {si} (2 blk), and that Skt-Dev pronounces the row#2 as affricates instead of plosive-stops as in Bur-Myan. This is probably one reason why both the short {si.} (1 blk) and the long {si} (2 blk) are checked by killed consonant of the coda. The only way to find the Pal-Myan (and Bur-Myan) equivalents is from the meanings. Sometimes BHS and Nepali words can also become handy.
e.g. Bur: {sain.} 'China' from {si-na.}.

p095c2-b04/ p068-167

चीत्कार [ kt-kra ]
- m. noise; braying: -vat, a. accompanied with noise; -krita, (pp.) n.= ktkra; -kriti, f. rattle, clatter.
167) चीत्कार (p. 68) kt-kra noise; braying: -vat, a. accompanied with noise;


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p095c2-b05/ p068-166

चीन [ kna ]
- m. pl. the Chinese; -pishta, n. vermilion: -maya, a. consisting of vermilion; -‿amsuka, n. silk cloth.
166) चीन (p. 68) kna the Chinese; -pishta, n. vermilion:


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p095c2-b06/ p068-165

चीर [ k&isharp;ra ]
- n. strip of bark or cloth; rag; m. cricket: , f. id.; -khanda, m. rag; -mokana, n. N. of a Trtha; -vasana, -vsas, a. clothed in bark or rags.
165) चीर (p. 68) kra strip of bark or cloth; rag;


p095c2-b07/ p068-164

चीरिका [ kr-ik ]
- f. written proclamation.
164) चीरिका (p. 68) kr-ik written proclamation.


p095c2-b08/ p068-163

चीरिन् [ kr-in ]
- a. clothed in bark or rags.
163) चीरिन् (p. 68) kr-in clothed in bark or rags.


p095c2-b09/ not online

चीरी [ kr]
-- m. cricket; -vka , m. id.


p095c2-b10/ p068-162

  चीर्ण [ krna ]
- pp. of √kar: -vrata, a. having performed his vow.
162) चीर्ण (p. 68) krna having performed his vow.


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p095c2-b11/ p068-161

चीवर [ k-vara ]
- m. iron-file; n. mendicant's garment (esp. of a Buddhist).
161) चीवर (p. 68) k-vara iron-file; n. mendicant's garment (esp. of a Buddhist).


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p095c2-b12/ p068-160

चुक्र [ kukra ]
- m. n. (?) fruit vinegar (made esp. from the tamarind); sorrel.
160) चुक्र (p. 68) kukra (?) fruit vinegar (made esp. from the tamarind); sorrel.


p095c2-b13/ p068-159

चुक्षोभयिषु [ ku-kshobh-ay-ishu ]
- cs. des. a. wishing to cause to waver.
159) चुक्षोभयिषु (p. 68) ku-kshobh-ay-ishu wishing to cause to waver.


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p095c2-b14/ p068-210

चुच्चु [ kukku ]
= च ु च ् च ु
- m. f. kind of vegetable; , f. id.
210) चुच्चु (p. 68) kukku , f. id.


p095c2-b15/ p068-209

चुञ्चु [ kuku ]
- a. renowned; accustomed to (--); m. N. of a mixed caste.
209) चुञ्चु (p. 68) kuku renowned; accustomed to (--);


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[ kut ]
-- cs. kotaya. , scratch


p095c2-b17/ p068-208

चुण्टी [ kunt ]
- f. well.
208) चुण्टी (p. 68) kunt well.


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p095c2-b18/ not online

चुद [ kud ]
- i. koda , urge on, bring quickly, hasten; . make haste; cs. kodaya , ...



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चुम् [ kup ],
-- I. P. kopa ,  move, stir (int.). 


p095c2-b20/ p068-196

चुबुक [ kubuka ]
- n. chin; apex of an altar; -daghn, a. reaching to the chin.
196) चुबुक (p. 68) kubuka chin; apex of an altar;



[ kumb ]
-- I. P. [ kumb]  kiss; touch immediately; ... 

Skt: चुम्ब cumba - m. kiss - SpkSkt


p095c2-b22/ p068-195

चुम्बकमणि [ kumb-aka-mani ]
- m. magnet.
195) चुम्बकमणि (p. 68) kumb-aka-mani magnet.


p095c2-b23/ p068-194

चुम्बन [ kumb-ana ]
- n. kissing; kiss; -in, a. in immediate contact with (--).
194) चुम्बन (p. 68) kumb-ana kissing; kiss; -in, a. in immediate contact with (--).


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चुर् [ kur ],
-- x. koraya , steal, appropriate; steal from (ac.): pp. korita .


p095c2-b25/ p068-193

चुरादि [ kur-di ]
- m. pl. list of verbs of the tenth class beginning with kur.
193) चुरादि (p. 68) kur-di beginning with kur.


p095c2-b26/ p068-192

चुर्चुरध्वनि [ kurkura-dhvani ]
- m. sound of gnashing (the teeth); -sabda, m. id.
192) चुर्चुरध्वनि (p. 68) kurkura-dhvani sound of gnashing (the teeth);


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p095c2-b27/ p068-191

चुलुक [ kuluka ]
- m. n. hollowed hand; handful, mouthful.
191) चुलुक (p. 68) kuluka hollowed hand; handful, mouthful.


p095c2-b28/ p068-190

चुलुकय [ kuluka-ya ]
- den. P. swallow from the hollowed hand.
190) चुलुकय (p. 68) kuluka-ya P. swallow from the hollowed hand.



[ kuluk-kri ]
-- id.


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[ kulump ]
-- I. P. kulumpa with  ud , suck up 


p095c3-b01/ p068-189

चुल्ल [ kulla ]
- a. blear-eyed.
189) चुल्ल (p. 68) kulla blear-eyed.


p095c3-b02/ p068-188

चुल्ली [ kull ]
- f. hearth, fire-place; threefold hall (looking towards N., E. and W.).
188) चुल्ली (p. 68) kull hearth, fire-place;


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p095c3-b03/ p068-187

चूचुक [ kku-ka ]
- a. stammering; n. nipple.
187) चूचुक (p. 68) kku-ka stammering;


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p095c3-b04/ p068-186

चूड [ k&usharp;da ]
- m. ridge (on bricks); ceremony of tonsure (performed on children); , f. hair on the crown; tuft of hair left on the crown after the ceremony of tonsure; ceremony of tonsure; crest, summit; a-ka, -- = kd, tonsure.
186) चूड (p. 68) kuNda ridge (on bricks); ceremony of tonsure (performed on children);

tonsure n. . The act of shaving the head or part of the head, especially as a preliminary to becoming a priest or a member of a monastic order. . The part of a monk's or priest's head that has been shaved. -- AHTD
See my note on tonsure


p095c3-b05/ p068-185

चूडाकरण [ kd-karana ]
- n. ceremony of tonsure; -karna, m. N. of a beggar; -karman, n. ceremony of tonsure; -psa, m. thick locks on the crown; -mani, m. crest-jewel; --, jewel or pearl among; N.; T. of various works; -ratna, n. crest-jewel.
185) चूडाकरण (p. 68) kd-karana ceremony of tonsure;


p095c3-b06/ p068-184

चूडाल [ kd-la ]
- a. having a single tuft on the crown; -vana, n. (forest-crest), N. of a mountain.
184) चूडाल (p. 68) kd-la having a single tuft on the crown;


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p095c3-b07/ p068-183

चूत [ kta ]
- m. mango-tree; -magar, f. N. of a fairy; -latik, f. N.; -sara, m. mango arrow (of Kma-dva).
183) चूत (p. 68) kta mango-tree; -magar, f. N. of a fairy;


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चूर् [ kr ]
-- X. P. kraya steal


p095c3-b09/ p068-182

चूरु [ kru ]
- m. kind of worm.
182) चूरु (p. 68) kru worm.


p095c3-b10/ p068-181

  चूर्ण [ kr-n ]
- pp. (√kar) pulverised, fine; m. n. flour, meal; aromatic or medicinal powder: -kuntala, n. lock of hair; -t, f. pulverised condition.
181) चूर्ण (p. 68) kr-n flour, meal;


p095c3-b11/ p068-180

चूर्णन [ krn-ana ]
- n. crushing, pounding.
180) चूर्णन (p. 68) krn-ana crushing, pounding.


p095c3-b12/ p068-206

चूर्णपद [ krna-pada ]
- n. forward and backward movement performed with varying speed.
206) चूर्णपद (p. 68) krna-pada forward and backward movement performed with varying speed.


p095c3-b13/ p068-205

चूर्णय [ krna-ya ]
- den. P. pulverise, crush, smash. vi and sam, id.: pp. krnita."
205) चूर्णय (p. 68) krna-ya P. pulverise, crush, smash.



[krn-kri ]
-- id.; -karana , n. pulverisation; -bh , turn to dust, melt away

UKT 120218: The two English terms <turn to dust> "size reduction of solid particles by grinding to particles of extremely small sizes which are still solid", and <melt away> "turning a solid usually by heat into a liquid", are not the same. 


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चूलक [ kla-ka]
-- tuft of hair (- a. ) ; ik, f. cock's comb ; apex , summit 


p095c3-b16/ p068-204

चूलिन् [ kl-in ]
- a. having a crest.
204) चूलिन् (p. 68) kl-in having a crest.


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p095c3-b17/ p068-203

चूष् [ ksh ]
- ps. boil; fester; cs. kshaya, P. suck up. nis, cs. suck out.
203) चूष् (p. 68) KSH boil; fester;


p095c3-b18/ p068-202

चूषण [ ksh-ana ]
- n. sucking, taking (of a leech); -ya, fp. to be sucked.
202) चूषण (p. 68) ksh-ana sucking, taking (of a leech);

UKT120218, 170724: There are two kinds of leeches: the terrestrial and the aquatic. I have been told that it is aquatic leech that is used to suck out the pus and the infected blood from a skin eruption in Myanmarpr. 
See my note on the jungle leech


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{sRi.} चृ : from highly rhotic Skt-Dev vowel


चृत् [ krit ]
-- VI. P krita , fasten together. pra and vi , loosen, untie, set free : pp kritta

Skt: √चृत् cṛt - hurting, killing / himself - SktDict-MWilliams1297/3
Skt: √चृत् cṛt - binding / granthana - SktDict-MWilliams371/1


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-- intv. pt (√kit) appearing; wise; N.


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p095c3-b21/ p068-201

चेच्चेत् [ kek-ket ]
- ij. down! (said to dogs.)
201) चेच्चेत् (p. 68) kek-ket down! (said to dogs.)


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p095c3-b22/ p068-200

चेट [ keta ]
- m., , f. servant, slave.
200) चेट (p. 68) keta servant, slave.


p095c3-b23/ p068-199

  चेटक [ keta-ka ]
- m., ik, f. servant, slave.
199) चेटक (p. 68) keta-ka servant, slave.


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UKT 160303: See Cetasika {s-ta.i.ka.}.
See http://www.vipassana.info/cetasikas2.html 160301
See also FE BHS232 for Cetasika, and FE BHS233 for Caitasika.
And also: p094.htm 

p095c3-b24/ p068-198

चेतन [ kt-ana ]
- a. (&isharp;) manifest, distinguished; sentient, animate, conscious; m. intelligent being; n. perception, appearance; , f. consciousness, intelligence, mind.
198) चेतन (p. 68) kt-ana () manifest, distinguished;



[ ketana-t ]
-- f. -tva , n. sentience

चेतन cetana - adj. sentient - SpkSkt



चेतयितृ [ ket-ayi-tri]
-- a. having perception; m. conscious being 


p095c3-b27/ p068-197

चेतस् [ kt-as ]
- n. aspect; brilliance; consciousness; intellect; senses; mind, heart; will.
197) चेतस् (p. 68) kt-as aspect; brilliance; consciousness;


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[ kt-ishtha]
-- spv. (of kitra ) exceedingly bright.

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UKT notes

The Jungle Leech

- UKT 120217, 170724:

It is said that Bandoola, the supreme commander of the Royal Burmese forces during the First Anglo-Burmese War, and his soldiers tracked through the jungles of Arakan Yoma from Arakan to come to the aid of Rangoon which had fallen to the British troops. The journey took just a few days. How did they do it? But first the dangers in a tropical jungle.

Excerpt from: http://britains-smallwars.com/malaya/jungle.html

"Soldiers found that the leaches would get to their skin no matter how well the British soldier protected himself. The leaches were able to squeeze through the eye holes of the soldiers boots, then through the socks to get to human skin. After patrol had crossed a river or a swamp time had to be taken to remove leaches from the body, sometimes up to 30 leaches at one time. The soldiers could not just simply pull the leaches off from their skin because the leaches teeth and head would still be rooted to the skin which could lead to a deadly blood infection, among the other creatures that crawled the jungle floor looking for fresh young national serviceman flesh were pythons the size of telegraph poles and scorpions the size of lobsters!"

Go back leech-note-b

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Tirtha and Kshetra

- UKT 141027, 170724:

In Hinduism, Tirtha and Kshetra are two terms denoting sites of pilgrimage.

In Theravada Buddhist Myanmarpr, famous pagodas are places of pilgrimage. They are monuments where sacred objects are enshrined and not necessarily where a religious personage was born or had died. Dates of pagoda festivals usually fall on full-moon days, and people come to meet and trade -- a "fair" in the Western sense. The most famous pagoda, the Shw Dagon pagoda was on a hill which can be seen from afar. It has the relics of four Buddhas: of one historical Gautama Buddha and of three non-historical Buddhas. Its festival is held on the Full-Moon day in March, and is an important occasion for peoples from afar -- at one time from Shan states, Thailand and Cambodia -- to come and trade.

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tirtha_and_Kshetra 120217

In Hinduism, Tirtha and Kshetra are two terms denoting sites of pilgrimage.

A tīrtha तीर्थ tīrtha = त ी र ् थ, which literally means "a ford, a shallow part of a body of water that may be easily crossed" has come to connote places of pilgrimage associated with sacred water.

A Kṣētra क्षेत्र ksētra "field, area, tract of land") denotes a holy precinct or temenos. The Kurukshetra specifically is the "field" or "precinct" where the Pandavas and Kauravas fought a religious war as told in the Bhagavad Gita section of the Mahabharata. [UKT ]

Temenos (Greek: τέμενος; plural: τεμένη, temene) is a piece of land cut off and assigned as an official domain, especially to kings and chiefs, or a piece of land marked off from common uses and dedicated to a god, a sanctuary, holy grove or holy precinct: The Pythian race-course is called a temenos, the sacred valley ... - Google search 170724
See also: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Temenos 170724
and https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maya_Devi_Temple,_Lumbini 170724

UKT 141027, 170724: To the Theravada Buddhists, a battle field, where there is loss of life, can never be a "holy site". To us, an example of a holy site is Maha Devi Temple in Lumbini in ancient Magadha Mahajanapada where Queen Maya Devi gave birth to Prince Siddhartha who later became the enlightened Gautama Buddha. The site "is possibly the earliest evidence of Buddhist structures ever found and possibly the first archaeological evidence of Gautama Buddha's life."

A battle field stemming from hatred can only bring forth more hatred. Hatred can be overcome only by love and conciliation. Using the word "injustice" to cover "hatred" is no excuse for waging a "holy war" such as was done the Epic Mahabharata.

See the story of Prince Dighavu or Dighavu-Kumara Vutthu in Tipitaka > Vinaya Pitaka >  Mahavagga. Mv 10.2.3-20 PTS: Horner vol. 4, pp. 489-498 , Translated by Thanissaro Bhikkhu, 1997 [with my editing]: Prisoner king about to be executed after being humiliated and tortured by the enemy king (to his son in disguise among spectators):
"My son Dighavu, be far-sighted. Don't be near-sighted. For vengeance is not settled through vengeance. Vengeance is settled through non-vengeance."

Yet, in actuality, it is tragic that in human life, such as one in which a "tiger" has entered your village, you have to "kill" the tiger to save our own lives!

In common parlance, kshetra may denote a place where there is a temple or where there is held to have been a person or event of sacred, religious or dharmic importance. As sacred precincts, both yantras and mandalas are kshetras.

[Mahayana] Buddhism has two analogues to the kshetra, the Pure Land or buddhakṣetra and the refuge tree.

Kshetra is also an etymon of the Avestan term Xaθra "[Desirable] Dominion", which holds the semantic field "power" and is also a personal name for a divinity or immortal who comprises one of the Amesha Spentas of Zoroastrianism. Xaθra or Shahrevar conquered that which was evil and annexing territory thus won, proffered it to the honest, peaceable and humble.

UKT: More in the Wikipedia article

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Tonsure - head shave

- UKT 120218, 141028, 170724:

It is said that the Theravada Viniya rules allow a monk to let his hair grow up to 4-finger-widths or about 2 inches. They are not allowed to wear moustache or beard. It is not required for them to shave arm-pit or pubic hair.

It is only the Gautama Buddha who wore his hair in the rishi-style the same as was worn by Hindu rishis of his period.

None is required to wear a hat. A Myan-Theravada Buddhist rishi usually has a shaven head and is required to wear a hat. It is said that during the reign of King Bodawpaya, the king issued an order for the monks to wear hats like the rishis.

There are no female monks, or {baik~hku-ni} in Myanmar. The present day "nuns" are "lay-women" who had taken up a special code of conduct. They are known as {i-la.shn} 'the keepers of Sila'. They have shaven heads but are not required to wear hats. The present-day fashion robes of 3 colours is recent innovation. In my childhood days before WWII, they just wore just one colour. The equivalent of female rishi are also "lay-women" and they usually do not shave their heads. They usually wore the hats just like their male-counter part. I am writing this from memory and I still need to verify my facts.

Excerpt from Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tonsure 120218

Tonsure is the traditional practice of Christian churches of cutting or shaving the hair from the scalp of clerics , monastics, and, in the Eastern Orthodox Church, all baptized members. Tonsure, usually qualified by the name of the religion concerned, is now sometimes used more generally for such cutting or shaving for monks, devotees, or mystics of other religions as a symbol of their renunciation of worldly fashion and esteem, e.g., by Buddhist novices and monks, and some Hindu streams.

UKT: Clerics are what the English-speaking Bur-Myan would refer to as 'monks' from the word {ra.hn:}. This is wrong. {ra.hn:} are those belonging to the Bur-Myan Theravada Buddhism.

Within this definition even Dalai Lama of the Tibetan Buddhism cannot be included. Because the Lama puts on a head-dress during certain ceremonies and requires to 'dance', he falls under the definition of {ra..} who in the strictest sense may be equated to {ra.hn:].

Similarly, the Pope aka the Bishop of Rome is not a {ra.hn:} even though the common usage in Myanmarland is {poap ra.hn: mn:kri:}. Similarly, the Archbishop of Canterbury is not a {ra.hn:} because he can marry.

   Inset: Pre-Christian (3rd century B.C.) Celtic sculpture    

According to the views of my father's generation, i.e. those belonging to the days before World War I (i.e. at the turn of 19th to 20th century), a {ra.hn:} is one who has cut himself from the affairs of Man. He takes on a new name and has no worldly blood-relatives. He cannot support even his own parents. At the most he may let his birth-mother (but not his father) share his alms. Thus he cannot get himself initiate or get involved in marriage ceremonies and must not be involved in politics. And therefore he need not bow down to the king (which at that time was the King in England) or to bow down to the Flag (which at that time was the Union Jack).

In Hinduism, the underlying concept is that hair is a symbolic offering to the gods, representing a real sacrifice of beauty, and in return, the offerers are given blessings in proportion to their sacrifice.

UKT: Notice the Swastika on the boy's head. It reminds me of the Bur-Myan {sa.Da.ba.wa.} { n:} . The Vedic Swastika stands on one of its sides, whereas the Nazi Swastika stands on one corner. I opine that the "dots" inside the Swastika frame give a hidden message, and in Myanmar akshara are indicated by {sa.Da.ba.wa.}. Notice that each is a circle and when read clockwise shows:
1. a circle with defect on the left indicating imperfect emotions,
2. a circle with defect on the bottom indicating imperfection due to sexual impulse,
3. a circle with defect on the top indicating imperfection due to false ideas, and
4. a circle with no defect indicating perfection. See: 
See 05. Cult of Magus in Folk Elements in Buddhism
- flk-ele-indx.htm > ch05-magus.htm (link chk 170724)
As a down-to-earth scientist, I admit that my opinion is pure conjecture, and it is up to the reader to take it or ignore it. I base my conjecture on the way Runes { n:} (Yantras) accompanied by recitation of Mantras, following a strict method or Tantra.

Hair cutting (Skt: chuda karma, chuda karana) is one of the traditional saṃskāras performed for young children:

"According to the teaching of the revealed texts, the Chudakarman (tonsure) must be performed, for the sake of spiritual merit, by all twice-born men in the first or third year." [16]

In some traditions, the head is shaved completely, while in others a small tuft of hair called sikha is left.

In some South Indian temples like Tirumala, Palani and Tiruttani, it is customary for pilgrims to shave their heads in or near the temple of the god they are visiting.

There has been an Indian custom to perform tonsure on widows after their husbands' deaths. It is not uncommon to tonsure the head of a child after the death of a parent (usually the father). It is also usual for male relatives, especially the first-born son of the dead father, to have his head shaved in mourning. The corpse, too, often receives the tonsure after death.[17]

K. Jamanadas has argued that tonsure was originally a Buddhist custom [the days of the Buddha] and that Brahmanic practices always considered tonsure inauspicious. [18]

Tonsure in the Hindu culture serves multiple purposes and is used as a symbol. One of its most prominent, and original, purposes was to show one's love for the gods by washing away one's past and starting anew. This was done by women as well as by men. [19] However, over the course of thousands of years, tonsure has found new purposes. It can denote one's social class or personal standing. For example, someone with a closely shaved head is practicing celibacy.

It can be also be used for punishment or to show that someone is an outcast in society because of a law he has broken. A social outcast will have a partly shaved head, while men that are ardently religious will shave their heads leaving only a sikha. Additionally, tonsure can be used for punishing people for severe crimes. For example in mid-June 2009, a Hindu woman and her two sons were accused of killing her husband. They were then beaten in public and shaved bald, symbolic of social ostracizing. [20] There are many other cases of tonsure being used for this purpose. However, when this is done the people are shaved clean, leaving them completely bald. In historical Hindu mythology, heads and moustaches of enemies have been shaved as a humiliation.

UKT: More in the Wikipedia article. http://plainfeather.blogspot.com/2011/05/more-cowbell.html 120218

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