Update: 2019-06-24 11:25 PM -0400



Practical Sanskrit Dictionary for Buddhists and Hindus


A Practical Sanskrikt Dictionary, by A. A. Macdonell, 1893,
http://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/scans/MDScan/index.php?sfx=jpg; 1929.
- Nataraj ed., 1st in 2006, 2012.
- https://dsal.uchicago.edu/dictionaries/macdonell/ 190516
The Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Grammar and Dictionary, BHS, vol.2, by F. Edgerton, pp. 627.
- FEdgerton-BHSD<> / Bkp<> (link chk 180627)
The Student's Pali English dictionary , by U Pe Maung Tin, 1920.
- (ref: UPMT-PEDxxx).  Downloaded copies in TIL HD-PDF and SD-PDF libraries:
- UPMT-PaliDict1920<> / bkp<> (link chk 190113)
  Pali-Myanmar Dictionary (in Pal-Myan), by U Hoke Sein,
- (ref: UHS-PMD). The dictionary in printed form is in TIL Research Library.
Latin-English Vocabulary II, by Hans H rberg, 1998
- HHOrberg-LinguaLatina<> / Bkp<> (link chk 190624)

Edited by U Kyaw Tun (UKT) (M.S., I.P.S.T., USA), Daw Khin Wutyi, Daw Thuzar Myint, Daw Zinthiri Han and staff of Tun Institute of Learning (TIL). Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone. Prepared for students and staff of TIL  Research Station, Yangon, MYANMAR 
 - http://www.tuninst.net , www.romabama.blogspot.com

MC-indx.htm | Top


Contents of this page

{si.} - cont :
{si.tya.} : don't write
{si.tra.} : don't write - not to be confused in Mon-Myan


Pix: King Ravana of Lanka kingdom after abducting Princess Sita who was already married to Prince Rama. He brought her back to his kingdom, in his flying chariot, to force her to become his Queen. The Bur-Myan dance version.
- cartoon by Thein Win Aung, GS Society, from Google pix.

UKT notes :
Analysis of Mind : Theravada Buddhism
Gandaki river of Ramayana
Rishi Valmiki : author of Ramayana
Valmiki : the sinner

Contents of this page

{si.} - cont


p094c1-b01/ not online

चि [ . KI] III. P.
- [ kikti] (V.); V. P. . , चिनो [ ki-n] - perceive, observe; look for; search through (ac.) for (ac.). ni, notice, observe. nis, ascertain; decide; determine, fix; resolve; consider certain: pp. having made up his mind, resolved to (d., lc., -); certain, decided, settled: -m, ad. certainly. vi-nis, ponder; decide definitively; take a final resolution: pp. quite certain, well settled: -m, ad. most certainly or assuredly. pari, search through; find out, ascertain, recognise; become acquainted or familiarise oneself with; ps. be known: pp. know, familiar, accustomed; of frequent occurrence. vi, discern; discriminate, examine, search through; look for, seek; strive after. pra-vi, search through; pp. tested, tried. sam, reflect.


p094c1-b02/ not online

चि [ . ki ]
- i. . kya , abhor, hate; avenge; punish, take vengeance on (ac.)


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p094c1-b03/ p068-179 

चिकर्तिषा [ ki-kart-i-sh ]
- f. desire to cut off; -ishu, a. wishing to cut off.
179) चिकर्तिषा (p. 68) ki-kart-i-sh desire to cut off;


p094c1-b04/ not online

चिकित् [ ki-kt ]
- a. knowing; shining.


p094c1-b05/ not online

-- pf. pt. (√kit) having noticed, observing, attentive; knowing, wise


p094c1-b06/ p068-127

चिकित्स [ ki-kit-sa ]
- des. of √kit (q. v.); -saka, m. physician; -sana, n. medical treatment; -s, f. id.; medical science; -sita, (pp.) n. id. (--, a. f. ); -sya, fp. curable.
127) चिकित्स (p. 68) ki-kit-sa physician; -sana, n. medical treatment;


p094c1-b07/ p068-126

चिकीर्ष [ ki-kr-sha ]
- des. of √kri, do; -sh, f. desire to do or make, longing for (g.; --); -shita, n. undertaking; purpose, intention; -shu, a. wishing to do, make, fashion, perform, or practise; desirous of (ac., --).
126) चिकीर्ष (p. 68) ki-kr-sha √kri, do;


p094c1-b08/ p068-125

चिकुर [ kikura ]
- m. hair of the head; hair.
125) चिकुर (p. 68) kikura hair of the head; hair.


p094c1-b09/ p068-124

चिक्कण [ kikkana ]
= च ि क ् क ण  --> {saik~ka.Na.}
- a. smooth, slippery.
124) चिक्कण (p. 68) kikkana smooth, slippery.



-- 2 sg. aor. sub. of √kship 


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p094c1-b11/ p068-123

चिचरिषु [ ki-kar-i-shu ]
- des. a. endeavouring to go.
123) चिचरिषु (p. 68) ki-kar-i-shu endeavouring to go.


p094c1-b12/ p068-122

चिचलिषु [ ki-kal-i-shu ]
- a. about to start.
122) चिचलिषु (p. 68) ki-kal-i-shu about to start.


p094c1-b13/ not online

-- m. kind of bird


p094c1-b14/ p068-121

चिच्छक्ति [ kik-khakti ]
- f. thinking power.
121) चिच्छक्ति (p. 68) kik-khakti thinking power.


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p094c1-b15/ not online

चञ् [ ki- ], the root i. ki


p094c1-b16/ p068-120

चिञ्चा [ kik ]
- f. tamarind (tree and fruit)
120) चिञ्चा (p. 68) kik tamarind (tree and fruit).

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UKT 160303: The disyllable {si.ta.} made up of syllables {si.} and {ta.} can merge into a monosyllable {sait}. As a chemist, I view the process as similar to Molecular Orbital (MO) Theory in Chemistry. The result is the lowering of energy to vibrate the vocal folds. During merger, an intermediate state is formed. I expect Formants, F1 & F2, to be related to the energy levels. See a downloaded paper on MO Theory from Kyushu Univ.
- KyushuUniv-MOTheory<> / Bkp<> (link chk 180531)
Also Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Molecular_orbital_theory 180531

p094c1-b17/ p068-111

चित् [ . kt ] {sait}
- perceive, observe, mark (ac., g.); intend (d.); desire, understand, know; appear; pf. kiketa, has understood, knows; cs. ketya, P. . kitya. P. remind (of, d.); instruct; notice, observe; attend; . reflect, meditate; understand; remember, be conscious of (ac.); appear, be conspicuous, shine; des. kikitsa, intend; provider for (d.); treat medically, cure; cs. of des. kikitsaya, cure; intv. kki(t) te, appear, shine forth: pt. kkit-at, kkit-an, , observe, mark; understand, know. pra, cs. make know; . appear. vi, perceive; discern; comprehend; . be visible, appear; des. doubt, be uncertain about; hesitate. sam, survey; perceive; agree, be at one.



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p094c2-b01/ p068-119

चित् [ . kt ]
Skt: चित् [ . kt ] - f. intellect, mind. - Mac094c2
  119) चित् (p. 68) 2. kt intellect, mind.
Bur: {sait} - MED2006-122 


p094c2-b02/ p068-118

चित् [ . ki-t ]
- a. piling (--); piled, forming a pile.
118) चित् (p. 68) . ki-t piling (--);


p094c2-b03/ p068-117

  चित [ ki-ta ]
- pp. √ki; n. building: -‿agni, m. burning funeral pile; -‿adhirohana, n. ascending the funeral pile; -‿anala, m. burning funeral pile.
117) चित (p. 68) ki-ta building: -̮agni, m. burning funeral pile;


p094c2-b04/ p068-116

चिता [ ki-t ] (pp.)
- f. pile of wood, funeral pyre: -dhma, m. smoke of the funeral pile.
116) चिता (p. 68) ki-t pile of wood, funeral pyre:


p094c2-b05/ p068-115

चिति [ . k-ti ]
- f. pile; pyre; heap; multitude.|
115) चिति (p. 68) . k-ti pile;


p094c2-b06/ p068-114

चिति [ . kit- ]
- f. understanding; intellect, mind.
114) चिति (p. 68) . kit- understanding; .


p094c2-b07/ p068-113

चितिका [ kiti-k ]
- f. pile of wood; funeral pyre; often -- (after a numeral) a. in the sense of layer.
113) चितिका (p. 68) kiti-k pile of wood;


p094c2-b08/ p068-112

चितैध [ kita‿edha ]
- a. relating to a funeral pile.
112) चितैध (p. 68) kita̮edha relating to a funeral pile.


p094c2-b09/ not online

[ kit-kra ]
- = kt-kra


Contents of this page

{sait~ta.} : Why is not a repha formed?

See my note on Analysis of Mind {sait} in Theravada Buddhism


चित्त [ kit-t ]
= च ि त ् त --> {sait~ta.}
Skt: चित्त [ kit-t ] - pp.; n. observation; thought; purpose, will; mind, heart, intellect, reason; a. thinking of (--). - Mac094c2
  111) चित्त (p. 68) kit-t observation; thought;
Pal: {sait~ta.} - UHS PMD0389
Bur: {sait} - n. a single thought (as a unit or an element always accompanied by {s-ta.)

- UKT definition
  UKT from UHS PMD0389: . n. scheme, consciousness.
  . wondrous, artistic, e.g., stained-glass windows.
  . Chitra {saitra.}, the 14th Nakshatra 'Lunar Mansion'
  See Wikipedia
  - for stained glass - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stained_glass 160301
  - for Bur-Myan luni-solar calendar - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Burmese_calendar 160301


p094c2-b11/ p068-136

चित्तखेद [ kitta-kheda ]
= च ि त ् त ख े द
- m. affliction, grief; -kaura, m. heart-stealer, lover; -ga, m. (heart-born), love; Kma; -ganman, m. id.; -ga, a. knowing the intentions or heart of (g.); having knowledge of human nature; -ntha, m. heart's lord, lover; -nsa, m. loss of consciousness; -nirvritti, f. peace of mind; -pramthin, a. disturbing the mind; -bheda, m. depression of mind; -bhrama, m. mental confusion; -bhrnti, f., -moha, m. id.; -yoni, m. (having its origin in the mind), love; -ragana, n. gladdening of hearts; -vat, a. rational, sensible, wise; -vikra, m. mental derangement; -viplava, m. id., madness; -vislesha, m. alienation of hearts; breach of friendship with (in.); -vritti, f. mental disposition, sentiments, feeling; train of thought; frame of mind, mental process; -hrin, a. ravishing.
136) चित्तखेद (p. 68) kitta-kheda affliction, grief;


चित्तचौर [ kitta-kaura] cittacaura
- m. heart-stealer, lover -- Mac094c2


p094c2-b12/ p068-135 

चित्ताकर्षण [ kitta‿karshana ]
- n. winning of the heart; -‿karshin, a. charming the heart; -‿anuvartin, a. gratifying (g., --); -‿anuvritti, f. gratification.
135) चित्ताकर्षण (p. 68) kitta̮karshana winning of the heart;


p094c2-b13/ p068-134

चित्ति [ kt-ti ]
- f. thought; understanding; insight; intent.
134) चित्ति (p. 68) kt-ti thought;


p094c2-b14/ p068-133

चित्तिन् [ kitt-n ]
- a. wise, intelligent.
133) चित्तिन् (p. 68) kitt-n wise, intelligent.


Contents of this page

/ {si.tya.}

UKT 160301: In addition to & we can have / {saitya.}.

p094c2-b15/ p068-132

चित्य [ k-tya ]
= च ि त ् य
- a. that is piled or built up; m. (sc. agni) fire placed on a layer or pile; , f. piling, building up (of an altar).
132) चित्य (p. 68) k-tya that is piled or built up;


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/ {si.tra.}

p094c2-b16/ p068-131

चित्र [ kit-r ]
= च ि त ् र
- a. manifest, visible, distinguished, clear, bright; distinct, audible (sound); variegated, speckled, dappled; various, manifold; qualified with torture (punishment); wonderful; n. bright-coloured object, glittering ornament; jewel; picture; surprising phenomenon, wonder.
131) चित्र (p. 68) kit-r manifest, visible, distinguished, clear, bright;


p094c2-b17/ p068-130

चित्रक [ kitra-ka ]
- m. small hunting leopard (Cheeta); n. mark (--, a. characterised by); picture, painting; -kara, m. painter (a mixed caste); -karman, n. painting; picture; adornment (Pr.); -kta, m. hill of pleasure; (Bright-peak), N. of a mountain (in Bundelkund, now Kitrakote); N. of a town; -krit, m. painter; -kritya, n. painting; -ga, a., -gata, pp. (belonging to a picture), painted; -gupta, m. N. of a recorder of human actions in Yama's realm; -griha, n. apartment adorned with pictures; -grvan, a. stony; -grva, m. Spotted- neck, N. of a pigeon king; -nyasta, pp. put on canvas, painted; -paksha, m. (spotted-wing), kind of pigeon; N. of a demon causing headache; -pata, m. picture; -patta, m. id.: -gata, pp. painted; -putrik, f. female portrait; -phalaka, picture-panel, painting; ()-bhnu, a. shining brightly; m. fire, Agni; -bhshya, n. eloquence; -bhitti, f. painted wall, wall-painting; -mriga, m. spotted antelope.
130) चित्रक (p. 68) kitra-ka leopard (Cheeta);

UKT 180602: See Wikipedia on: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cheetah_reintroduction_in_India 180602
"Reintroduction of the cheetah in India involves the artificial re-establishment of a population of cheetahs into areas where they had previously existed but were hunted into extinction by the British colonial officers and Indian royalty. A part of the reintroduction process is the identification and restoration of their former grassland scrub forest habitats. [1]


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p094c3-b01/ p068-129 

चित्रय [ kitra-ya ]
- den. P. variegate, decorate, adorn: pp. kitrita, variegated, embellished, painted. ud, pp. richly decked or provided with (in.).
129) चित्रय (p. 68) kitra-ya P. variegate, decorate, adorn:


p094c3-b02/ p068-147

चित्ररथ [ kitr-ratha ]
- a. having a brilliant car; m. N.; -likhana, n. painting; -likhita, pp. painted; -lekh, f. picture; N.; -vat, a. adorned with pictures, painted; -vana, n. (variegated wood), N. of a forest on the Gandak; -varti, f. paint-brush; -varti-k, f. id.; -varman, m. N. of a son of Dhritarshtra.
147) चित्ररथ (p. 68) kitr-ratha having a brilliant car;

See my note on Gandak river of Ramayana
The site of the hermitage aka Ashram of Rishi Valmiki {Bo:tau ra..}


p094c3-b03/ p068-146

चित्रशाला [ kitra-sl ]
- f. picture-room; -slik, f. id. (Pr.); -sikhandin, m. pl. (having shining locks), ep. of the seven sages (Marki, Atri, Aṅgiras, Pulastya, Pulaha, Kratu, and Vasishtha); the Great Bear; -sravastama, spv. worthy of the loudest praise; ()-sena, a. bright-speared; m. N.; -stha, a. represented in a picture, painted; -sthala, n. N. of a garden.
146) चित्रशाला (p. 68) kitra-sl picture-room;


p094c3-b04/ p068-145

चित्राङ्ग [ kitra‿aṅga ]
- m. Dapple-body, N. of a deer and of a dog; , f. N. of a courtesan; -‿aṅgada, a. adorned with brilliant bracelets; m. N. of a fairy, of a Gandharva, and of a recorder of human actions in Yama's realm; -‿anna, n. rice coloured by the addition of ingredients; ()-magha, a. having splendid gifts; -‿rambha, a. painted; -‿arpita, pp. id.: -‿rambha, a. id.
145) चित्राङ्ग (p. 68) kitra̮aṅga Dapple-body, N. of a deer and of a dog;

dapple n. . a. Mottled or spotted marking, as on a horse's coat. b. An individual spot. . An animal with a mottled or spotted skin or coat. -- AHTD



-- pp. of kitraya  10


0p0c094c3-b06/ p068-144

चित्रिय [ ktr-iya ]
- a. distinguished; m. N.
144) चित्रिय (p. 68) ktr-iya distinguished; m. N.


p094c3-b07/ not online

-- turn into a picture


p094c3-b08/ p068-143 

चित्रीय [ kitr-ya ]
- den. . be astonished; cause astonishment.
143) चित्रीय (p. 68) kitr-ya . be astonished; cause astonishment.


p094c3-b09/ p068-142

चित्रीया [ kitr-y ]
- f. astonishment.
142) चित्रीया (p. 68) kitr-y astonishment.


p094c3-b10/ p068-141

चित्र्य [ ktr-ya ]
- a. sparkling.
141) चित्र्य (p. 68) ktr-ya sparkling.


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p094c3-b11/ p068-140 

 चिद् [ ki-d ]
- enc. pcl. [n. of interrogative, Lat. - quid] in V. emphasizing preceding word (but often to be rendered by stress merely), even, just, very, at least; generalizing nouns, every, all, and esp. pns. and cjs., -- ever, all: with neg. not even; in C. it is used only with interrogatives (and gtu), rendering them in definite.
140) चिद् (p. 68) ki-d not even; in C. it is used only with interrogatives (and gtu), rendering them indefinite.


p094c3-b12/ p068-139

चिदात्मन् [ kid-tman ]
- m. the thinking soul, pure intellect; -nanda-maya, a. consisting of intellect and joy.
139) चिदात्मन् (p. 68) kid-tman the thinking soul, pure intellect;


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[ kint ]
- x. p. (.) kintaya , think, reflect; think of (ac., E. also d, lc., or prati ); regard, observe, pay attention to (with na , disregard); devise; treat of, discuss; bethink oneself; consider (with 2 ac.): ...




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UKT notes

Analysis of Mind

UKT 170723: Analysis of Mind is very important in Theravada Buddhism. You will come across two terms, Citta {sait~ta.} चित्त = च ि त ् त , and Cetasika {s-ta.i.ka.} aka {s-ta.aik} in Bur-Myan.
For the orthography of {s-ta.aik}, see {s-ta.i.ka.} UHS PMD0396.
See http://www.vipassana.info/cetasikas2.html 160301
See also FE BHS232 for Cetasika, and FE BHS233 for Caitasika.
See also p095.htm for {s-ta.i.ka.}

Pix on right: From Google pix: there are many ways to illustrate the relationship to Citta to one of the 52 Cetasikas in a single instant.

As tentative meanings based on Theravada Buddhism, I am giving:
- Citta {sait~ta.} aka {sait} - a single "thought" element
- Cetasika {s-ta.i.ka.} aka {s-ta.aik} - a element associated with a particular thought element, i.e. "co-thought".

Go back Analysis-mind-note-b

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Gandak river : the hermitage of Rishi Valmiki

-- UKT 141024, 170723

Gandakī River is where the hermitage aka Ashram of {Bo:tau ra..} Rishi Valmiki was situated. I am not aware of this rishi being mentioned in Bur-Myan Ramayana as a {htwk-rp-pauk ra..} aka Waizza Rath {waiz~za ra..}.

There are about ten rishis revered by Gautama Buddha: "Atthako (either Ashtavakra or Atri), Vmako, Vmadevo, Vessmitto (Visvamitra)   {wai~a mait~ta. ra..},  Yamataggi {ya.ma.tag~gi ra..}, Angiras, Bhradvjo, Vsettho (Vashistha) Vsettho**, Kassapo (Kashyapa), and Bhagu (Bhrigu) {Ba.gu. ra.e.} "

Rishi Valmiki was not one of the ten, unless you can identify him with any of the ten beginning with akshara {wa.}. In this respect Rishi Valmiki and Rishi Vishvamitra are not of the same kind.

Rishi Valmika is the author of Ramayana.
Rishi Vishvamitra विश्वामित्र viśvā-mitra is the author of Mahabharata, and his scribe is no other than Ganesh - the elephant-headed Hindu-god. I still need to go over my facts.

The idea of Myanmar {htwak-rp-pauk waiz~za} is explained in
Folk Elements in Buddhism -- flk-ele-indx.htm (link chk 180701)
and proceed to 05. Cult of Magus - ch05-magus.htm (link chk 180701)

Excerpts from Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gandaki_River 120217

The Kali Gandaki or Gandaki River (also known as the Narayani in southern Nepal and the Gandak in India) is one of the major rivers of Nepal and a left bank tributary of the Ganges in India It is also called Krishna Gandaki in Nepal. [1] [UKT ]

In Nepal the river is notable for its deep gorge through the Himalayas and its enormous hydroelectric potential. It has a total catchment area of 46,300 square kilometers (17,900 sq mi), most of it in Nepal. The basin also contains 3 of the world's 14 highest mountains over 8,000m, the three being Dhaulagiri I, Manaslu and Annapurna I. Dhaulagiri I is the highest point of the Gandaki basin. It lies between the similar Kosi system to the east and the Karnali (Ghaghara) system to the west.

Valmiki Ashram

The ancient Valmiki Ashram (hermitage) and surrounding temples are located in the Chitwan National Park of Nepal. It is located at a distance of about 7 km from Valmikinagar. It is approachable for pilgrimage only from Valmikinagar near Gandak Barrage, both from Nepal and India.

It is said that Valmiki Rishi (sage) wrote the great epic, "Ramayana" here. It is also believed to be the birthplace of Luv & Kush (the two sons of Lord King Rama and his divine human Queen Sita. [UKT ]

UKT 141024: Deification of a respected human king and his human queen in Hinduism (by Vaishnavite Hindus), has not lessened the respect and love of peoples of South-east Asia has for him. See: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yama_Zatdaw 141024

The hermitage also has landmarks of Sitas Falahar (eating place), Meditation place of the great Sage-Valmiki, the place where the Ashwamedh horse was tied, Amrit (nectar of immortality) Kuan (well); Vishnu Chakra (disc), and the Hawan (Yagna) Kund (sacred square structure to perform fire rituals).

Saligrama Sila and Mukthinath

The stones (Ammonite fossils) collected from the bed of the Gandaki River at a place close to Saligrama or Muktinath (literally meaning "place of salvation") in the Mustang district of Nepal, (where a Hindu shrine of the Shrivaishnava sect founded by the great seer Ramanuja exists) are called Saligram Silas and considered unique and are used for worship. [UKT ]

UKT 180531: How a naturally occurring object or phenomenon is woven into a religious symbol or story by religionists can be seen in the case of Ammonite fossils. Read about these fossils in Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ammonoidea (180531)
"Ammonoids are an extinct group of marine mollusc animals in the subclass Ammonoidea of the class Cephalopoda. These molluscs are more closely related to living coleoids (i.e., octopuses, squid, and cuttlefish) than they are to shelled nautiloids such as the living Nautilus species. The earliest ammonites appear during the Devonian Period, and the last species died out during the CretaceousPaleogene extinction event."
For Devonian Period (415-360 Ma ago): see Section 8 Geography, Geology, and Fossils  Phanerozoic Eon (0.541 Ga ago - present),
- geol-indx > phanerozoic.htm > Devonian Period (link chk 180531)
Read also:

Large rivers and orogens: The evolution of the Yarlung Tsango-Irrawaddy system and the eastern Himalayan syntaxis, by Ruth A. J. Robinson, et.al., Godwana Research, vol.26, July 2014 in Science Direct,
- https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1342937X13002281 180530

With this little note, see how we as children were mislead with a song:

It is also a sacred place for [Mahayana] Buddhists who call it Chumig Gyatsa, which in Tibetan means 'Hundred Waters'..Muktinath is also called by the Hindus as Mukthiksehtra, which literally means "place of salvation".

These stones are naturally formed round stones, with circular or spiral markings and are fossil ammonite stones found in the rivers of Himalayas, in particular kinds of ocean sediments, which have been uplifted to the top of the Himalayas.

Located between the Dhaulagiri and Annapurna mountain ranges, the Gandaki River flows through the village of Saligrama or Muktinath and the Ashrama of Pulaha. In ancient times, the mountain range surrounding Pulaha was called Salagiris due to the vast forests of Sala (sal) trees. The stones found in this region are therefore called Saligrama Silas (stones found only in the region of Saligrama. It has great significance to Hindus, particularly to the Shrivaishnava and the Madhva Sects who consider the place of availability of this stone in the river bed of the Gandaki River, and the Mukthinath temple as one of the 108 Divyakshetrams [9] or Thirthastanas (temples and celestial abodes of Vishnu) to be visited on a pilgrimage (at least once in their life). At the pilgrimage site of Muktinath (3,710m) one wonders in amazement at the presence of 108 small waterfalls and mysterious natural gas fires, worshipped as Jwalamukhi (in Sanskrit).

For Tibetan Buddhists Muktinath-Chumig Gyatsa is a place of Dakinis, goddesses known as Sky Dancers. It is of great importance for [Mahayana] Buddhists that Chumig Gyatsa is one of the 24 Tantric places.

The Tibetan Buddhist tradition states that for this reason Guru Rinpoche, also known as Padmasambhava, the founder of Tibetan Buddhism had meditated at Muktinath on his way to Tibet. It is one of the 51 Sakthi peetams.

The particular site in the course of the river where the stones become sacred is known as Chakra-Tirtha. The sanctity of this site is said to extend to three yojanas (24 miles) all round.

There is also a tributary called Chakra-nadi or Jhong Khola which flows from Muktinath and joins the Kali Gandaki at Kagbeni. This tributary is described in Garuda purana as created by Brahma [UKT ]

UKT 141024: Brahma aka Mahabrahma is the Creator in Vaishnavite Hinduism (worship of Vishnu) but of less importance to Shaivite Hindus (worship of Shiva) who hold that it was Shiva 1who created the Universe. Theravada Buddhists would have none of it: to them Hinduism is based on an Axiom (Atta) whereas theirs holds that there is no such thing as Atta. Buddhism is based on "Absence of Atta" or Anatta. Atta is a figment of imagination which we need not prove nor disprove: Buddhism is non-Axiomatic. 

and the great peak to the north of the river is said to contain the presence of Vishnu. All the stones found in the river as well as in the mountain are believed to bear the marks of Vishnu. The entire area (including streams and the mountainside to the north of Muktinath) covers as many as twelve yojanas (96 miles), according to the Puranic account. Among the Saligrama stones, some are from the waters (jalaja) and some are from the mountainside (sthalaja). Puranic texts testify that the sacred stones are what are found in the river, and not what are taken out of the rock on its banks.

UKT: More in the Wikipedia article

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Rishi Valmiki

- UKT 170723

See also Ramayana in Myanmar Literature and Performing Arts by U Thaw Kaung, 2002, in TIL HD-PDF and SD-PDF libraries
- UTKaung-RamayanaMyan<> / Bkp<> (link chk 170723)

Almost all in our part of the world knows something about Sita and Rama of the Epic Ramayana, but almost none - including myself - knows anything about the author, Rishi Valmiki.

There are about ten rishis revered by Gautama Buddha: "Atthako (either Ashtavakra or Atri), Vmako, Vmadevo, Vessmitto (Visvamitra),  Yamataggi, Angiras, Bhradvjo, Vsettho (Vashistha) Vsettho**, Kassapo (Kashyapa), and Bhagu (Bhrigu) "

Rishi Valmiki was not one of the ten, unless you can identify him with any of the ten beginning with akshara {wa.}. In this respect Rishi Valmiki and Rishi Vishvamitra are not of the same kind. Though known in Bur-Myan version of Ramayana as {Bo:tau ra..} he is not of the class of {htwk-rp-pauk ra..} aka Waizza Rath {waiz~za ra..} as {Bo:Bo:an:} is. In the inset pix, you can see two {ra..} one on the left wearing a {duak-hkya}, and the other on the right probably wearing a turban.

Rishi Valmika is the author of Ramayana, and Rishi Vishvamitra विश्वामित्र viśvā-mitra is the author of Mahabharata,

From Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Valmiki
UKT 170723: Words such as "demon", and "devil", especially those starting with the phoneme /d/ are of the same kind and are used by various peoples on their enemies. At the same time they prided entities they respect as "dva" and "divine". For the sake of language and not of religion, I try to get them out of my vocabulary with a strike-through, e.g. demon , divine

Valmiki वाल्मीकि, vālmīki [1] is celebrated as the harbinger-poet in Sanskrit literature. The epic Ramayana, dated variously from 5th century BCE [2] to first century BCE, [3] is attributed to him, based on the attribution in the text itself. [4] He is revered as Ādi Kavi, the first poet, author of Ramayana, the first epic poem.

Ramayana, originally written by Valmiki, consists of 24,000 shlokas and 7 cantos (kaṇḍas) including Uttara Kanda. Ramayana is composed of about 480,002 words, being a quarter of the length of the full text of Mahabharata or about four times the length of Iliad. Ramayana tells the story of a prince, Rama of Ayodhya, whose wife [Princess] Sita is abducted by [King] Ravana, the demon-king (Rakshasa) of Lanka [island-kingdom]. The Valmiki Ramayana is dated variously from 500 BCE to 100 BCE[5] or about co-eval with early versions of Mahabharata.[6] As with many traditional epics, it has gone through a process of interpolations and redactions, making it impossible to date accurately.

- adj. coeval 1. having the same age or date of origin; contemporary. "these lavas were coeval with the volcanic activity". n. sing. coeval , n.plu. coevals. 1. a person of roughly the same age as oneself; a contemporary. "like so many of his coevals, he yearned for stability." - Google def

Valmiki is also quoted to be the contemporary of Rama. Rama met Valmiki during his period of exile and interacted with him. Valmiki gave shelter to Sita in his hermitage when Rama banished her. Kusha and Lava, the twin sons of Shri Rama were born to Sita in this hermitage. Valmiki taught Ramayana to Kusha and Lava, who later sang the divine story in Ayodhya during the Ashwamedha yajna congregation, to the pleasure of the audience, whereupon, King Rama questioned who they were and later visited Valmiki's hermitage to confirm if Sita, the two children claimed as their mother was in fact his wife in exile. Later, he summoned them to his royal palace. Kusha and Lava sang the story of Rama there and Rama confirmed that whatever had been sung by these two children was entirely true. ...

मां निषाद प्रतिष्ठां त्वमगमः शाश्वतीः समाः।
यत्क्रौंचमिथुनादेकम् अवधीः काममोहितम्॥'

mā niṣāda pratiṣṭhā tvamagamaḥ śāśvatīḥ samāḥ
yat kraucamithunādekam avadhīḥ kāmamohitam

You will find no rest for the long years of Eternity
For you killed a bird in love and unsuspecting

[The above from the Epic Ramayana is considered to] be the first shloka in Sanskrit literature.

UKT: more in the Wiki article.

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Valmiki : the sinner

- UKT 170724: Just as { n~gu.li. ma-la.}, the story of Valmiki is the story of a thinking man turning from a life of sin turning into a life of goodness.

From: Valmiki: A Journey from a Thief to a Rishi , by nishant94, 2016Aug18
- https://nishantindia.com/2016/08/18/valmiki-a-journey-from-a-thief-to-a-rishi/ 170723

Sage Valmiki, author of the great epic Ramayana was initially a thief. He used to steal valuables and money from travellers and used to feed his family from the loot.

One day he saw the seven divine sages [Rishi] aka saptrishis and decided to loot them. He took out his dagger and ordered them to give away their valuables.

One of the saptrishi asked him Those for whom you commit such a ghastly sin, do they accompany you in it. Ask them. If yes, then we will give away all our valuables.

UKT 170724: Hindu stories are told in many versions. In the version
https://kids.baps.org/storytime/valmikirishi.htm 170724
In this children's story, it was the Rishi Narada whom robber Ratnakar (the older name before he became the Rishi Valmiki.) tried to rob. Rishi Narada asked, for feeding whom he was committing the sin. The answer was the same: for feeding the family. When asked by the Rishi, if his family was sharing the result of the sin, the robber ...

Valmiki rushed to his house and asked his family members the same question but to his surprise none rose in his favour. Everyone said that he is a criminal and will be punished by God for his sins.

With a broken heart he returned to the seven divine sages [or Narada] and fell down on his knees. He asked them to curse him for all the sins that he had committed but instead of punishing him, the sages told him to chant RAM repeatedly.

The children's version continues:
"Upon this realisation, Ratnakar fell to Naradji's feet and asked for forgiveness.  Naradji taught him to recite the sacred name of Ram. Ratnakar sat down in the forest and continued chanting with closed eyes. His concentration was so deep that he remained in meditation for years.  In fact, he sat there so long in meditation that an anthill grew all around and above him! ... One day Naradji came that way and carefully cleared away the anthill. With a kind smile, Naradji declared Ratnakar a Rishi sage, "As you are now reborn from a 'Val-mika' (ant-hill), from now you'll be known as "Valmiki".

Instead of chanting RAM, Valmiki chanted its opposite MARA which in Hindi means death and that is when he was blessed by the almighty and thus became enlightened.

This story was narrated by Rishi Valmiki himself to Lord Rama.

UKT: End of article.

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