Update: 2018-06-06 12:51 AM -0400


A Practical Sanskrit Dictionary


by A. A. Macdonell, 1893,
http://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/scans/MDScan/index.php?sfx=jpg 1929.
Nataraj ed., 1st in 2006, 2012

Edited, with additions from Pali sources, by U Kyaw Tun (UKT) (M.S., I.P.S.T., USA) and staff of Tun Institute of Learning (TIL) . Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone. Prepared for students and staff of TIL Research Station, Yangon, MYANMAR :  http://www.tuninst.net , www.romabama.blogspot.com

MC-indx.htm | Top

Contents of this page

{sn-dra.} = Pal: {sn-da.} - cont : <))kyan'dra/sun'dra
{sa.ya.} : look for conjunct {sya.} on p096-1.htm 

{sar~} : Repha - refer to p063.htm for {kar~}, and to p082.htm for {gar~} (link chk 160228) 

----- online 180528 : p092.htm - search for चन्द्रराज

UKT notes :
Campa - city
Capala Shrine
Caraka - the physician (born c. 300 BC)
  regarded as Father of Indian Medicine
Kalhana - historian of Kashmir
Yajurveda - Black & White Esoteric knowledge (or "Magic")
Yak - {sa-ma.ri}
Yellow Champak of Mt. Popa

Contents of this page

{sn-dra.} = Pal: {sn-da.} - cont


p092c1-b00/ p068-012

  चन्द्रराज [ kandra-rga ]
- m. N.; -rekh, f. crescent; -lalta, a. having a moon on the forehead, ep. of Siva; -l, f. N.; -lekh, f. crescent; N.; -vamsa, m. the (royal) lunar race; -vat, a. moonlit: -, f. N.; -vapus, a. lovely as the moon; ()-varna, a. bright hued; -sl, f. room on the roof; -subhra, a. moonlit; -sekhara, m. (moon-crested), ep. of Siva; N.; -sr, f. N.; -samga, m. camphor; -saras, n. N. of a fabulous lake; -sra, m. N.; -simha, m. N. of a prince; -svmin, m. N.; -hsa, m. (moon laugh = gleam), sword; Rvana's sword.
12) चन्द्रराज (p. 68) kandra-rga crescent;


p092c1-b01/ p068-011

चन्द्रांशु [ kandra‿amsu ]
- m. moon-beam; -‿kara, m. N.; -‿ditya, m. N.; -‿pda, m. ep. of Siva; N.; -‿ardha, m. half-moon: -kdmani, m. ep. of Siva; -‿avaloka, m. N. of a prince.
11) चन्द्रांशु (p. 68) kandra̮amsu moon-beam;


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UKT 160228, 180528: Take care not to get mixed up with the derivative of highly rhotic Skt-Dev vowel, {iRRi.} ऋ . Pali is rhotic and its rhoticity is derived from consonant /r/, but Bamah (aka Burmese) is totally non-rhotic even though spelled with {ra.}-consonant /ɹ/

{da.} + {iRRi.} ऋ --> {dRRi.} दृ

It was my unfortunate experience before I realized the importance of ऋ in Skt-Dev, and that this vowel is absent in BPal-Myan.

p092c1-b02/ p068-010

चन्द्रिका [ kandr-ik ]
=   च न ् द ् र ि क ा --> {sn~dri.ka}
Skt: चन्द्रिका [ kandr-ik ] - f. moonlight; N. - Mac092c1
  10) चन्द्रिका (p. 68) kandr-ik moonlight; N.
Pal: {sn~di.ka} - UHS-PMD0384
  UKT from UHS: f. moonlight 


p092c1-b03/ p068-009

चन्द्रिन् [ kandr-n ]
- a. golden.
9) चन्द्रिन् (p. 68) kandr-n golden.


p092c1-b04/ p068-008

चन्द्रोदय [ kandra‿udaya ]
- m. rise of the moon; -‿upala, m. moon-stone (v. kandra-knta).
8) चन्द्रोदय (p. 68) kandra̮udaya rise of the moon;


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p092c1-b05/ not online

मप् [ kap ] , [ kamp ]
- tremble, waver


p092c1-b06/ p068-007

चपल [ kap-ala ]
- a. tremulous, unsteady; inconstant, giddy, flighty, fickle: -m, ad. quickly; -gana, m. mischievous folk; -t, f. giddiness, fickleness.
7) चपल (p. 68) kap-ala tremulous, unsteady;

चपल [ kap-ala ]
Skt: चपल [ kap-ala ] - a. tremulous, unsteady; inconstant, giddy, flighty, fickle: - Mac092c1
Skt: चपल capala - m. bismuth. adj. wanton, inconstant, inconsiderate, wavering, thoughtlessness, ... - SpkSkt

See my note on Capala shrine : a Hindu temple where travellers may rest.


p092c1-b07/ p068-006

चपलय [ kapala-ya ]
- den. P. make unsteady, beguile into an indiscretion.
6) चपलय (p. 68) kapala-ya P. make unsteady, beguile into an indiscretion. 


p092c1-b08/ p068-005

चपला [ kapal ]
- f. lightning; N. of two metres: -gana, m. fickle woman; goddess of fortune.
5) चपला (p. 68) kapal lightning; N. of two metres:


p092c1-b09/ p068-004

चपलाय [ kapal-ya ]
- den. . move or jump about.
4) चपलाय (p. 68) kapal-ya . move or jump about. 


p092c1-b10/ p068-003

चपेट [ kapeta ]
- m. slap; , , f. id.
3) चपेट (p. 68) kapeta slap; , , f. id.


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p092c1-b11/ p068-020

चम् [ kam ]
- i. p. kama , sip (water) ; rinse the mouth with (in.); suck up, absorb, cause to vanish; pp. -knta , with ac. and ps. mg. ; cs. -kmaya , cause to sip. anu‿-kma , rinse the mouth again. par‿ , pp. with anna , food after which a guest prematurely sips water
20) चम्पू (p. 68) kamp- mixed composition (mixture of verse and prose).


p092c1-b12/ not online

चमक [ kama-ka ]
- m. N.


p092c1-b13/ p068-002

चमत्करण [ kamat-karana ]
- n. astonishment, surprise; -kra, m. id.; -krita, cs. pp. astonished; -kriti, f. astonishment.
2) चमत्करण (p. 68) kamat-karana astonishment, surprise;


p092c1-b14/ not online 

-- express or cause surprise; astonish: pp. surprised; becomes proud or haughty.


p092c1-b15/ p068-001

चमन [ kam-ana ]
- n. sipping.
1) चमन (p. 68) kam-ana sipping. 


p092c1-b16/ p068-025

चमर [ kam-ara ]
- m. (, f.) yak (Bos grunniens); m. n. yak's tail, used as a fly whisk, one of the insignia of royalty: -vla, m. N. of a prince.
25) चमर (p. 68) kam-ara (, f.) yak (bos grunniens);

See my note on yak (the real animal) and {sa-ma.ri} (the imaginary mythical composite 0


p092c1-b17/ p068-024

चमस [ kam-as ]
- m. (wooden) bowl or cup.
24) चमस (p. 68) kam-as (wooden) bowl or cup.


p092c1-b18/ p068-023

चमू [ kam-&usharp; ]
- f. bottom of the Soma press (often du. bottom and upper board of the Soma press); army (consisting of 729 elephants, 729 chariots, 2187 cavalry, and 3645 infantry): -ntha, -pa, -pati, -pla, m. commander of an army.
23) चमू (p. 68) kam-uN bottom of the Soma press  


p092c1-b19/ p068-022

चम्प [ kamp-a ]
- m. N. of the founder of the town of Kamp.
22) चम्प (p. 68) kamp-a Kamp. 


p092c1-b20/ p068-021

  चम्पक [ kampa-ka ]
- m. a tree (Michelia champaca); n. its (yellow) blossom; m. N.; , f. N. of a town: (a)-prabhu, m. N. of the father of Kalhana; (a)-ml, f. N.; (a)-vat, f. N. of a forest in Magadha; N. of a town.
21) चम्पक (p. 68) kampa-ka (a)-prabhu, m. N. of the father of Kalhana;

See: (Michelia champaca) in Botanical Names of Myanmar Plants of Importance in Para-Medicine
- MP-Para-indx.htm > Agri2000-indx.htm > {sa.} (link chk 180528)
17-0443. {sn-ka:} {sa.ka:wa} . Yellow champak Michelia champaca  Magnoliaceae See also LSR p.141

See my note on Yellow Champak of Mt. Popa .


p092c1-b21/ p068-092

चम्पा [ kamp ]
- f. N. of a town of the Aṅgas: -vat, f. id.
92) चम्पा (p. 68) kamp -vat, f. id. 


p092c1-b22/ not online

चम्पू [ kamp- ]
- f. mixed composition (mixture of verse and prose).


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UKT 160304, 170725: In Bur-Myan, the Palatal plosive-stop {sa.} cannot be pharyngalized with {ha.hto:}, or velarized with {ya.pn.}. To keep this phonemic rule intact, Romabama has to adopt:
#1. Palatal plosive stop {sa.}/ {c}
#2. Dental fricative hisser {Sa.}/ {S}
#3. {sya.} : look for conjunct {sya.} on p096-1.htm 

p092c1-b23/ p068-019

चय [ kay-a ]
- m. heap; layer; mound; rampart; mass; multitude.
19) चय (p. 68) kay-a heap; layer; mound; rampart; mass; multitude. 


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p092c2-b00/ p068-018

चयन [ ky-ana ]
- n. heaping up; layer of fuel; heap.
18) चयन (p. 68) ky-ana heaping up; layer of fuel; heap.


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चर cara - adj. wandering  - SpkSkt


p092c2-b01/ p068-059

Note: This entry is a very large one, and it has to be cut into manageable subentries, numbered 0, 1, 2, 3, ... and stored in ~~Macdonell-cuts on HD of main research laptop in TIL research station. The large entry will not show on the Internet.

चर् [ kar ]
0  - kra, int. move, go, wander, roam, spread, extend (of animate and inanimate objects); browse; behave, act, towards (in. or lc.), have to do with (in.); go on, live (with a., ad., or gd.); tr. wander through, traverse; pass along, follow; undertake, enter into; perform, practise; carry on (a dispute); emulate actions (vrittam); assume a function (vratam); undergo, observe; commit (sin); make, produce; consume; feed on, graze on; spy out (only pp. -ita):

1. [ krya
- pp. karita and krna; cs. krya, cause to go, run, wander, or graze; despatch; put in motion; cause to perform; allow to have sexual intercourse, prostitute (a wife); des. kikarisha or kikarasha, wish to go or behave. anti, transgress; be unfaithful to (ac.) anu, move about among (ac.); traverse; follow; cs. cause to be traversed by (in.) antar, move between or within, be in (ac. g., or lc.) apa, be wanting; transgress.

2 [ abhi ]
- abhi, trespass against, violate, be unfaithful to (ac.); bewitch (ac.). prati‿abhi, use witchcraft against (ac.). vi‿abhi, offend; fail; go beyond (ac.); cs. prove the erroneousness of (ac.). ava, come down from (ab.); cs. employ. , approach (ac.); frequent; have recourse to (ac.); use, employ; behave, act; treat; associate with (saha); set about, perform, practise, follow, do; proceed to (inf.); sanction, prescribe (gr.).

3 [ adhi‿ ]
- adhi‿, use occupy (seat). sam-, proceed, act (towards, lc.); associate with (in.); perform, observe, practise (towards, lc.); engage in (quarrels); gain (livelihood): durt-, remove far away, ud, rise (sun); sound, utter, pronounce (cs. id.); void excrement. pra‿ud, cs. pp.

4 [ prokkrita
- prokkrita, emitting sounds. upa, approach; serve, wait on; honour, worship; tend, groom; undertake; treat (medically); designate figuratively; ps. be employed or ascribed metaphorically (to, lc.). nis, come forth, appear, proceed. vi-nis, proceed in all directions.

5 [ par ]
- par, go away. pari, go round (ac.); serve, attend. pra, come forth; reach (ac.); set about, perform; follow (occupations); treat patients; proceed, act. vi, move in different directions, spread, be diffused; move actively, sally forth, make an attack; rove; wander about in, traverse (ac.); proceed, act, live; go astray, be dissolute; practise, perform; cs. cause to go hither and thither; seduce; ponder, consider; hesitate, doubt; ascertain, decide; pp. doubtful; certain. anu-vi, walk through.

6 [ pra-vi
- pra-vi, advance; wander about; cs. ponder or examine duly. sam, come together, join; wander about, walk; run (road); reach to (); enter, traverse, infest; move, live; pass over to (g.); cs. set in motion; let go; lead about; transfer, deliver. anu-sam, follow, go along. abhi-sam, come together to (ac.). upa-sam, enter.


p092c2-b02/ p068-017

चर [ kar-a ]
- a. movable, moving; n. animal (opp. plant); --, going, wandering, walking; acting, living; practising; m. spy; , f. life.
17) चर (p. 68) kar-a movable, moving;


p092c2-b03/ p068-016

चरक [ kra-ka ]
- m. wanderer; wandering Brhman pupil; spy; N. of an ancient physician: pl. N. of a school of the black Yagurveda: -‿adhvaryu, m. priest of the Karakas. -- Mac092c2
16) चरक (p. 68) kra-ka wanderer; wandering Brhman pupil;

चरक caraka [ kra-ka ]
Skt: चरक [ kra-ka ] m. wanderer; wandering Brhman pupil; spy; -- Mac092c2
BPal: {sa.ra.ka.} -- UHS-PMD0385
  UKT from UHS: m. wanderer, spy 

See my notes on:
Caraka - the physician
Yajurveda - versions or Samhitas : Shukla (white) and Krishna (black).
  - Black & White Esoteric knowledge (or "Magic")

UKT 141017: The word "Krishna" simply means "black" - particularly the colour of the skin of the person. When referring to Yajurveda or Samhita, "Krishna" means the "Black Yajurveda" or in simpler, perhaps pejoratively, "Black Magic" equivalent to {auk-lm:pi~a.} well known in Myanmarpr. The word "Krishna" has nothing to do with (human king) Krishna of the Bhagavagita - the esteemed Hindu philosophy. King Krishna is also known as Krishna Vasudeva.
See: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Krishna_in_the_Mahabharata 141018


p092c2-b04/ p068-015

चरण carana [ kr-ana ]
--> {sa.ra.Na.}
Skt: चरण [ kr-ana ] -- m. n. foot; Vedic school; n. wandering; course; procedure; ritual observance; (good) conduct; practice, performance. -- Mac092c2
  15) चरण (p. 68) kr-ana foot; Vedic school;
BPal: {sa.ra.Na.} -- UHS-PMD0385
  UKT from UHS: n. traveling, wandering, doing rounds (of preaching), conduct, foot, sole.

UKT 141019, 170719: Few Buddhists would care about Hindu philosophy, but those Myanmar elders (monks, nuns, and laymen) who would like to spread Theravada Myanmar Buddhism should know the various Hindu or Vedic philosophical schools. See my note on Vedic school .
And see the included excerpt, p198, on Shaktism in Faith & Philosophy of Hinduism - by Rajeev Verma, 2009


p092c2-b05/ p068-014

चरणक [ karana-ka ]
- n. little foot; -granthi, m. ankle; -nysa, m. footstep, tread; foot print; -patana, n. prostration at the feet; -pta, m. kick; prostration; -prishtha, m. instep; -prasra, m. extension of the legs; -bhaṅga, m. fracture of the leg; -mla, n. root of the foot: e ni-pat, fall down at the feet; -vyha, m. T. of a work (description of the Vedic schools); -‿nati, f. bowing at the feet, prostration.
14) चरणक (p. 68) karana-ka little foot;

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p092c3-b01/ p068-013

चरथ [ kar-tha ]
- a. moving; n. life, activity.
13) चरथ (p. 68) kar-tha moving; n. life, activity.



- m. N.


p092c3-b03/ p068-045

चरम [ kara-m ]
- a. last; outermost; lowest; western: -m, ad. last; in the end; after (g.): (a)-vayas, a. aged; -‿akala, m. western (sunset) mountain.
45) चरम (p. 68) kara-m last; outermost;


p092c3-b04/ p068-044

चराचर [ . kar-kar ]
- a. moving, running; . kara‿akara, a. moving and stationary; n. animals and plants, the whole world.
44) चराचर (p. 68) 1. kar-kar moving, running;


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p092c3-b05/ p068-043

चरित [ kar-it ]
- pp.; n. going, walking; way; procedure, behaviour, conduct, doings.
43) चरित (p. 68) kar-it going, walking;


p092c3-b06/ p068-042

चरितपूर्व [ karita-prva ]
- a. performed before; -maya, a. () containing the deeds of (--).
42) चरितपूर्व (p. 68) karita-prva performed before; -maya, a. () containing the deeds of (--).


p092c3-b07/ p068-041

चरितवे [ kr-i-tave ]
- d. inf. to go, to move.
41) चरितवे (p. 68) kr-i-tave to go, to move.


p092c3-b08/ p068-040

चरितव्य [ kar-i-tavya ]
- fp. to be practised or performed.
40) चरितव्य (p. 68) kar-i-tavya to be practised or performed.


p092c3-b09/ p068-039

चरितव्रत [ karita-vrata ]
- a. having fulfilled his vow.
39) चरितव्रत (p. 68) karita-vrata having fulfilled his vow.


p092c3-b10/ p068-038

चरितार्थ [ karita‿artha ]
- a. having obtained one's object; successful; satisfied: -t, f. attainment of one's object, satisfaction; -tva, n. accomplishment.
38) चरितार्थ (p. 68) karita̮artha having obtained one's object;


p092c3-b11/ p068-037

चरितार्थय [ karitrtha-ya ]
- den. P. cause any one (ac.) to attain his object, satisfy.
37) चरितार्थय (p. 68) karitrtha-ya P. cause any one (ac.) to attain his object, satisfy.


p092c3-b12/ p068-036

चरित्र [ kar--tra ]
- n. foot, leg; going; ancient custom, usage; conduct, doings: -bandhaka, m. n. confidential pledge; -vat, a. having already performed (a sacrifice).
36) चरित्र (p. 68) kar--tra foot, leg;


p092c3-b13/ p068-035

चरिष्णु [ kar-i-shn ]
- a. moving; unsteady, roaming; belonging to the animal world.
35) चरिष्णु (p. 68) kar-i-shn moving;

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p092c3-b14/ p068-034

चरु [ kar- ]
= च र ु
- m. caldron, pot; oblation (of grain boiled in milk, butter, or water).
34) चरु (p. 68) kar- caldron, pot; oblation (of grain boiled in milk, butter, or water).


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{sar~} : Repha

Example of use of repha
चर्या carya - f. wandering


{sar~ka.} :

Note the viram position in Repha formation:
च र ् क --> चर्क
च ् र क --> च्रक 

p092c3-b15/ p068-033

चर्कृति [ kar-kri-t ]
- f. praise; -krtya, a. praiseworthy, renowned.
33) चर्कृति (p. 68) kar-kri-t praise; 



[ kr-kri-she ]
- 3 sg. pr. intv. of √2.kri  with act. and ps. sense


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p092c3-b17/ not online

चर्च्  [ kark ]
- cs. karkaya , p. repeat (a word in Vedic recitation, esp. insertion of iti ); ...


p092c3-b18/ p068-032

चर्चन [ kark-ana ]
- n. repetition of a word.
32) चर्चन (p. 68) kark-ana repetition of a word.


p092c3-b19/ p068-031

चर्चरिका [ kar-kar-ik ]
- f. kind of gesture (on the stage).
31) चर्चरिका (p. 68) kar-kar-ik gesture (on the stage).


p092c3-b20/ p068-030

चर्चरी [ kar-kar- ]
- f. kind of song.
30) चर्चरी (p. 68) kar-kar- song.


p092c3-b21/ p068-029

चर्चा [ kark- ]
- f. repetition of a word (esp. with iti); coating (of ointment); care, trouble about, attention to, meddling with (-- or g.); speaking about (--); discussion: -pada, n. pl. words repeated with the insertion of iti.
29) चर्चा (p. 68) kark- repetition of a word (esp. with iti);


p092c3-b22/ p068-028

चर्चित [ kark-ita ]
- pp. n. coating (of ointment).
28) चर्चित (p. 68) kark-ita coating (of ointment).


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p092c3-b23/ p068-027

चर्पट [ karpata ]
- a. flat; flattened.
27) चर्पट (p. 68) karpata flat; flattened. 


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p092c3-b24/ not online

चर्म [karma]
- - = karman : -kra , m. shoe-maker (a mixed caste); -krin , m. id.; -krya , n. working in leather; ...


p092c3-b25/ p068-026

चर्मण्य [ karman-ya ]
- n. article of leather.
26) चर्मण्य (p. 68) karman-ya article of leather.


p092c3-b26/ p068-063

चर्मन् [ kr-man ]
- n. [that which spreads out], hide, skin; shield.
63) चर्मन् (p. 68) kr-man [that which spreads out], hide, skin; shield.

UKT 160228: Shields for common foot soldiers in ancient times when metal was expensive were made from wood covered with leather. -- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shield 160228

p092c3-b27/ p068-06

चर्मपट््ट [ karma-patta ]
- m. strap; -bandha, m. leather strap; -bhastrik, f. leather pouch; -maya, a. () leathern; -ratna, n. (treasure of a =) magic purse: -bhastrik, f. id.
62) चर्मपट्््ट (p. 68) karma-patta strap; -bandha, m. leather strap;

( new p092.htm end )

Contents of this page

----- online 180528 : p092.htm - search for चन्द्रराज

Previous Page [67] Page 68 Next Page [69]


UKT 180529: The remaining entries moved to p093.htm


Back to the Search Page   |   Back to the DDSA Page


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UKT notes

Campa - city

Excerpt from: http://www.archive.org/stream/earlyhistoryofka035153mbp/earlyhistoryofka035153mbp_djvu.txt 120214

"The capital of the Anga country which comprises the modern districts of Bhagalpur and Munghyr. The site of ancient Campa is marked, according to Cunningham, by the two villages, Campanagar and Campapura, that exist near Bhagalpur."

From Google search engine:
by L Finot - 1920.
Mo-ha-chan-p'o = Bhamo, formerly Campanagara. (Burma)

Go back Campa-note-b

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Capala Shrine


From: Maha-parinibbana Sutta: Last Days of the Buddha, DN 16, PTS: D ii 72, chapters 1-6, translated from the Pali by Sister Vajira & Francis Story, 1998
- http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka/dn/dn.16.1-6.vaji.html 170725

The Blessed One Relinquishes His Will to Live

9. When this was said, the Blessed One spoke to Mara, the Evil One, saying: "Do not trouble yourself, Evil One. Before long the Parinibbana of the Tathagata will come about. Three months hence the Tathagata will utterly pass away."

10. And at the Capala shrine the Blessed One thus mindfully and clearly comprehending renounced his will to live on. And upon the Lord's renouncing his will to live on, there came a tremendous earthquake, dreadful and astonishing, and thunder rolled across the heavens. And the Blessed One beheld it with understanding, and made this solemn utterance:

What causes life, unbounded or confined [24]
His process of becoming [25] this the Sage
Renounces. With inward calm and joy he breaks,
As though a coat of mail, his own life's cause. [26]

Go back CapalaShrine-note-b

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Caraka - the physician

UKT: King Ajatasattu's physician, Jivaka (Buddhist), and Charaka (Hindu) seemed to be two different persons: I have always been under the impression that Jivaka was the "Father of Ayurveda". -- UKT120214

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charaka 120214

Charaka, sometimes spelled Caraka, born c. 300 BC was one of the principal contributors to the ancient art and science of Ayurveda, a system of medicine and lifestyle developed in Ancient India. He is sometimes referred to as the Father of Indian Medicine.

Acharya Charaka and the Ayurveda

The term Caraka is a label said to apply to wandering scholars or wandering physicians. Buddhist's also claim that Charaka was Buddhist.

According to Charaka's translations health and disease are not predetermined and life may be prolonged by human effort and attention to lifestyle. As per Indian heritage and science of Ayurvedic system, prevention of all types of diseases have a more prominent place than treatment, including restructuring of life style to align with the course of nature and four seasons, which will guarantee complete wellness.

The following statements are attributed to Acharya Charaka:

A physician who fails to enter the body of a patient with the lamp of knowledge and understanding can never treat diseases. He should first study all the factors, including environment, which influence a patient's disease, and then prescribe treatment. It is more important to prevent the occurrence of disease than to seek a cure.

These remarks appear obvious today, though they were often not heeded, and were made by Charaka, in his famous Ayurvedic treatise Charaka Samhita. The treatise contains many such remarks which are held in reverence even today. Some of them are in the fields of physiology, etiology and embryology.

UKT 180529: Charaka Samhita: Handbook on Ayurveda vol.1, edited by Gabriel Van Loon, 2002, is in TIL HD-PDF and SD-PDF libraries:
- GVanLoon-Charaka SamhitaAyuveda<> / Bkp<> (link chk 180529)
"The Charaka Samhita ... recorded several thousand years ago from the teachings of the sage Punarvasu Atreya, ... is ... respected work on Ayurveda." - from Preface

Charaka was the first physician to present the concept of digestion, metabolism and immunity. According to his translations of the Vedas, a body functions because it contains three dosha or principles, namely movement (vata), transformation (pitta) and lubrication and stability (kapha). The doshas are also sometimes called humours, namely, bile, phlegm and wind. These dosha are produced when dhatus (blood, flesh and marrow) act upon the food eaten. For the same quantity of food eaten, one body, however, produces dosha in an amount different from another body. That is why one body is different from another. For instance, it is more weighty, stronger, more energetic.

Further, illness is caused when the balance among the three dosha in a human body is disturbed. To restore the balance he prescribed medicinal drugs. Although he was aware of germs in the body, he did not give them any importance.

Charaka knew the fundamentals of genetics. For instance, he knew the factors determining the sex of a child. A genetic defect in a child, like lameness or blindness, he said, was not due to any defect in the mother or the father, but in the ovum or sperm of the parents (an accepted fact today).

Charaka studied the anatomy of the human body and various organs. He gave 360 [accepted as adult 206 and newborns 270 - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Human_skeleton 120214] as the total number of bones, including teeth, present in the body. He wrongly believed that the heart had one cavity, but he was right when he considered it to be a controlling centre. He claimed that the heart was connected to the entire body through 13 main channels. Apart from these channels, there were countless other ones of varying sizes which supplied not only nutrients to various tissues but also provided passage to waste products. He also claimed that any obstruction in the main channels led to a disease or deformity in the body.

Under the guidance of the ancient physician Atreya, Agnivesa had written an encyclopedic treatise in the eighth century B.C. However, it was only when Charaka revised this treatise that it gained popularity and came to be known as Charakasamhita. For two millennia it remained a standard work on the subject and was translated into many foreign languages, including Arabic and Latin.


According to the Charaka tradition, there existed six schools of medicine, founded by the disciples of the sage Punarvasu Ātreya. [UKT ]

Each of his [six] disciples, composed a Samhitā. [UKT ]
1.  Agnivesha,
2.  Bhela,
3.  Jatūkarna,
4. Parāshara,
5. Hārīta,
6. Kshārapāni,

Of these, the one composed by Agnivesha was considered the best. The Agnivesha Samhitā was later revised by Charaka and it came to be known as Charaka Samhitā. The Charaka Samhitā was revised by Dridhbala.

Charaka Samhita

The Charaka Samhita contains 120 adhyayas (chapters), divided into 8 parts: 1. Sutra Sthana, 2. Nidan Sthana, 3. Viman Sthana, 4. Sharir Sthana, 5. Indriya Sthana, 6. Chikitsa Sthana, 7. Kalpa Sthana, 8. Siddhi Sthana .

UKT: End of Wikipedia article

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Kalhana - historian of Kashmir

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kalhana 120214

Kalhana (c. 12th century), a Kashmiri, was the author of Rajatarangini (Chronicle of Kings), an account of the history of Kashmir. He wrote the work in Sanskrit between 1148 and 1149. [1] All information regarding his life has to be deduced from his own writing, a major scholar of which is Mark Aurel Stein. Robin Donkin has argued that with the exception of Kalhana, "there are no [native Indian] literary works with a developed sense of chronology, or indeed much sense of place, before the thirteenth century". [2]

UKT: More in the Wikipedia article.

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Yajurveda - Black & White

Black & White Esoteric knowledge (or "Magic")

-- UKT 141018, 170718

In Myanmarpr the word Astrologer {b-dn-hsa.ra} must be taken with caution. He or she is one who uses the "science" or discipline of Bdin {b-dn} to predict (not forecast) the future events of a person, a commercial company, or an individual. The word {b-dn} is derived from {b-da.} 'science' which is different from Vda {w-da.} of Hinduism. Though there is {w-da.}, there are no such thing as {w-dn} or {w-dn-hsa.ra}. The Manipuri Poannars {poaN~Na:} are employed to recite the Vdic mantras only in some ceremonies such as weddings - even then only by some. They earn their living as {b-dn-hsa.ra}.

But be warned, there many charlatans and impostors to cheat you. Some of them would put on a appearance of "holiness", and will claim that they are helping humanity as an act of Ku'tho or charity and will tell you that they will not charge you anything because it would be against their vows which they have take. Yet, they will always "predict" an oncoming misfortune, loss of wealth, ill-health, and even imprisonment or death. They are good judges of character, and when you or your spouse became alarmed, they would offer to construct a Yantra aka  { n:} and light a "magic candle". Of course, you will have foot the cost of the materials for which he would charge you exorbitant charges.

Those who are not tricksters are of several kinds from differing and sometimes antagonistic disciplines. The first would be the Astronomer-cum-Astrologer: at least a part of their discipline is purely astronomical whose origins can be traced to ancient history of the Chaldeans of Mesopotamia. They are responsible to set the Bur-Myan Lunar calendar to Solar calendar - part of the governmental organization common to all the ancient kingdoms of subcontinent of India, Myanmarpr and South-east Asia. Their mathematical calculations are based on Sūrya-siddhānta, which is supposed to be derived from Hindu methods from India. Yet it may not be correct because the Bur-Myan astronomer-astrologers use Metonic Cycle not found in India. See Burmese calendar: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Burmese_calendar 170718

To earn their living they have to work as Astrologers. Their clients came to them with the main purpose of altering the events of their life - such as students who would like to have help from unseen forces during exams, lovers having trouble from their loved ones and parents, married couples having marital and extra-marital problems, government officers (particularly those in the armed-forces - from captains to generals) seeking promotion or avoiding disciplinary actions, those having health problems, etc. These Astronomers-astrologers came be astute judges of peoples characters, and know how to influence them.

One of my older Astronomer-astrologer friends gave me my first lesson: note the look of the client, his or her use of the language, and age. Age 20: exam or love. Age 30: marital affair or official position. Older: health. Just listen to what they say: put your "predictions" in line with what they said. My friend who looked on me as a younger brother is no more, and though I cannot give out his name I remember him well. He was one of the famous astrologers of his day. Such astrologers are not charlatans and they turned to White Vajurveda.

Some of the Astronomer-astrologer would turn to Black Vajurveda. And some would use both White and Black.

There are those bordering on trickery. They will tell you what you already know: they are also good judges of peoples' characters. They will use "Magic" Yantras and recite "Magic" Mantras. I have come to know a couple of them and when I started to tell them that my specialty in Astrology is Astikavarga 'the strength of 8 planets", they stopped pretending or just threw me out.

Be ware of those who claimed themselves to be "Scientific Palmists". When I tell them I am a material scientist who had studied the works of the British Palmist who went by the name Cheiro (1866-1936) and showed them my palms with lines they have only read in books, they smiled and said goodbye!

See: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cheiro  141018
"William John Warner, known as Cheiro, (November 1, 1866 October 8, 1936) was an Irish astrologer and colorful occult figure of the early 20th century. His sobriquet, Cheiro, derives from the word cheiromancy, meaning palmistry." 


From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yajurveda 120215

The Yajurveda (यजुर्वेदः; yajurveda, a tatpurusha compound of yajus "sacrificial formula', + veda "knowledge") is the third of the four canonical texts of Hinduism, the Vedas. By some, it is estimated to have been composed between 1400 and 1000 BC, the Yajurveda 'Samhita', or 'compilation', contains the liturgy (mantras) needed to perform the sacrifices of the religion of the Vedic period, and the added Brahmana and Shrautasutra add information on the interpretation and on the details of their performance.

There are two primary versions or Samhitas of the Yajurveda: Shukla (white) {a.htak-lm: pi~a} and Krishna (black) {auk-lm: pi~a}. Both contain the verses necessary for rituals, but the Krishna Yajurveda includes the Brahmana prose discussions mixed within the Samhita, while the Shukla Yajurveda has separately a Brahmana text, the Shatapatha Brahmana.

UKT: More in the Wikipedia article.

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Vedic Philosophical schools

-- UKT 141019

Few Buddhists would care about Hindu philosophy, but those Myanmar elders (monks, nuns, and laymen) who would like to spread Theravada Myanmar Buddhism should know the various Hindu or Vedic philosophical schools.

Please note that the Bur-Myan term {b-dn} 'astrology' and {w-da.} 'Vda' are different.

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shakha 141019

A shakha शाखा 'branch, limb' [ {a-hka} UHS-PMD1020c2], is a Hindu theological school that specializes in learning certain Vedic texts, or else the traditional texts followed by such a school.[3][4] An individual follower of a particular school or recension is called a śākhin.[5] The term is also used in Hindu philosophy to refer to an adherent of a particular orthodox system.[6]

A related term caraṇa {sa.ra.Na.}, ("conduct of life" or "behavior") is also used to refer to such a Vedic school:[7] "although the words caraṇa and śākhā are sometimes used synonymously, yet caraṇa properly applies to the sect or collection of persons united in one school, and śākhā to the traditional text followed, as in the phrase śākhām adhite, ("he recites a particular version of the Veda")".[4] The schools have different points of view, described as "difference of (Vedic) school" (śākhābhedaḥ). Each school would learn a specific Vedic Saṃhita (one of the "four Vedas" properly so-called), as well as its associated Brahmana, Aranyakas, Shrautasutras, Grhyasutras and Upanishads.[3][4]

In traditional Hindu society affiliation with a specific school is an important aspect of class identity. By the end of the Rig Vedic period the term Brāhmaṇa {poaN~Na:} had come to be applied to all members of the priestly class, but there were subdivisions within this order based both on caste and on the shakha (branch) with which they were affiliated.[8] A Brāhmaṇa who changed school would be called "a traitor to his śākhā" (śākhāraṇḍaḥ).[3]


Yajur Veda { n: pi~a}

UKT 170720: Because Yajur Veda practice involves Methodology aka Tantra, Formula aka Mantra, resulting in Implement aka Yantra { n: }, I would equate it to the Practice of Magii or Magic. See Cult of Magus and the Cult of Runes in Folk Elements in Buddhism by U (Dr.) Htin Aung
- flk-ele-indx.htm > ch05-magus.htm (link chk 170720)

Śaunaka's Caraṇa-vyuha lists forty-two or forty-four out of eighty-six shakhas for the Yajur Veda, but that only five of these are now extant, with a sixth partially extant. For the Yajur Veda the five (partially in six) shakhas are the (Vajasaneyi Madhandina, Kanva; Taittiriya, Maitrayani, Caraka-Katha, Kapisthala-Katha).

The Yajurvedin shakhas are divided in Shukla (White) {a.htak-lm: pi~a} and Krishna (Black) {auk-lm: pi~a} schools. The White recensions have separate Brahmanas, while the Black ones have their (much earlier) Brahmanas interspersed between the Mantras.

Shukla Yajurveda: Vājasaneyi Samhita Madhyandina (VSM), Vājasaneyi Samhita Kānva (VSK): Shatapatha Brahmana (ShBM, ShBK)

Krishna Yajurveda: Taittirīya Saṃhita (TS) with an additional Brahmana, Taittiriya Brahmana (TB), Maitrayani Saṃhita (MS), Caraka-Katha Saṃhita (KS), Kapiṣṭhala-Katha Saṃhita (KapS).

UKT: More in the Wikipedia article.



Excerpt from p198 on Shaktism in Faith & Philosophy of Hinduism - by Rajeev Verma, 2009

The Shaktism focuses on the goddess generally called "Devi". She is worshipped most often as the consort of Shiva, but has also been raised to the status of the Supreme. [UKT ]

UKT 170719: I have come to the conclusion that since Shiva is a late-comer into the Vdas, whilest the Mother-goddess cult goes back to prehistoric times (see below the Archaeological findings), that "Shakti is the consort of Shiva" is nothing but the handy-work of the Shaivites {i-wa. poaN~Na:}.

Although some books equate Shaktism with all major female deities (the "shaktis" of their respective consorts), the Shakta custom specifically worships Shiva's consort, in her various forms such as Parvati, Durga, Kali, etc. The worship of Sita (with Rama) or of Radha (with Krishna) is not strictly part of Shaktism, but does point to the ubiquitous role that the female deity plays within Hinduism.

Within Shaktism, there is little emphasis on doctrinal sampradayas, and much ideology comes from Shaivism. Since Shiva embodies the male principle and Shakti embodies the female, the two principles of Shaivism and Shaktism are complementary. Shakti doctrine tends to emphasise the non-difference between matter and spirit, and looks to the creative impetus of matter rather than its ability to delude and entangle. For this fact, Shaktas worship for material benefit as well as final liberation. A notable aspect of Shaktism is animal sacrifice and even documented accounts of human sacrifice.

The findings of the Archaeological department suggest that Shaktism goes back to prehistoric times. The Goddess does feature in the Vedas themselves, but scholars suggest that mainstream worship comes from other sources. She seem s in Epics and Puranas, especially the Markandeya Purana. It is in the Tantras that she seem s to take the role of the Supreme.

There seem to be no strong sampradayic links, and Shaktism may have been passed down in a broader fashion, largely though local and village customs, and with other schools such as Shaivism. Shaivism has greatly influenced modern thinkers such as Ramakrishna and Aurobindo. Not surprisingly Devi in her fiercer forms has become the patron deity of women's liberation movements. Wherever Hindus have settled throughout the world, there are now a number of prominent Devi temples.
UKT: end of paragraph on Shaktism.

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Yak - {sa-ma.ri}

- UKT 170718: While Yak is a real animal, Sa'mari {sa-ma.ri}, is imaginary. More over, the usual figures shown are composite: made of parts of more than one animal. You should not even consider it to be a 'mythical animal'. It is nothing but imagination of artists - just plain imagination. It should be described only as "imaginary animal'. Pix on the right: {sa-ma.ri} or yak from MED2006-108

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yak 120214

The yak, Bos grunniens or Bos mutus, is a long-haired bovine found throughout the Himalayan region of south Central Asia, the Tibetan Plateau and as far north as Mongolia and Russia. In addition to a large domestic population, there is a small, vulnerable wild yak population.

In the 1990s, a concerted effort was undertaken to help save the wild yak population.

UKT: Pix on right is yak. It is an important animal because the whisk made from the tail of the animal is one of the items of the Burmese regalia. However, in reality, because the real yaks are not so common, the actual whist are made from the hairs of horse.

UKT: More in Wikipedia article

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Yellow Champak of Mt. Popa

- UKT 180528: I still remember, a line of a long forgotten poem:
{o:ka.l: / poap~pa: nt-tan / a.hkan mrn. hpya: / son-tau:pra: nheik //
 nn.sha: kren-lwn. / hka-tn pwn. / shw-nhn. ro:mha: pan:sn-ka: //}

Regular Bur-Myan:
Romabama: {shw-nhn. ro:mha: pan:sn-ka:}
Meaning: '[because of its bright yellow colour] is mistaken for gold'.

Note: Though Bur-Myan is phonetic, because it lacks some phonemes and the corresponding akshara glyphs, I've to use Romabama the intermediary script for use with the four spoken languages of BEPS. The first phoneme in the above lines stands for 'gold', and it is derived from dental-fricative {Sa.}/ {S}, modified with a {ha.hto:} : {Sha.}. However, because it could easily be mistaken as palatal-plosive {sa.}/ {c} modified with a {ha.hto:}, I've to modify {Sha.} as {sha.}/ {sh}.

Secondly, the aksharas of row#2 of Bur-Myan & Pal-Myan (Tib-Bur), {sa.}, {hsa.}, {za.}, {Za.}, are palatal-plosives, where as the corresponding phonemes of Skt-Dev, Eng-Lat (IE), as well as Pal-Lankan, & Mon-Myan (Aus-Asi) are palatal-affricates. This resulted in {sa.ka:} of Bur-Myan corresponding to Champak of modern English. I am attempting to explain this correspondence using Romabama.

For a description of Mt. Popa from a geographical angle, go to Section 8: Geography, Geology, and Fossils, go to:
 Section 8 > geog-indx > phy-geo-myan.htm

For a full story of the tragic story of the mighty blacksmith of ancient Tagaung city-state of Upper Myanmarpr, refer to Section 5: Myanmar languages and culture > Myanmar Religions: Organized and Folk, and go to
Folk Elements in Buddhism , Maung (Dr.) Htin Aung
-- flk-ele-indx.htm > ch06-1-mahagiri.htm (link chk 180528)

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