Update: 2017-07-26 03:42 PM -0400

TIL

A Practical Sanskrit Dictionary

p091.htm

by A. A. Macdonell, 1893,
http://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/scans/MDScan/index.php?sfx=jpg 1929.
Nataraj ed., 1st in 2006, 2012

Edited, with additions from Pali sources, by U Kyaw Tun (UKT) (M.S., I.P.S.T., USA) and staff of Tun Institute of Learning (TIL) . Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone. Prepared for students and staff of TIL Research Station, Yangon, MYANMAR :  http://www.tuninst.net , www.romabama.blogspot.com 

MC-indx.htm | Top
MCc2pp-indx.htm

Contents of this page

{sa.Na.} / {sN} - cont : <))kya'na/sa'na
  p091c1
{sa.ta.} / {st}
{sa.tu.}
  p091c2
  p091c3
{sa.twa.}
{sa.na.}/ {sn}
{sn} / {sn~}
{sn~da.} / Skt: {sn-dra.}
{sn-dra.} = Pal: {sn-da.}

 

UKT notes :
Game of chess : Bur-Myan style
Sandrokottos
 - Chandragupta Maurya चन्द्रगुप्त मौर्य   - grandfather of King Asoka

 

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{sa.Na.} / {sN} - cont

p091c1

p091c1-b00

चण्डकर्मन् [ kanda-karman ]
- m. N. of a Rkshasa (acting cruelly); -kirana, m. (hot-rayed), sun; -ketu, m. N.; -kausika, m. N. of a son of Kakshvat; n. T. of a drama; -ghosha, m. N.; -t, f., -tva, n. passionateness; wrathfulness; -ddhiti, m. (hot-rayed), sun; -pota: -ka, m. N. of an elephant; -prabha, m. N.; -bhugaṅga, m. N.; -mahsena, m. N. of a prince; -rava, m. N. of a jackal (yelling fiercely); -rasmi, m. (hot-rayed), sun; -varman, m. N. of a prince; -vikrama, m. N. of a prince; -sla, a. choleric; -simha, m. N. of a prince; -‿amsu, m. (hot-rayed), sun.

 

p091c1-b01

चण्डाल [ kandla ]
--> {sN~a-la.}
Skt: चण्डाल [ kandla ] -- m. man of the lowest stratum of society, universally despised and shunned; a mixed caste, offspring of Sdra and Brhman; -- , a good-for-nothing --; , , f. Kandla woman. -- Mac091c1
Nep: चण्डाल् caṇḍāl or cāṇḍāl, -- s. outcast; executioner; adj. accursed, damned. - Turn-Nep164
Pal: {sN~a-la.} -- UHS-PMD0380
  UKT from UHS read with MLC-MED2006-216 - m. grave-digger; begger

 

p091c1-b02

चण्डिका [ kand-ik ]
- f. ep. of Durg; temple of Durg: -griha, n. temple of Durg.

 

p091c1-b03

चण्डिमन् [ kand-i-man ]
- m. heat; passionateness [UKT: sex-offender], fierceness, cruelty.

 

p091c1-b04

[kand-kri]
-- enrage

 

p091c1-b05

  चण्डीपति [ kand-pati ]
- m. ep. of Siva; -‿sa, m. id.; -‿svara, id.; -stotra, n. T. of a poem in praise of Durg.

 

p091c1-b06

[kand‿svara]
-- m. ep. of Siva

 

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{sa.ta.} / {st}

p091c1-b07

  चत् [ KAT ]
- only pr. pt. ktat and pp. katt, hide (int.); cs. ktya, drive away. pra, vi, cs. . id.

 

p091c1-b08

[ktasri] or [katasr]
-- f. of katur

 

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{sa.tu.}

p091c1-b09

[katuh-ka] -pa
- v. katush-ka, -pa, etc.

 

p091c1-b10

चतुर् catur [ katr ]
= च त ु र ् --> {sa.tu~r} (UKT: note the presence of viram)
Skt: चतुर् [ katr ] -- num. m. n. pl. four. - Mac094c1
Pal: {sa.tu.} -- UHS-PMD0381
  UKT from UHS: mfn. num. four. four items.

UKT 141015: It is probable that the whole of Indian subcontinent and Myanmarpr were speaking the Tib-Bur dialects before the incursion of Sanskrit and Dravidian speakers. In Myanmarpr there were the Pyus. The word {sa.tu.} of the Tib-Bur when spoken by Sanskrit speaker came to have an extra <r> added and became {sa.tu~r}. This phenomenon is observed in American English when the word <china> (ceramic) is pronounced with an extra /r/ even when there is no <r>. It is a case of "intrusive r". Please note that this is just an unsubstantiated idea in need of further study.

 

p091c1-b11

चतुर [ kat-ura ]
- a. quick, swift; dexterous, clever, ingenious, crafty; charming; n. cleverness: -ka, a. (ik) dexterous, clever; m. N. of a jackal; f. N. of a woman.

 

p091c1-b12

चतुरक्ष [ katur-aksh ]
- a. (&isharp;) four-eyed.

 

p091c1-b13

चतुरक्षर [ ktur-akshara ]
- a. having four syllables; n. aggregate of four syllables.

 

p091c1-b14

चतुरङ्ग [ ktur-aṅga ]
- a. having four members: -m balam, n. complete army (consisting of infantry, cavalry, elephants, and chariots); , f. army consisting of these four arms; n. id.; chess: -bala‿adhipatya, n. command of a complete army.

UKT 141016: See my note on Myanmar game of chess
imitating a  complete army (consisting of infantry, cavalry, elephants, and chariots)

 

p091c1-b15

चतुरङ्गिन् [ katur-aṅgin ]
- a. consisting of four parts.

 

p091c1-b16

चतुरता [ katura-t ]
- f. cleverness, craftiness, shrewdness.

p091c1-b17

चतुरनीक [ ktur-anka ]
- a. four-faced; -anta, a. bounded on all four sides (by the sea): , f. earth; -asra, a. square; regular, harmonious: -t, f. harmony, -sobhin, a. harmoniously beautiful; -asri, a. square; -ah, m. period of four days; -tman, a. having four forms or faces; -nana, a. four-faced, ep. of Brahma Brahman; -uttar, a. increasing by four.

 

p091c1-b18

चतुर्गुण [ ktur-guna ]
- a. fourfold.

 

p091c1-b19

चतुर्थ [ katur-th ]
- a. (&isharp;) fourth: -m, ad. the fourth time; n. fourth part; , f. fourth day in a fortnight; fourth wedding day.

 

p091c1-b20

चतुर्थकाल [ katurtha-kla ]
- m. fourth meal time: -m, lc. = on the evening of the second day; -klika, a. eating the fourth meal only; -bhg, a. receiving a fourth part as tribute.

 

p091c1-b21

चतुर्थांश [ katurtha‿amsa ]
- m. fourth part; a. receiving a fourth; -‿amsin, a. id.

 

p091c1-b22

चतुर्थीकर्मन् [ katurth-karman ]
- n. ceremony of the fourth wedding day.

 

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p091c2

p091c2-b00

[ katur-danta ]
- m. N. of an elephant

 

p091c2-b01

चतुर्दश [ katur-das ]
- a. () fourteenth; consisting of fourteen; , f. fourteenth day of a fortnight: -dasa-dh, ad. fourteenfold; -dasn (or k-), num. fourteen; -dasama, a. fourteenth; -dasark, a. hvg. fourteen verses; -drik, f. N. of the fifth lambaka in the Kathsaritsgara; -dikkam, ad. to the four quarters; -disam, ad. id.; -dvra-mukha, a. () having four gates as mouths; -dh, ad. in four parts; fourfold.

 

p091c2-b02

चतुर्बाहु [ katur-bhu ]
- a. four-armed; -bila, a. having four apertures; -bhg, m. fourth, quarter; -bhuga, a. four-armed, ep. of Vishnu or Krishna; -bhmika, a. four-storied; -ms, f. period of four months; -mukha, a. four-faced; ep. of Brahma Brahman, Vishnu, and Siva: -samrita, pp. uttered by the four mouths; -muhrtam, ac. for four muhrtas; -mrti, a. having four forms or faces; -yuga, n. the four ages; a. comprising the four ages; -vaktra, a. four-faced; ep. of an attendant of Durg; -varga, m. aggregate of four: esp. the four goods of life, the good (artha), the pleasant (kma), the useful (artha), and final liberation (moksha): -kintmani, m. T. of a work; -varna-maya, a. consisting of the four castes; -varsha-sata‿yus, a. attaining an age of 400 years; -vims, a. () twenty-fourth; consisting of twenty-four; m. N. of a stoma in which three verses are chanted eight times; n. the day on which it is employed; -vimsat, f. twenty-four; (ktur)-vimsati, f. sg. and (rarely) pl. id.: -kritvas, ad. twenty-four times, -tama, a. twenty-fourth, y-aha, m. sg. twenty-four days; -vimsika, n. = katur-vimsa, m.; -vidha, a. fourfold: -m, ad.; -vra, m. kind of Soma rite lasting four days; -veda, m. pl. the four Vedas; a. containing or familiar with the four Vedas; -vedin, a. versed in the four Vedas; (ktur)-hanu, a. four-jawed.

चतुर्वर्ग caturvarga [ katur-varga] 
Skt: m. aggregate of four: esp. the four goods of life, the good (artha), the pleasant (kma), the useful (artha), and final liberation (moksha) -- Mac091c2
Skt:  चतुर्वर्ग caturvarga - m. collection of 4 things - SpkSkt
Pal: {sa.tu.wag~ga.} -- UHS-PMD0383
  UKT from UHS: m - collection of 4 things or persons.

UKT 141017: What Macdonell has given of the above word is a philosophical idea of Hinduism. The word "moksha" in Hinduism means something entirely different (and opposite) from Theravada "Nibbana", and Mahayana "Nirvana".
 A Sanskrit work with the above name is: Chaturvarga Chintamani , vol.1 (37248), by Author: Khanda, Dana , in Sanskrit, Published by : Asiatic Society of Bengal; Calcutta; 1873 , p970

 

p091c2-b03

चतुश्््चत्वारिंश [ katus-katvrims ]
- a. (), forty fourth; ktus-katvrimsat, f. forty-four.

 

p091c2-b04

चतुःशत [ ktuh-sata ]
- n. one hundred and four; four hundred; -sapha, a. four-hoofed; -sla, a. containing rooms on all four sides; m. building with square court in the middle: -ka, i-k, f. court with four rooms (one on each side); -srotra, a. four-eared.

 

p091c2-b05

चतुष्क [ katush-ka ]
- a. consisting of four; increased by four (-sata, n. 104 = 4 per cent); m. N.; n. tetrad, set of four things; kind of hall resting on four columns; square reception room; -karna, a. heard by four ears only: -t, f. in. in confidence.

 

p091c2-b06

चतुष्किका [ katushk-ik ]
- f. tetrad; hall resting on four pillars.

 

p091c2-b07

चतुष्टय [ ktush-taya ]
- a. () of four kinds, consisting of four; tetrad; set of four.

 

p091c2-b08

चतुष्पञ्च [ katush-paka ]
- pl. four or five; -paksat, f. fifty-four; -path, m. n. place where four roads meet.

 

p091c2-b09

चतुष्पद् ktush-pad, -˚पाद् [ -pd ]
- a. (f. -pad ) four-footed; consisting of four parts or padas; f. having taken four steps; m. n. quadruped; -pada, a. four-footed; having four pdas; m. quadruped; -pda, a. () four-footed; m. quadruped; -puta, a. having four folds.

 

p091c2-b10

चतुःषष्टि [ katuh-shashti ]
- f. sixty-four: -tama, a. sixty-fourth, y-aṅga, a. having sixty-four parts; -shtom, m. stoma of four parts each increasing by four verses; a. connected with a fourfold stoma.

 

p091c2-b11

चतुस् [ kats ]
- ad. four times.

 

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p091c3

p091c3-b00

चतुस्त्रिंश [ katus-trims ]
- a. () thirty-fourth; containing thirty-four; (ktus)-trimsat, f. thirty-four; -tri-dvi‿eka-bhga, a. receiving four, three, two, or one part.

 

p091c3-b01

चतुःसंधि [ katuh-samdhi ]
- a. composed of four parts; (ktuh)-samudra, a. () bounded by four seas; (ktuh)-sahasra, n. four thousand.

 

p091c3-b02

[kat-rtr]
-- four days; -m , ac. for four days.

 

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{sa.twa.}

p091c3-b03

चत्वर [ katvar- ]
- m. n. square, courtyard.

 

p091c3-b04

चत्वार् [ katvr ]
- str. st. of katur, m. n. pl. four.

 

p091c3-b05

चत्वारिंश [ katvrim-s ]
- a. (&isharp;) fortieth; -sat, f. forty; -sati, f. id.; -san-mna, n. having a weight of forty.

 

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{sa.na.}/ {sn}

p091c3-b06

चत् [ kan ],
- only aor
. kanishtm and knishtat , rejoice in (lc.) ; gladden

 

p091c3-b07

चन cana  [ ka-n (SV. ka n) ]
Skt: चन [ ka-n (SV. ka n) ] -- immediately following emphasized word: V. not even; without neg. meaning (rare) also; after neg. even; C. (= kid) only after interrogatives in indefinite sense, even, at all. - Mac091c1
Pal: {sa.na.} - UHS-PMD0384
  UKT from UHS: a phrase describing a part

 

p091c3-b08

चनस् [ kn-as ]
- n. gladness: only with dh, rejoice in (ac., lc.); grant.

 

p091c3-b09

चनस्य [ kanas-y ]
- den. P. rejoice in (ac.): pp. kanasita, welcome! (voc.); gentle -(with N. of Brhman {poaN~Na:}, or, according to some, with that of a Kshatriya or Vaisya).

 

p091c3-b10

चनिष्ठ [ kn-ishtha ]
- spv. very welcome, very gracious.

 

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{sn} / {sn~}

p091c3-b11

चन्द् [ KAND ]
= च न ् द ्
- v. SKAND, shine.

 

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{sn~da.}

p091c3-b12

चन्दन [ kand-ana ]
= च न ् द न
- m. n. sandal tree, wood, powder, or ointment: -ka, m. N.; -dsa, m. N.; -paṅka, m. sandal ointment; -pta, m. application of sandal ointment; -pura, n. N. of a town; -maya, a. made of sandal wood; consisting of sandal ointment; -rasa, m., -vri, n. fluid essence of sandal wood; -‿adri, m. sandal mountain, the Malaya range.

चन्दन candana [ kand-ana ]
= च न ् द न 
Skt: चन्दन [kand-ana ] -- m. n. sandal tree, wood, powder, or ointment: -- Mac091c3
Pal: {sn~da.na.} - UHS-PMD0384
  UKT from UHS: n. sandal-wood tree or timber

 

p091c3-b13

चन्दनाय [ kandan-ya ]
- den. . become a sandal tree.

 

p091c3-b14

चन्दनोदक [ kandana‿udaka ]
- n. fluid essence of sandal wood.

UKT 141016: Since steam-distillation (chemical process) in one form or another was well known in ancient India, I would translate the above as "Sandal-wood oil". In our usual method of application, a piece of sandal-wood is rubbed against a stone surface with application of water. The resulting paste thinned with more addition of water is applied to the human face. After adding more water to produce an "extract" it is sprinkled on sacred objects. The paste can be extended with paste of Thanakha.

 

p091c3-b15

[ kanda-l ]
- f. N. of a woman

 

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{sn-dra.} = Pal: {sn-da.}

p091c3-b16

चन्द्र [ kand-r ]
= च न ् द ् र --> {sn-dra.}
- a. shining, bright; lovely; m. moon (also as a deity); -- = chief among --; N.; n. gold: a-ka, m. (-- a. ik) moon; eye in a peacock's tail; N.; -kal, f. sixteenth part of the moon's disc (as seen on the day before or after new moon); -knta, a. lovely as the moon; m. moon-stone (a fabulous gem formed of the congealed rays of the moon, glittering & exuding cool moisture in moon light only): -mani-maya, a. made of moon stone, -maya, a. id.

चन्द्र [ kand-r ]
Skt: चन्द्र --> {sn-dra.}
- a. shining, bright; lovely; m. moon (also as a deity) -- MaC091c3
Pal: {sn-da.} - UHS PMD0384
  UKT from UHS: m. Moon, Monday-Planet-god .

UKT 160227: Planet-god can be a Dva or an Asura who are mortal enemies in Vdic astrology. However the Asuras are demonized by later Sanskrit priests.

 

p091c3-b17

चन्द्रकित [ kandrak-ita ]
- pp. marked with moon-shaped spots.

UKT 141016: I wonder what Macdonell means by "moon-shaped". It can be crescents implying something magic and malevolent . It can also be full-circles implying perfection and benevolence . The moon-shaped ornament on Shiva's head shows his darker side.

 

p091c3-b18

चन्द्रकुल्या [ kandra-kuly ]
- f. N. of a river; -ketu, m. N.; -kshaya, m. new moon; -gupta, m. N. of various kings, esp. the Sandrokottos who flourished about 300 B.C.: -ka, m. id.; -kda, a. moon-crested, ep. of Siva; -kdmani, m. T. of a work; -tva, n. likeness to the moon; -deva, m. N. of a Brhman; -pda, m. moon-beam; -pura, n. N. of a town; -prabha, m., , f. N.; -prsda, m. room on the roof; -bimba, n. disc of the moon: -maya, a. consisting of moon-discs; -bhg, f. N. of a river; -mandala, n. moon-disc; -maya, a. () being altogether moon; ()-mas, m. moon; moon-god (represented as a Dnava or as one of the eight Vasus); -msa, m. lunar month; -mukuta, m. (moon-crested), ep. of Siva; -mukha, m. N.; mauli, -maulin, m. (moon crested), ep. of Siva.

See my note on Sandrokottos

(p091c3end)

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UKT notes

Game of Chess

-- UKT 141016:

During the earlier years of WWII, Myanmarpr enjoyed some months of peace. Of course there were skirmishes between the Japanese and the Western Allied forces in the frontiers. There were no highway robbers, and no bombing by the Allies. My family was in Kyangin on the Irrawaddy river and my father used to play Myanmar chess with his friend U Myint and I usually accompanied him on his visits to play chess.

The chess-men were wooden pieces about 2 inches high, coloured vermillion red and black. The board was a low table set between the players and the players would be sitting on a large reed mat. Of course there were two kings, and two generals. It seems that the Myanmar queens were peaceful and unlike their western cousins left the business of war to their man folk. There were no castles and their place was taken by chariots. There were elephants and horses. The foot-soldiers were known as {n} 'the frontier'. According to my father, the Chinese chess is quite unique in having Canon which is natural because they were inventers of gun-powder.

I am sorry to say that I do not know rules of Myanmar chess.

With this little note I pay my respects to U Myint who I saw last in 1946, after the War, when he came to visit our house in East Rangoon.

Go back game-chess-note-b

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Sandrokottos

-- UKT 140901:

Greek pronunciation of "Sandrokottos" च should be pronounced as {sa.} . The Skt-Dev of the name is: चन्द्रगुप्त मौर्य . Taking the first part:  चन्द्र = च न ् द ् र , we get {sn~ra.}   

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chandragupta_Maurya 120214

Chandragupta Maurya (Skt: चन्द्रगुप्त मौर्य ; Hindi: चन्द्रगुप्त मौर्य), (born c. 340 BCE, ruled c. 320 BCE, [2] 298 BCE [3]) was the founder of the Maurya Empire. He succeeded in conquering most of the Indian subcontinent and is considered the first unifier of India as well as its first genuine emperor. [4] In foreign Greek and Latin accounts, Chandragupta is known as Sandrokyptos (Σανδρόκυπτος), Sandrokottos (Σανδρόκοττος) or Androcottus. [5]

Prior to Chandragupta's consolidation of power, small regional kingdoms dominated the northwestern subcontinent, while the Nanda Dynasty dominated the middle and lower basin of the Ganges. [6] After Chandragupt's conquests, the Maurya Empire extended from Bengal and Assam [7] in the east, to Afghanistan and Balochistan in the west, to Kashmir and Nepal [8] in the north, and to the Deccan Plateau in the south. [9] [UKT ]

UKT120241, 170717: According to Glass Palace Chronicle, the Pyu kingdoms, particularly that of Tagaung would have been flourishing. If so, why didn't Chandragupta extend his territory further to the east. My conjecture is, Chandragupta war tactics were based on his four-fold army: the chariots, the war-elephants, the war-horses and infantry. His army would have been useless in the tropical jungles surrounding the Pyu cities. Moreover, the mountain-ranges between Bengal-Assam and Burma were very difficult to cross, and there was a very virulent kind of malaria that could kill a person overnight which must have given rise to the stories of the sorcerers, magicians and the weretigers  in the valley below the mountains. See Physical geography, Malaria & other diseases as sentinels, Sky islands, and fossils in Geography, Geology, Fossils
-- geo-indx.htm > phy-geo-myan.htm/ malaria.htm/ sky-island.htm/ fossil.htm (all links chk 170717)

Tradition holds that Chandragupta abdicated his throne to become a [Jain] monk and led such an ascetic life that he starved himself to death. Whether or not this is factually accurate, he was succeeded by his son in 297 BC.

Chandragupta's achievements, which ranged from conquering Macedonian satrapies in the northwest and conquering the Nanda Empire by the time he was only about 20 years old, to achieving an alliance with Seleucus I Nicator [ca. 358 BC 281 BC] and establishing centralized rule throughout South Asia, remain some of the most celebrated in the history of India. [UKT ]

UKT 141017: We usually heap praises and accusations on the top person - usually the king. But the exploits of the leader depends on his most able advisor usually a person of high learning. In the case of Chandragupta, it was his able minister Chenaka (c. 370 c. 283 BCE) who not only played the kingmaker but his military tactician, his economist, and his medical advisor. See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chanakya  141017

Over two thousand years later, the accomplishments of Chandragupta stand out in the history of South Asia.

UKT120214: Chandragupta's empire was a very extensive one, and his subjects would be speaking different languages. Was there a lingua franca as Latin was in the Roman Empire? Was it Vedic [slowly dying out?] or Classical Sanskrit and how was it written: in Asoka's script aka Brahmi? Presumably, the Brahmin scribes or secretaries probably trained by Chanakya himself would be in every court to conduct the administration of the Empire. 

UKT: More in the Wikipedia article.

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End of TIL file