Update: 2016-03-13 12:01 PM -0500


A Practical Sanskrit Dictionary


by A. A. Macdonell, 1893,
http://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/scans/MDScan/index.php?sfx=jpg 1929.
Nataraj ed., 1st in 2006, 2012

Edited, with additions from Pali sources, by U Kyaw Tun (UKT) (M.S., I.P.S.T., USA) and staff of Tun Institute of Learning (TIL) . Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone. Prepared for students and staff of TIL Research Station, Yangon, MYANMAR : http://www.tuninst.net , www.romabama.blogspot.com

MC-indx.htm | Top

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{za} - cont
{za.ya} : a conjunct may be formed


UKT notes :
Jnana : {Zaan}

Caveat: Beware of the popular layman notion of {Zaan}, {Zaan-krwa.}, and {Zaan-pyn}
- v. journey by levitation through the exercise of supernatural powers obtained by practising Jhana - MLC MED2006-155

UKT 160311: By "levitation" is meant the opposite of scientifically observed gravitational forces. Do not forget that energy is required to lift the mass of human-body and make it "fly" through the air. As a material scientist, I cannot accept the notion of "levitation".


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{za} - cont



ज्ञातव्य [ g-tavya ]
- fp. to be ascertained or learned; to be considered as (nm.).



ज्ञाति [ g-ti ]
- m. near blood-relation; kinsman: -karman, n. business of a kinsman; -krya, n. kinsman's duty; -tva, n. consanguinity; -putra, m. son of a relative; -prabhu ka, a. of high position among relatives; -pr ya, a. meant specially for blood-relations; -bh va, m. relationship: -tas, ad. on the strength of his relationship; -bheda, m. quarrel among kinsmen; -mat, a. having near kinsmen.




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UKT 160311: Skt-Myan {za-na.}, derived aks-to-aks from Skt-Dev, is the same or comparable
to Pal-Myan {Za-na.} - UHS PMD0420 
and to Bur-Myan {Zaan}. See my note on Jnana
See also Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jnana 160311


ज्ञान [ g-na ]
- n. knowledge; true or superior knowledge (sts. pl.); wisdom; intention; assumption; consciousness; organ of sense: -knda, n. the part of revelation treating of the higher knowledge; -kakshus, n. eye of knowledge; a. seeing with the eye of knowledge; -da, m. imparter of knowledge; -prva, a. preceded by knowledge, i. e. well-considered; -maya, a. () consisting in or containing knowledge; -mrga, m. path of knowledge; -yoga, m. the theoretical Yoga; -vat, a. knowing; learned; possessed of superior knowledge; -sakti-mat, a. having the faculty of knowing; -siddhi, m. N.


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ज्ञानिन् [ gn-in ]
- a. knowing, understanding, wise; having the higher knowledge; m. fortune teller, astrologer: (i)-tva, n. fortune-telling.



ज्ञानेच्छाक्रियाशक्तिमत् [ gna‿ikkh-kriy- sakti-mat ]
- a. having the faculty of knowledge, will, and action.



ज्ञानेन्द्रिय [ gna‿indriya ]
- m. organ of perception or sense.



ज्ञापक [ g-p-aka ]
- a. (ik) causing to know, teaching, indicating; m. master of petitions (an official); n. precept; implicit rule (of grammar); -ana, n. notifying, indicating; -anya, fp. to be made known or notified as (nm.); -ayitri, m. instructor.



ज्ञीप्सा [ gp-s ]
- (des.) f. enquiry.


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ज्ञेय [ ge-ya ]
- fp. to be known, -learned, -understood; -investigated; -considered as (nm.): -m, (with in. of subject) one should know how to (inf.): -ga, m. mind (knowing the knowable); -t, f., -tva, n. knowableness, comprehensibility.


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ज्या [ 2. gy&asharp; ]
- f. superior power or force; excessive requirement.



ज्या [ 3. gy&asharp; ]
- f. bowstring.



ज्याकृष्टि [ gy-krishti ]
- f. drawing of the bow string.



ज्यानि [ gy-n ]
- f. oppression; disappearance.



ज्यापाश [ gy-ps ]
- m. bowstring.



ज्याय [ gy-ya ]
- den. . represent a bowstring.



ज्यायस् [ gy&asharp;-yas ]
- cpv. mightier; stronger; superior, better, greater; older; more venerable or distinguished; most excellent or distinguished: -tva, n. abst. n.; -vat, a. recognising a superior, obedient.



ज्यायिष्ठ [ gyy-ishtha ]
- spv. a. most excellent or distinguished; first; best.




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ज्येष्ठ [ gy&halfacute;ishtha (or ) ]
- spv. most excellent or beauteous; greatest; highest; best; first; chief; superior to (ab.); eldest: -m, ad. most, greatly; m. elder brother; (sc. ghata) ascending bucket on the water-wheel; N. of a month, May--June (= [gyaishtha] jyeshta ); &asharp;, f. eldest wife; N. of the 16th (18th) lunar station; misfortune; n. chief thing.




ज्येष्ठतर [ gyeshtha-tara ]
- cpv. m. one of the elders; , f. nurse; -t, f., -tva, n. superiority, precedence; primogeniture; -pla, m. N.; -va yas, a. older than (--); -varnin, m. Brhman; -vritti, a. behaving like an elder brother; -sman, n. N. of a Sman; a. one who chants this Sman; -sma-ga, a. id.; -‿srama, m. most excellent order (that of the householder); a. living in the householder stage.


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ज्यैष्ठ [ gyaishtha ]
- m. N. of a summer month (May-June); , f. day of full moon in Gyaishtha; -smika, a. relating to the gyeshtha-sman.


ज्यैष्ठ [ gyaishtha ] jyaiṣṭha
Skt: ज्यैष्ठ = ज ् य ै ष ्ठ jyaiṣṭha - m. Luni-solar month corresponding to May-June - SpkSkt
Pal: {zT~HTa.} , rhyming with {hkt} but commonly mis-pronounced as {z-HTa.}
  UKT from UHS: . mfn. elder, respectable, prominent in stature. . Lunar mansion of Jyeshta nakshatra corresponding to the third Bur-Myan Lunar month of {na.yoan} corresponding to May-June.



ज्यैष्ठिनेय [ gyaishth-in-ey ]
- m. son of the father's eldest wife.



ज्यैष्ठ्य [ gyashth-ya ]
- n. precedence; primogeniture.


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ज्योक् [ gyk ]
- ad. for a long time: -tamm, ad. longest.



ज्योतिरग्र [ gytir-agra ]
- a. (preceded by=) radiating light; -sa, -svara, m. N. of an author.



ज्योतिर्ज्ञ [ gyotir-ga ]
- m. astronomer; -maya, a. consisting of light, radiant; -lekh, f. N.; -vid, m. astronomer.



ज्योतिःशास्त्र [ gyotih-sstra ]
Skt: ज्योतिःशास्त्र [ gyotih-sstra ] - n. astronomy. - Mac103c3
Pal: {zau:ti.t~hta.} - UHS PMD0419
  UKT from UHS: n. predictive astrology



ज्योतिष [ gyotish-a ]
- n. astronomical science (one of the six Vedṅgas).



ज्योतिष्कण [ gyotish-kana ]
- m. spark; -prabha, m. N. of a Buddha, of a Bodhisattva, and of a prince; -praroha, m. (shoot of light): pl. rays; -mat, a. full of light, radiant, brilliant, heavenly; m. sun; N.: -, f. a form of trishtubh metre.



ज्योतिःष्टोम [ gyotih-shtoma ]
- m. (Praise of Light), kind of Soma sacrifice (which consists of four, Agnishtoma, Ukthya, Shodasin, and Atirtra, or seven parts: the same and Atyag nishtoma, Vgapeya, and ptoryma).



ज्योतिस् [ gyt-is ]
- n. light, radiance; fire; light of the eye; world of light; intelligence; light of life, freedom, joy, victory: pl. heavenly bodies, stars.



ज्योतीरस [ gyot-rasa ]
- m. (dew of light), kind of gem.



ज्योत्स्ना [ gyt-sn ]
- f. moonlight: -maya, a. consisting of moonlight; -vat, a. moonlight (night); bright.





ज्यौत्स्न [ gyautsna ]
- m. (moonlit half=) light half of the month.



ज्रयस् [ gry-as ]
- n. expanse, space.




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ज्वर [ gvar-a ]
- m. fever; sorrow: -pralpa, m. delirious raving.



ज्वरित [ gvar-ita ]
- pp. feverish; -in, a. id.



GVAL, I.P. (E. also .) gvala, blaze, burn, flame, glow, flash; be red-hot: pp. gvalita, flaming, blazing, flshing, shining; cs. gvlaya, kindle; illuminate; intv. g-gvalati or ggvalyate, blaze powerfully; shine brilliantly. ud, flare up. cs. set aflame, kindle; illuminate; pra, begin to blaze or flash: pp. flaming, blazing; shining; cs. kindle. abhi-vi, shine towards. sam, blaze; cs.-gvlaya, kindle.



ज्वल [ gval-a ]
- m. flame; -at, pr. pt. burning, shining etc.; m. burning fire.



ज्वलन [ gval-an ]
- a. burning; shining; m. fire; caustic potash; n. flaming: -kana, m. spark.



ज्वलित [ gval-ita ]
- (pp.) n. shining, sheen.



ज्वाल [ gvla ]
- m. flame; torch; , f. illumination; flame, bright light: -dhvaga, m. fire, -mukha, m. (Flame-mouth), kind of ghost; N. of a Brahmarkshasa, -liṅga, n. N. of a temple of Siva.



ज्वालिन् [ gvl-in ]
- a. flaming.


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UKT notes


- UKT 160313

The occupants of the cells r2c4 & r2c5 of the Akshara-Matrix are very controversial in Burmese-Myanmar (Bur-Myan), Mon-Myanmar (Mon-Myan), Pali-Myanmar (Pali-Myan), and Sanskrit-Myanmar (Skt-Myan) (derived by aks-to-aks transformation from Sanskrit-Devanagari).

In Bur-Myan, the True-Za {Za.} - the occupant of r2c4 - is an important phoneme with indigenous words such as {Z:} 'a market place' and its derivatives. However in other languages, there are other phonemes (shown by the respective glyphs) in this cell. All in all:

Bur-Myan: "look alike of {sa.ya.pn.} -
   Mon-Myan: "look alike of {za.ya.pn.} - /
   Skt-Myan: "look alike of {za.a.hsw:} -  - derived aks-to-aks from Skt-Dev ज्ञ
Whatever the glyph may look like, to the Buddhists {Za.} is important because of the word for Jhana 'knowledge'
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jnana 160311 
and the various stages of Jhana in a person's quest for Nirvana.

Our first study is therefore to find what this Jhana (Skt-Dev) is, and how it is related to Nyana {a-Na.} (Pal-Myan), and to {Zaan} (Bur-Myan). The idea of {Zaan} in popular notion is entirely different from the idea of Jhana (Skt-Dev), and refers to the human power of levitation and ability to fly through the air in the physical body weighing about 150 lbs. It is connected to two words {Zaan-krwa.}, and {Zaan-pyn}. See MLC MED2006-155, which defines the power as:
- v. journey by levitation through the exercise of supernatural powers obtained by practising Jhana .

A human being is supposed to come to possess this power by either the Left-Hand Path (Black Magic of Witches) or the Right-Hand Path (White Magic of Waik'zas)

From Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jnana 160311

Jāna , ज्ञान jāna [Wiki Pali: āṇa {a-Na.}], a term for "knowledge" in Indian philosophy and religion.

The idea of jnana centers on a cognitive event which is recognized when experienced. It is knowledge inseparable from the total experience of reality, especially a total or divine reality (Brahman). [1]

UKT 160311: It was the experience of my youth when my father U Tun Pe explained to me the idea of "Brahman". The prime reason was my confusion with the word for the human Brahmana-Poannar {braah~ma.Na. poaN~Na:}. Because of this, I have struck out the words connected to unseen and unrealistic idea of the "Brahman".

The root jā- is cognate to English <know> [note: <k> is made silent in English because of the absence of the /ŋ/ (velar), /ɲ/ (palatal) & /ɳ/ (retroflex) phonemes], as well as to the Greek γνώ- (as in γνῶσις <gnosis> [note <g> is made silent in English]). Its antonym is ajāna "ignorance".

In Myanmar Theravada Buddhism

In the Vipassanā tradition of Buddhism there are the following anas [Bur-Myan {aaN}] according to Mahasi Sayadaw. [3]. As a person meditates these anas or "knowledges" will be experienced in order. The experience of each may be brief or may last for years and the subjective intensity of each is variable. Each ana could also be considered a jhāna although many are not stable and the mind has no way to remain embedded in the experience. [UKT ]

UKT 160311: Note the implication that there is a difference between ana {aaN} and jhāna {Zaan} .
Also please note that I am giving the Bur-Myan equivalents instead of Pal-Myan to show the viram.

Experiencing all the anas will lead to the first of the Four stages of enlightenment then the cycle will start over at a subtler level. [3]

01. Analytical Knowledge of Body and Mind (nama-rupa-pariccheda-ana)
  (corresponds to First jhana {pa.HTa.ma. zaan}
02. Knowledge by Discerning Conditionality (paccaya-pariggaha-ana)
03. Knowledge by Comprehension (sammasana-ana)

UKT 160311: Prince Siddhartha as a child had experienced the First Jhana while his father was performing the Royal Ploughing ceremony. What caught his sight was a bird swooping down on a worm that had been exposed when a lump of earth was overturned. The bird had no intention to kill: he had only picked up his food - yet it resulted in a killing-act. One day, perhaps, the bird would also become food for a larger bird-of-prey. The larger one would only be picking up his food - the smaller bird. Yet it results in killing, and the starvation and death of all the nestlings of the smaller bird. When would this cycle of gathering food resulting in deaths and miseries end. Please note that in the Sixth Synod version of Myanmarpr, the prince was still in his crib when he entered the First Jhana.

Since, we must accept that as a child, the prince was still very human and that he had not reached puberty. Because of this, I interpret the First Jhana as a kind of inborn human intelligence similar to the ability to play music at a very early age (musical genius), and the ability to solve complex arithmetic problems as children (mathematical genius). Though such intelligences are very rare, they are nevertheless inborn human traits. 

04. Knowledge of Arising and Passing Away (udayabbaya-ana)
  (corresponds to Second jhana)

05. Knowledge of Dissolution (bhanga-ana)
  (corresponds to Third jhana)
06. Awareness of Fearfulness (bhayatupatthana-ana)
07. Knowledge of Misery (adinava-ana)
08. Knowledge of Disgust (nibbida-ana)
09. Knowledge of Desire for Deliverance (muncitu-kamyata-ana)
10. Knowledge of Re-observation (patisankhanupassana-ana)

11. Knowledge of Equanimity about Formations (sankhar'upekkha-ana)
  (corresponds to Fourth jhana)
12. Insight Leading to emergence (vutthanagamini-vipassana-ana)
13. Knowledge of Adaptation (anuloma-ana) (one-time event)
14. Maturity Knowledge (gotrabhu-ana) (one-time event)

15. Path Knowledge (magga-ana) (one-time event)

16. Fruition Knowledge (phala-ana) (corresponds to Nibbāna)

17. Knowledge of Reviewing (paccavekkhana-ana)


In Mahayana Tibetan Buddhism

In Tibetan Buddhism, it refers to pure awareness that is free of conceptual encumbrances, and is contrasted with vijnana, which is a moment of 'divided knowing'. Entrance to, and progression through the ten stages of Jnana/Bhimis, will lead one to complete enlightenment and nirvana. [2]


In Hinduism

Sahu explains:

Prajnanam iti Brahman - wisdom is the soul/spirit. Prajnanam refers to the intuitive truth which can be verified/tested by reason. It is a higher function of the intellect that ascertains the Sat or Truth in the Sat-Chit-Ananda or truth-consciousness-bliss, i.e. the Brahman/Atman/Self/person [...] A truly wise person [...] is known as Prajna - who has attained Brahmanhood itself; thus, testifying to the Vedic Maha Vakya (great saying or words of wisdom): Prajnanam iti Brahman. [4]


And according to David Loy,

The knowledge of Brahman [...] is not intuition of Brahman but itself is Brahman. [5]

Jnana Shakti is "the power of intellect, real wisdom, or knowledge". [6]

Jnana yoga (Yoga of Knowledge) is one of the three main paths (margas), which are supposed to lead towards moksha (liberation) from material miseries. The other two main paths are Karma yoga and Bhakti Yoga. Rāja yoga (classical yoga) which includes several yogas, is also said to lead to moksha. It is said that each path is meant for a different temperament of personality.

A notable mantra within the International Society for Krishna Consciousness refers to the transition from (spiritual) ignorance to (spiritual) under the guidance of a guru: [7]

oṁ ajāna-timirāndhasya /
jānājana-śalākayā /
cakṣur unmīlitaṁ yena /
tasmai śrī-gurave namaḥ

"from darkest ignorance /
with the torch of knowledge /
he has opened [my] eye /
honour be to [my] venerable teacher"

Go back jnana-note-b

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