Update: 2016-03-09 11:01 PM -0500


A Practical Sanskrit Dictionary


by A. A. Macdonell, 1893,
http://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/scans/MDScan/index.php?sfx=jpg 1929.
Nataraj ed., 1st in 2006, 2012

Edited, with additions from Pali sources, by U Kyaw Tun (UKT) (M.S., I.P.S.T., USA) and staff of Tun Institute of Learning (TIL) . Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone. Prepared for students and staff of TIL Research Station, Yangon, MYANMAR :  http://www.tuninst.net , www.romabama.blogspot.com

MC-indx.htm | Top

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{za.ga.} - cont
{ga.nga.} : as coda
  {za.} ज्ञ  : Pseudo-Za is comparable to r2c4 {Za.}-Bur & / {Za.}-Mon
{za.za.} : spelled with Pseudo-Za


UKT notes :
Pseudo-Kha and Pseudo-Za : {kSa.} क्ष & {za.} ज्ञ

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{za.ga.} - cont



जगदन्तक [ gagad-antaka ]
- m. destroyer of the world, death; -antara‿tman, m. universal soul, ep. of Vishnu; -sa, m. lord of the world, ep. of Brahman, Vishnu, and Siva; -svara, m. lord of the world, ep. of Siva and of Indra; king; -ekantha, m. monarch of the world.



जगद्गुरु [ gagad-guru ]
- m. father of the world, ep. of Brahman, Vishnu, and Siva; -dala, m. N. of a prince; -dpa, m. light of the world, sun; -dhtri, m. creator of the world, ep. of Brahman and Vishnu; -yoni, f. source of the world, ep. of Brahman, Vishnu or Krishna, Siva, and Prakriti.



जगन्नाथ [ gagan-ntha ]
- m. protector of the world, ep. of Vishnu and his incarnations; N.; -nivsa, m. abode=pervader, of the world, ep. of Vishnu or Krishna; -netra, n. eye of the world, ep. of the moon: du. ep. of the sun and moon; -mtri, f. mother of the world, ep. of Durg and of Lakshm.



जगुरि [ gg-uri ]
- a. leading (road).





जग्ध [ gag-dh ]
- pp. of √1. gaksh.



जग्धि [ gg-dhi ]
- f. eating; food.



जग्ध्वाय [ gag-dhv&asharp;-ya ]
- gd. of √1. gaksh.



जग्मि [ g-gm-i ]
- a. going, nimble; hastening to (ac., lc.).


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जघन [ gaghna ]
- m. (V.), n. buttock, posterior; rump; hip; pudenda; n. back part (of an altar); rear-guard of an army: -kapal, f. lascivious woman; a metre; -vipula, a. having large buttocks: , f. a. metre; -‿ardh, m. hinder part; rear-guard.



जघनेन [ gaghnena ]
- in. ad. behind (ac. or g.); with back turned towards (ac.).



जघन्य [ gaghan-y ]
- a. hindermost, last, latest; lowest, meanest, worst; of low birth: -ga, a. last-born, youngest; -prabhava, a. of low origin.



जघ्नि [ g-ghn-i ]
- a. slaying (ac.).



जघ्निवत् [ ga-ghn-i-vat ]
- a. containing a form of the root han.



जघ्रि [ g-ghr-i ]
- a. sputtering, boiling.


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{ga.nga.} : as coda


जङ्ग [ gaṅ-ga ]
- m. N. of a man (Walker).



जङ्गम [ gaṅ-gam-a ]
- a. moving (int.), animate, living; N. all that moves, living beings: -tva, n. mobility.



जङ्गल [ *gaṅ-gal-a ]
- a. [very thirsty], dry, desert; deserted; m. desert (jungle).



जङ्घा [ gṅ-gh ]
- f. [goer: √h] leg (esp. from ankle to knee).



जङ्घाकरिक [ gaṅgh-karika ]
- m. nimble with the legs; m. runner; -gaghanya, a. lowest if performed by the legs (actions); -bala, n. strength of leg=flight (Pr.).



जङ्घाल [ gaṅgh-la ]
- a. swift-footed.


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जज [ gaga ]
- m. warrior: -‿ogas, n. bravery.



जज्ज [ gagga ]
= ज ज ् ज
- m. N. of a man: -la, m. id.


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{za.} ज्ञ

UKT 160306: You'll note that in जज्ञि [ g-g-i ] = ज ज ् ञ ि 'a. germinating', given below, ज ् ञ = ज्ञ is an unusual conjunct. It is the second unusual conjunct that we are running into, the first being
क ् ष --> क्ष  {kSa.} /kə.sa/ on p077.htm
See my note on Pseudo-Kha and Pseudo-Za  {kSa.} क्ष & {za.} ज्ञ .


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जज्ञि [ g-g-i ]
= ज ज ् ञ ि
- a. germinating.


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जञ्जपूक [ ga-gap-ka ]
- a. muttering prayers zealously.


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जटा [ gat ]
- f. braid of hair (as worn by ascetics, Siva, and by mourners): -kalpa, m. cue, pigtail; -gla, n. braided locks, cue; -gta, m. top-knot; -dhara, a. wearing braided hair; m. ascetic; Siva; -dhrin, a. id.; -bhra, m. mass of braided hair: -dhara, a. wearing a --; -mandala, n. circle of braided locks on the crown.


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जटाल [ gat-la ]
- a. wearing braided locks; filled with, full of (--).



जटावल्कलिन् [ gat-valkalin ]
- a. wearing braided locks and a garment of bark.



जटिन् [ gat-in ]
- a. wearing braided hair; m. ascetic, pious mendicant; Siva; -ila, a. wearing braided locks; tangled (hair); full of (--); m. ascetic; Siva.








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जड [ gad-a ]
- a. cold, cool; rigid, numb; immovable, motionless; dimmed, dulled; obtuse, dull, stupid, imbecile; inanimate; --, incapable of -through stupidity; m. idiot; n. water.



जडता [ gada-t ]
- f. rigidity, motionlessness, numbness, apathy; obtuseness, stupidity; -tva, n. id.; -dh, a. dull-witted; -prakriti, a. id.; buddhi, a. id.; -bhva, m. coolness, freshness; -mati, a. dull-minded, stupid.



जडय [ gada-ya ]
- den. P. enfeeble, dull; render apathetic regarding (lc.): pp. gadita.



जडांशु [ gada‿amsu ]
- m. moon (cool-rayed); - ‿tmaka, a. cool; stupid; irrational; -‿t man, a. id.



जडाय [ gad-ya ]
- den. . become dumb (with inf.).



जडाशय [ gada‿saya ]
- a. stupid.



जडिमन् [ gad-i-man ]
- m. coldness; rigidness; dullness, stupidity.





जतु [ gatu ]
- n. lac, gum; -griha, -geha, n. house filled with lac and other inflammables; -maya, a. full of lac; -sarana, n.=gatu-griha.



जतू [ gat&usharp; ]
- f. bat (animal).



जत्रु [ gatr ]
- m. pl. (V.) certain (16) bones; n. collar-bone.


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GAN, I. gna (V); IV. . gya (E. also P.); P. and cs. ganya, tr. beget (by, lc.); bring forth, bear (to, ab.); generate, produce; make fruitful; cause to be (2 ac.); ., int. (E. also P.) be born; be produced, arise, grow; be by nature (2 nm.); be born again; be, become (with predicate in nm.); be changed into (d.); fall to the share of (g.); take place, be possible or admissible: pp. gt, born (by, lc.), begotten by (in., ab.); new-born (by, lc.), begotten by (in. ab.); new-born; grown, sprung up, arisen (from, ab.); existing; become; happened; conducive to (d.); often - a. = having -, e.g. gta-danta, a. having teeth (lit. having produced teeth), sts. -, e.g. danta-gta, id. adhi, be born; be begottne (by, in.); become (nm.). anu, be born afterwards; be born after (ac.); be born like (ac.): pp. similar by birth to (ac.); born again. apa, pp. degenerate (son). abhi, be born or predestinated to, claim by birth (ac.); be born according to (ac.); be produced, be born; be born again (in trems-nigration); become: pp. nobly born; well-bred. , be born, be produced; cs. beget; make frutiful. upa, be born; be produced; arise, appear; be; be born again: pp. -a. in whom - has arisen -inspried with, seised by, filled with, having; cs. produce, cause; at tempt. sam-upa, cs. produce. pra, be born; be produced arise; procreate, bear; cs. propagate. sam-pra, spring up, appear, arise; exist: pp. f. having calved. prati, be born again; spring up anew. vi, bring forth, breed. sam, be born; arise; grow; appear; happen become; pass, elapse; pp. often -a=having; cs. produce. abhi-sam, arise.


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जन [ gn-a ]
- m. creature; man; person; race, tribe; people, subjects; folks, -kind (often -- with coll. mg.); low person; this person; ayam --, esha --, or asau --,=we, I, my lover here.



जनक [ gan-ak ]
- a. begetting; producing; m. father; N., esp. of a king of Videha (Mithil).



जनककाण [ ganaka-kna ]
- m. N. (one-eyed Ganaka); -kandra, m. N.; -tanay, f. St; -t, f. paternity; -bhadra, m. N.; -rga, m. N.; -simha, m. N.; - sut, f. daughter of Ganaka, St; -‿tmag, f. id.






जनचरणामलिन [ gana-karana‿amalina ]
- a. not yet dirtied by people's feet; ()-t, f. community; people, subjects; mankind; -dha sthna, n. crematory; -deva, m. king, prince.



जनन [ gn-ana ]
- a. () bringing forth; pro ducing; m. producer, creator; , f. mother; n. birth; existence, life; bringing forth; production; -vat, a. endowed with production.



जननाथ [ gana-ntha ]
- m. lord of men, king, prince.



जननान्तर [ ganana‿antara ]
- n. another=former life.



जनपति [ gana-pati ]
- m. lord of men, prince, king; - pad, m. (tribe-place), district, country, realm; tribe: also pl. community, people (as opposed to king): -vadh, f. woman of the country, -‿adhipa, m. king; -pravda, m. popular rumour (sg. and pl.); -maraka, m. pestilence; -mra, m. , f., id.; -mrana, n. slaying of men.



जनमेजय [ ganam-egay ]
- m. N. (terrifying men).





जनरव [ gana-rava ]
- m. popular rumour; - r&asharp;g, -r&asharp;gan, m. ruler of men; -vda, m. gossip; -sruti, f. rumour.



जनस् [ gn-as ]
- n. race; ind. (-ar) world lying beyond Mahar-loka.



जनसंमर्द [ gana-sammarda ]
- m. throng of people; - sthna, n. N. of a part of the Dandaka forest.


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जना [ gan- ]
- f. birth, origin.



जनातिग [ gana‿atiga ]
- a. superhuman; -‿adhi pa, m. king, prince; -‿antikam, ad. (speak) close to a person, in a low voice so as not to be overheard; (say) in a stage whisper; -‿an tike, lc. ad. in the neighbourhood of men; -‿apavda, m. slander (pl.); -‿rava, m. popular rumour; -‿arnava, m. (sea of men), caravan; -‿ardana, m. ep. of Vishnu or Krishna (harasser of men); -‿sraya, m. caravanserai.


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जनि [ gn-i (or ) ]
- f. woman; wife (pl. fig. the fingers); birth, origin.










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UKT notes

Pseudo-Kha and Pseudo-Za

- UKT 151223 

There are two special conjuncts in Skt-Dev which I am calling Pseudo-Kha and Pseudo-Za. They are formed as:

Pseudo-Kha : क ् ष --> क्ष  {kSa.} /kə.sa/

Pseudo-Za : ज ् ञ --> ज्ञ  {za.} /zə. ɲa/

If you go by strictly Bur-Myan akshara rules, both are not pronounceable because of the viram. However, you will have pronounce them in Skt-Dev, for which you will have to include a schwa. These types of conjuncts are known in Mon-Myan as [don't pronounce Mon-Myan from Romabama] or in Bur-Myan as {hsw:by:} 'aksharas with hangers-on'. For these "hanging conjuncts", see Fundamentals of Mon Speech & Script (in Bur-Myan), by Naing Maung Toe, p046 or pdf051/251, in Mon-Myan Language: Speech and Script
- MonMyan-indx.htm > MonMyan-NMgToe-Mon-Bur<> (link chk 160306)

Ya'pin {ya.pn.} : from {ya.}/ {} we get {ya.pn.}
Nya'pin {a.pn.} : similarly, from {a.}/ {}, we should get {a.pn.},
  that leaves us with Nya'l:hsw {a.l:hsw:} from which we will get Pseudo-Za : ज ् ञ --> ज्ञ  {za.} /zə.sa/.
Caveat: Don't shorten the foot of Nya'l: otherwise you will end up with a vulgar implication.

Shown below are the first four I ran into: {na.hsw:}, {ma.hsw:}, {la.hsw:}, & {wa.hsw:}.

. Now, I'll add - the {a.l:hsw:}

If we were to go by this description, we will have to call Pseudo-Kha क्ष  {kSa.} as {ka.Sa.hsw:}, and Pseudo-Za ज्ञ  {za.} as {za.a.l:hsw:}. What has been {ka.a.kri:hsw:} in Mon-Myan should be called {ka.a.pn.}.

Based on my recent understanding of Bur-Myan Nya'gyi {a.}, and its killed-form {}, I have reclassified it as the Palatal Approximant after moving {ya.} & {} to the Velar position. As it is, to be consistent with {ya.pn.}, I will rename the process as {a.pn.}. 

Go back Pseudo-Kha-Za-note-b

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End of TIL file