Update: 2016-03-05 04:05 AM -0500


A Practical Sanskrit Dictionary


by A. A. Macdonell, 1893,
http://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/scans/MDScan/index.php?sfx=jpg 1929.
Nataraj ed., 1st in 2006, 2012

Edited, with additions from Pali sources, by U Kyaw Tun (UKT) (M.S., I.P.S.T., USA) and staff of Tun Institute of Learning (TIL) . Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone. Prepared for students and staff of TIL Research Station, Yangon, MYANMAR :  http://www.tuninst.net , www.romabama.blogspot.com

MC-indx.htm | Top

Contents of this page

{sa.} / {c} - Palatal plosive-stop
{sa.k~a.} : rhotic disyllable: Ra'ric {ra.ric}-form, {kra.}, is avoided not to get mixed up with rhotic vowel {iRi.}.
{sa.kSa.} : Pseudo-Kha 
{sa.nga.} / {sn} presented as Kinsi {sn~}
{sa.a.} / {si} . Both {sn} and {si} end with nasal sound: different ending from {s}
{sa.Ta.} / {sT}
{sa.Na.} / {sN}


UKT notes :
The problem of pronunciations : Failure of IE speakers to pronounce the Palatals correctly


Contents of this page

{sa.} / {c} - Palatal plosive-stop

UKT 141017, 141111, 160304: The second row of the Akshara-matrix is controversial because the aksharas have hissing sounds to some extent, resulting in a mix up with Fricatives and Affricates . I feel like walking a tight-rope with Phonemics of IE (Skt-Dev) and Tib-Bur (Pali-Myan & Old Magadhi) languages. My comments on this row may change as my study progresses. See my note on the problem of pronunciation .




च [ ka ]
- encl. cj. (te, que) and; also; even, just; but, yet; if (=ked): ka--ka, both--and, as well--as, scarcely--when; although--yet: with negative, neither--nor; ka--na ka or tu, although--yet not; na ka--ka, although not--yet; with v, either, or; ka‿eva ka‿api, and also; anyak ka, api ka, kim ka, tath ka, moreover, likewise (adding a similar saying); ka gives interrogatives (q. v.) an indefinite sense.


Contents of this page





चकार [ ka-kra ]
- m. the conjunction and.




Contents of this page



चकित [ kak-ita ]
- pp.; n. trepidation, fright.


Contents of this page



चकोर [ kakora ]
- m. kind of partridge, Perdix rufa, supposed to feed on moon-beams: hence an eye that gazes on a face of moonlike beauty is so called; its eye is supposed to turn red at the sight of poisoned food; -vrata, n. manner of the kakora, entranced gaze (drinking the beauty of a moonlike face); -dris, f. fair-eyed maiden; - ‿aksh, f. id.



चकोराय [ kakor-ya ]
- den. behave like the kakora.



चक्कलक [ kakkala-ka ]
- n. four slokas connected in sense.


Contents of this page

{sa.k~ra.} / {sa.kra.}

UKT 160225: - The second syllable is disyllabic. Ra'ric {ra.ric}-form, {kra.}, is avoided not to get mixed up with rhotic vowel {iRi.}. See also p076.htm .
   However, we find in Dictionary of Pali-derived Myanmar words (UTM-PDMD055 to 057), a few {sa.kra.} words which I hold are from Skt-Myan and not derived from Pal-Myan.


चक्र [ ka-kr-a ]
- n.; V. sts. m. [runner: intv. √kar] wheel; potter's wheel; discus (esp. of Vishnu); oil-press; circle; circling in the air (of birds); mystical circular diagram; multitude, host, flock; troop; sphere (fig.); (wheel of) dominion; m. ruddy goose; N. of several men; N. of a mountain; &isharp;, f. wheel.



- m. du. wheel guard (man running beside a chariot); -dhara, m. wheel-bearer; ruler; discus-wielder, ep, of Vishnu; serpent; N. of a locality; -nbhi, f. nave of a wheel; -nman, m. ruddy goose; -nyaka, an. leader of a troop; -pura, n. N. of town; -bhanga, m. breaking of a wheel; -bhnu, m. N. of a Brhman; -bhrit, m. discus-wielder, ep. of Vishnu; -bhrama, m. revolution of the potter's wheel; a turning like a wheel; -matha, m. N. of a monastic college; -mardik, f. N. of a princess; -melaka, N. of a locality; -rakuha, m. du. = kakra-gophtri; -vat, a. having wheels; m. oil-presser; -vad-gati, a turning like a wheel; -varti-t, f. sovereign, dominion; -vartin, a. moving on wheels; m. who turns the wheel of dominion, sovereign of the world; ruler of (-); chief of (g., -); -varman, m. N. of a king; -vka, m., , f. ruddy goose; the male and female, regarded as apattern of conjugal love, are supposed to pass the night apart, during which their plaintive cries are heard; poets frequently refer to the pangs suffered by them in separation; -vka-maya, a. conisting of kakravkas; -vkin, a. filled with karravkas; -vta, m. whirlwind; -vla, n. ring, circle; m. n. group, multiude; m. fabulous mountain-range encircling the earth fabulous mountain-range encircling the earth (which is regarded as a disc); -vriddhi, f. compund interest; -vyha, m. circular battle-array; -sen, f. N. of a princess.

Contents of this page



चक्राङ्किता [ kakra‿aṅkit ]
- f. N. of a plant; - ‿aṅga, m. goose; ruddy goose; -‿aṅgan, f. female of the kakravka.



चक्राण [ ka-kr-n ]
- pf. pt. . of √kri.



  चक्रायुध [ kakra‿yudha ]
- m. ep. of Vishnu or Krishna; -‿hva, m. ruddy goose; -‿hvaya, m. id.



चाक्रि [ k-kr-i ]
- a. making, producing (ac.).


Contents of this page



चक्रिका [ kakr-ik ]
- f. troop; intrigue; artifice; -in, a. having wheels; driving; m. discus-bearer, ep. of Krishna; oil-presser; serpent; -ya, a. driving; travelling.





चक्रीवत् [ kakr-vat ]
- a. having wheels; m. driver; wagon; ass.


Contents of this page



चक्रुस्् ka-kr-us, -˚क्रे [ -kr-e ]
- etc. pf. of √kri, do.


Contents of this page



चक्रेश [ kakra‿sa ]
- m. sovereign ruler: -t, f. sovereign dominion; -‿svara, m. ep. of Vishnu and of Bhairava; sovereign ruler: -tva, n. abst. n.


Contents of this page


UKT 160225: Pali equiv. should be {sa.hka.}, however there are no such entries in UHS PMD.
Look for {sak~ka.} - UHS-PMD0378 'wheel, circle, sphere of influence' and
{sak~hku.} - UHS-PMD0379 'eye' .


चक्ष् [KA-KSH]

ksh-te, (E. also P.) appear; see, look at; announce, tell, say, abhi, look at, behold; inspect; regard favourably. ava, look down upon (ac.); behold. , look upon; declare, propound; tell; call, say about (ac.); address; state; designate, mean; name, call. prati‿, decline; repulse; refute; answer (ac.); vi‿, recite; explain, elucidate, sam-, report; declare, pari, overlook, disregard; reject; prohibit; name. pra, tell; declare; regard as; name, call; cs. illumine. prati, see, perceive; expect, vi, appear, shine; perceive, behold, regard; announce. sam, behold; consider; report fully.



चक्षण [ kksh-ana ]
- n. appearance, sight.



चक्षणि [ kaksh-ni ]
- m. illuminator.



चक्षन् [ kksh-an ]
- n. eye; -as, n. brightness, brilliance; seeing, being seen (d.=inf.); eye, sight, glance; -u, m. eye.



चक्षुर्विषय [ kakshur-vishaya ]
- m. range of the eye, sight.



चक्षुःश्रवस्् kakshuh-sravas, -˚श्रुति [ -sruti ]
- m. serpent (using the eyes as ears).



चक्षुष्पति [ kakshush-pati ]
- m. lord of all eyes; -patha, m. eye-shot, sight; -prti, f. delight of the eye; -mat, a. possessing eyes or vision, seeing; representing the eye: -t, f., -tva, n. vision.


Contents of this page



चक्षुष्य [ kakshush-ya ]
- a. fit for or pleasing to the eye; lovely; being before the eyes of (in.); dear to (in.).



चक्षुस् [ kaksh-us ]
- a. seeing; n. eye; sight; vision; glance.



चक्षूराग [ kaksh-rga ]
- m. feast to the eyes.


Contents of this page

{sa.nga.} --> Kinsi {sn~}




चङ्क्रम [ kaṅ-kram-a ]
--> / {sn-k~ra.ma.}
- m., , f. walk; -ana, a. walking about; n. id.

चङ्क्रम [ kaṅ-kram-a ]
Skt: - m., , f. walk - Mac090c3
Pal: {sn~ka.ma.} - UHS-PMD0380
  UKT from UHS: m. stroll about to relax



चङ्ग [ kaṅga ]
- a. thoroughly acquainted with, very fastidious about (--), (-t, f. abst. n.); m. N.


Contents of this page

{sa.a.} / {si}

UKT 160226: {sa.a.} > {si} . Both {sn} and {si} end with nasal sound: different ending from {s}




चञ्चरिन् [ ka-kar-in ]
- m. bee; -ka, m. id.



चञ्चल [ ka-kal-a ]
- a. moving to and fro, unsteady, fickle: -tva, n. instability, fickleness.



चञ्चला [ ka-kal- ]
- f. lightning; -ita, pp. caused to tremble.



चञ्चा [ kak ]
- f. basket-work: -purusha, m. man of straw, scarecrow.



चञ्चु [ kak-u ]
- a. known or celebrated for, versed in (--), (-t, f., -tva, n. cleverness); m. N.; f. (also ) beak, bill: (brev;)-puta, n., (u)-putaka, -put, f. hollow of the beak.


Contents of this page

{sa.Ta.} / {sT}




चटक [ kat-aka ]
- m. sparrow; N. of a poet; , f. female sparrow.





चटत्कृति [ katat-kriti ]
- f. crackling.





चटुल [ katu-la ]
- a. trembling, quivering; unsteady; inconstant; amiable, courteous; n. pl. attentions.



चटुलाय [ katul-ya ]
- den. . walk delicately.



चटूपमा [ katu‿upam ]
- f. complimentary simile.


Contents of this page

{sa.Na.} / {sN}


चण [ kana ]
- a. --, known or celebrated for (-tva, n. abst. n.); m. chick-pea: -ka, m. chick-pea.



चण्ड [ knda ]
- a. (, ) burning; violent; impetuous; passionate, enraged, wrathful; fierce, cruel: -m, ad. passionately, in a rage; , , f. the grim goddess, ep. of Durg.



चण्डकर [ kanda-kara ]
- m. (hot-rayed), sun.



चण्डकराय [ kanda-kar-ya ]
- den. . appear like the sun.


Contents of this page

UKT notes

The problem of pronunciations

Failure of Indo-European speakers to pronounce the Palatals correctly:
they pronounce them as Affricates

-- UKT 140829, 141015, 141101, 141111, 160304:
(Since I am writing this piece-meal, I will have to rewrite everything from time to time.)

The second row of the Akshara-matrix is controversial because the aksharas have hissing sounds to some extent, resulting in a mixed up with  Fricatives and Affricates. Moreover English is generally assumed to be without the Palatal-C which I dispute. Bur-Myan {sa.} च is given with onset /s/ and coda /c/.

Even if I were to agree that English has no Palatal-C, then my question would be does English have other Palatals? What about Skt-Dev - the older IE (Indo-European) language. The only way available for me to resolve the two questions together is to compare with Bur-Myan.

I cannot rely on Pal-Myan because it was an invented language: invented in Sri Lanka after the Asokan missionaries arrived in the Dravidian speaking island. Lankan speech is Aus-Asi (Austro-Asiatic), and that of the Asokan missionaries was the Old Magadhi (spoken by Gautama Buddha) a north-eastern Indian language. The International Pali or Pal-Lat (Pali speech written with Latin alphabet) being derived from Pali-Lanka belongs to Aus-Asi, and its pronunciations are different from that of Pal-Myan, even though the latter has been heavily influenced by Pali-Lanka. I maintain that the original Magadhi has taken root in northern Myanmarpr long before the time of the Gautanama Buddha. Two notable incidents had taken place, the first time in the time of King Abiraza, and the second when Sakka fugitives had fled the wrath of Prince Vidudabha Kosala kingdom who dethroned his father King Pasenadi. That original language was the Old Magadhi and it would have greater differences from Pali-Lanka.

There is yet another derivative of Old Magadhi - the AdaMagadhi 'Half-Magadhi' - used for writing Jaina texts of the Jainism. The script is related to modern Gujarati. AdaMagadhi like Pali has been described as Prakrits by the Indologists. In my earlier days of studying Sanskrit, I had thought AdaMagadhi and Pali to be the same.

Old Magadhi was a Tib-Bur language with the same vowel and nasal pronunciations as in Bur-Myan. As an example, I cite the case of Nwari, the language spoken by the descendants of the Buddha who still live the same area in which Buddha had lived. It is interesting to note that r1c5 {nga.} /ŋ/ is present in Nwari and the word for 'fish' is the same as in Bur-Myan!

My sources on Nwari aka Nepal Bhasa Language:
#1. A Comparative and Etymological Dictionary of Nepali Language by R L Turner
- http://dsal.uchicago.edu/dictionaries/turner/ (link chk 160119)
  Downloaded pages in a folder is in the TIL SD-Library
On downloaded Turner-Nepali-Lang-Dictionary, p159, there are a few words beginning with {nga.}
#2. English to Nepal Bhasa Dictionary by Sabin Bhuju सबिन भुजु , 2005
- SBhuju-NewarDict<> / bkp<> (link chk 160221)
Being both Tib-Bur languages Bur-Myan and Newa-Dev have words beginning with {nga.} ङ,
e.g. for <fish> न्या ; ङा

Just as Pali was invented from Old Magadhi to bring Buddhism to the Sri Lankans, I conjecture that another artificial language was invented from the Old Magadhi for the Skt-Dev speakers of north-western India. This invented language is the BHS studied by Franklin Edgerton.
See: Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Grammar and Dictionary, by F. Edgerton
- BHS-indx.htm (link chk 160304)

English has Palatal Affricates such as <ch> /ʧ/. This affricate is the ordinary-voiceless (shortened to 'vl') allophone and is equivalent to {hkya.}. As usual English lacks the tenuis-voiceless (tenuis-vl. shortened to 'tenuis') allophone {kya.}. Please note, I don't give the IPA and IAST transliterations when there can be problems, and {kya.}- {hkya.} pair is such a case. Below is a table showing such a failure of IPA.

<church> /ʧɜːʧ/ (DJPD16-097), where /ʧ/ is articulated beginning with dental /t/ (tongue-tip touching the root of upper teeth), and moving to /ʃ/ (tongue-tip touching the root of the lower teeth). The nearest pronunciation to /ʧ/ in Bur-Myan is {hkya.} articulated with tongue-tip held stationary touching the lower teeth and constricting the air-flow with the dorsal of the tongue touching the hard palate.

UKT 160224: Take note of the existence of two basic aksharas (and their killed forms) using the same glyph:

Palatal plosive-stop: {sa.} / {c}
Dental fricative-hisser: {Sa.} / {S}

English is supposed not to Palatal plosive-stop. However Hindi-Dev and Skt-Dev, though they claim to have Palatal plosive-stop, have only Palatal affricates. Eng-Latin also has affricates. To the Bur-Myan, the Skt-Dev च ca sounds like the {ya.pn.} {kya.}, and the English counterpart sounds like {hkya.}. English <ch> (as in <church>) is pronounced with tongue-tip touching the upper teeth or tongue-tip up position.

Now refer to Tongue-tip articulation in
Human voice, Phonetics and Phonology
- HV-indx.htm > voice-qual.htm (link chk 160224)

Going back to the question of whether Skt-Dev has Palatals, or like English only affricates, I am beginning to get the sense that Skt-Dev (and Hindi-Dev) like English has no Palatals but only Affricates. This conclusion is arrived at after studying {z~a.} ज्ञ (Pseudo Za), {z~ya.} ज्य & {Za.} झ together. Because of this conclusion, I am beginning to toy with the idea of calling Pseudo-Za ज्ञ = ज ् ञ as {Ja.} pronouncing as a monosyllable.

You'll note that {z~ya.} ज्य is an unusual conjunct. Since {za.} is the voiced allophone of /z/, we should expect the presence of tenuis variation {s~ya.} च्य. See: p096-1.htm for च्यवन [ kyv-ana ] 'moving, shaking'.

Bur-Myan: {sa.} --> {s~ya.} --> {Za.}
Mon-Myan: {za.} --> {z~ya.} --> {Za.}-Mon

The problem becomes more complicated because English does not have Tenuis, and {hkya.} & {kya.} are indistinguishable to their ears. The result is IPA calling them two Allophones - which is totally unacceptable to Bur-Myan speakers. Please note that this is my observation: it needs instrumental analysis.

Presence of Palatal words such as {Z:} 'market' and {a.} 'night' is confined to Bur-Myan - not even to Pal-Myan. This makes Burmese my mother tongue (the first L1 - English is my second L1) unique. And perhaps I might be able to start a new line of investigation based on acoustics and NOT based on IPA linguists.


I have given a rough guide for Pal-Myan readers, fully realizing that Pali and Sanskrit pronunciations are different.

Sanskrit pronunciations belong to IE (Indo-European) linguistic group, whereas Pali spoken in Myanmarpr is directly related to old Magadhi - a language of north-eastern India just across the Naga and Chin hills from northern Myanmarpr. The languages of these areas belong to the Tib-Bur (Tibeto-Burman) linguistic group. Note here that the International Pal, that is spoken in Sri Lanka is an artificial language used by the Theravada Buddhists of Sri Lanka and was invented from the old Magadhi of Asoka missionaries and the Dravidian language of Lanka.

When you are dealing with the four BEPS languages, you are dealing with three linguistic groups: Austro-Asiatic, Indo-European, and Tibeto-Burman, and unless you take into account the phonologies of individual languages you are in trouble. However, your problem is partially solved when you based your pronunciations on the Akshara system (now known as Abugida to some linguists) of the East. which is phonetically sound. It had been studied for thousand of years long before the IPA of the West. Be careful of how you pronounce each consonantal phoneme (represented by dedicated graphemes) according to prescribed POA (Point of Articulation). However, up to now the vowels are not well described because the human-linguists are never reliable. It is my hope that each language can be studied by instrumental analysis and deriving at the formants, F1 & F2 extending into higher formants. I have done my best with Romabama is ASCII based.

Macdonell using an older transliteration represents palatal plosive-stop {sa.} च as ka [k is slanted  or in italics]. This transliteration system was used by all Indologists of his period, e.g. http://www.sacred-texts.com/ (link chk 140829). See my notes on Indology in - MC-indx.htm (link chk 141008)

 UKT 141008: Refer to my note on Base consonants and vowels of BEPS in MCc-indx.htm which I have been writing since 120526: the latest on 140828. Remember also that Bur-Myan & Pal-Myan are so interwoven that they can be spoken seamlessly, because of which I claim that Pali as spoken in Myanmarpr is a Tibeto-Burman language similar to Burmese. I further claim that it is the direct descendant of the ancient Magadi spoken by Gautama Buddha and Emperor Asoka. I still need to observe more. Pali spoken in Sri Lanka on which the International Pali is based was invented from ancient Magadhi and native Lanka for adherents of Theravada Buddhism only after the Asokan missionaries had arrived in the island. I urge my elders - Myanmar monks and nuns outside Myanmarpr - to stick to our own pronunciation and ignore the International Pali whenever possible.

Note Romabama (Bur-Lat) uses the same grapheme {Sa.} ष /s/ for dental hissing sibilant and palatal plosive-stop {sa.} च /c/ for syllable onsets. They are differentiated in the syllable codas: {S} ष् & {c} च् (UKT 141008: Hindi speakers should note the presence of virama in Sanskrit. I am adding this note after speaking to my Hindi-speaking friends in Deep River, On, Canada).

There are three dental-alveolar fricatives. In Bur-Myan modified to include Eng-Lat, they are:
#1. non-hissing thibilant, {a.} स /θ/,
#2. hissing-sibilant, {Sa.} ष /s/
#3. hushing-sibilant, {sha.} श /ʃ/

In Skt-Myan modified to include Skt-Dev, the non-hissing {a.} स is pronounced as a hisser, {a.} स /s/. This gives rise to the problem of "stutters" similar to those in English beginning with <sk>, <st>, <sp>. We find them in Words beginning with Approximants - MCa-indx.htm (link chk 141008). You should also look in Wikipedia on Prothesis  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prothesis_linguistics 140828


There is a mix up in pronunciation of {sa.} च in Pal-Myan and Skt-Dev. What the Sanskrit pronounced as च is heard by the Burmese speakers as monosyllabic medial {kya.} derived from ligature or close-binding of {ka.} ka & {ya.} ya. I first thought it was our hearing problem until I realized that what the Eng-Lat & Hindi-Dev speakers are articulating are not Palatals, but Affricates an example being the /ʧ/ realized in English <church> /ʧɜːʧ/ (DJPD16-097).

However, when I present the ligature to Indian speakers, they could only pronounce it as a disyllabic conjunct {ka.} & {ya.} as {k~ya.}.

I have also found it to be the case with English speakers particularly those who I first met in the United States in 1957. Since my Bur-Myan name has this phoneme {kya.}, my American friends butchered it as {k~ya.}. They finally decided that my name is close enough to "Joe", and I eventually became "Joe Tun".

A ligature like {k~ya.}, where the second akshara is "hanging on to" the first akshara is quite common in Mon-Myan, and is known as {by:hsw:}. They are generally pronounced as disyllables.

The English speakers mess up the {kya.} further because they could not properly pronounce {ka.} as tenuis. They have to pronounce it as voiceless /kʰ/.

Go back pronun-note-b



Contents of this page

End of TIL file