Update: 2019-03-29 04:40 PM -0500


A Practical Sanskrit Dictionary


Included by U Kyaw Tun, in the dictionary of A. A. Macdonell, 1893,
http://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/scans/MDScan/index.php?sfx=jpg 1929. Nataraj ed., 1st in 2006, 2012
The aim is to compare three languages: Skt-Dev, Nepali-Dev, and Bur-Myan

The word "Nepali Language" can mean any language spoken by natives of the country of Nepal. Here, the languages of interest are: Gorkhali (Gau) - IE, and Nwari (New) - Tib-Bur, chosen to be compared to Bur-Myan (Tib-Bur)
#1. A Comparative and Etymological Dictionary of Nepali Language (Gau-IE) by R L Turner
  Downloaded files TIL HD-nonPDF and SD-nonPDF libraries:
  - Turner-NpalDict<> / bkp<> (link chk 190329)
  To get a new download, get off html-editor and get online.
  Click on - http://dsal.uchicago.edu/dictionaries/turner/ .
  It will open up search page, asking you to look for a word, e.g. "khaer" .
  Don't click on "Back to DDSA": it will lead you on a wild-goose chase.
  Just look for a word, closest to the page you are looking for.
#2. English to Nepal Bhasa Dictionary (Nw-Tib-Bur) by Sabin Bhuju सबिन भुजु , 2005
  Downloaded files in TIL HD-PDF and SD-PDF libraries:
- SBhuju-NwarDict<> / bkp<> (link chk 180523)

Edited, with additions from Pali sources, by U Kyaw Tun (UKT) (M.S., I.P.S.T., USA) and staff of Tun Institute of Learning (TIL) . Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone. Prepared for students and staff of TIL Research Station, Yangon, MYANMAR :  http://www.tuninst.net , www.romabama.blogspot.com

MC-indx.htm | Top

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UKT 170710 : Remember not all words spelled in Devanagari script are Sanskrit.

This page is included only to show the entries under non-nasal {gna.} ङ् which is present in Bur-Myan, but lost in Pal-Myan. I opine the non-nasal {gna.} ङ् was in Old Magadhi of the Burmese monks of Tagaung . They were the Arigyis some of whom practiced the Vajrayana form of Buddhism (Tantra) still practiced in Nepal. Did the Arigyis of ancient Myanmarpr have a speech and a script of their own? I opine that their speech is the ancestor of the modern Bur-Myan. What about the script? I opine that the script was the Asokan Brahmi which is directly descended into modern Myanmar script.
Vajrayana Buddhism, see Wikipedia:
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vajrayana 170710

As for Mon-Myan, I opine that being a Aus-Asi language, the r1-row, has a complete set of different sounds:
  Mon row#1: - bk-cndl-{ka.}-row<))  : Mon-r1c4 is pronounced as {hk} - Why not with a deep-H sound? It sounds in my ears as {ka.}, {hka.}, {g}, {hk}, {gn}. Remember that what we are hearing is the Martaban-Mon and is not the forgotten Peguan-Mon.

If we are to go along with the native-English speakers, such as, J. M. Haswell and R. C. Temple, who have categorically stated that there is no /g/ sound in Peguan-Mon which would be more close to Bamah, I will have to change
Mon-Peguan row#1 : {ka.}, {hka.}, {k}, {hk}, {gn}
I opine that the condirations had prompted the ancient Mon linguists to come up with a new glyph for r1c5 as .

As for me, I got a bonus. I've trying to solve what I'm calling the Ka-major Ka-minor problem, which I've found in my study of esoteric Yantras stated below:

Aksharas form the core of Yantras such as {sa.Da.ba.wa. n:} . In another Yantra, I have come across the Akshara-majors, such as Ka'gyi and Ga'gyi, Na'gyi, and La'gyi. Each has its minor counter part except Ka'gyi.

Ka-major aka Ka'gyi     Ka-minor ?
Ga-major aka Ga'gyi    Ga-minor aka ga'gn
Na-major aka Na'gyi     Na-minor aka na'gn
La-major aka La'gyi      La-minor aka la. - which we take to be la'gn

Note: beware of the English renditions which do not give the correct spelling, e.g.
Ga'gyi is not correct: it is {Ga.kri:}, similarly
ga'gn is not correct: it is {ga.gn}.

See also:
# Grammatical notes and Vocabulary of the Peguan Language
by J. M. Haswell, Rangoon, American Mission Press, 1874
    - MV1874-indx (link chk 180327)
    - in TIL HD-PDF and SD-PDF libraries
    - JMHaswell-PeguanGrammVocab<> / Bkp<> (link chk 180327)
# Notes on the transliteration of Burmese alphabet into Roman characters, and vocal and consonantal sounds of the Peguan or Talaing language, by R.C. Temple, Rangoon 1876, in TIL HD-PDF and SD-PDF libraries
- RCTemple-Translit-Bur<> 1876 / Bkp<> (link chk 180327) 

Turner, p162


ङकार् ṅakār ,
- s. The letter . [lw. Sk. ṅakāra-.]

ङा ṅā
Nw: - 'fish' : {gna} (long vowel)
  cf. Bur-Myan {gna:} (emphatic)

ङिच्च  ṅicca ,
Np: - in ṅicca parnu to cut a sorry figure; be disappointed. [cf. ṅyācca.]

ङुर्ङुर्  ṅurṅur ,
- s. Snarling. -- ṅurṅur garnu to snarl. [onom.]

ङ्याङ्  ṅyāṅ ,
- s. The noise made by a cat or tiger when eating its prey. -- ṅ˚ garnu to devour. [onom.]

ङ्याचे  ṅyāce ,
- v. ṅyācce.

ङ्याच्-ङ्याच्  ṅyāc-ṅyāc ,
- s. The sound made in pressing. -- ṅ˚ pārera thicnu to press down hard.


Remember r1c5 non-nasal onset {gna.} can occur in any syllable within a polysyllabic word. Also, remember that r1c5 is nasal only in the coda when it takes on the English spelling ing as in English king . To get rid of the digraph ng , Romabama (generally in Burmese phonology) has to change the nuclear vowel of the syllable to n  (note the "acute" sign):

--- the following are from Sabin Bhuju सबिन भुजु  to be included in Turner.

गोङ्ङ 'cock' --> {gan:gna.}
फोङ्ङा 'pillow' --> {hpan:gna}
ल्होङ (= ल ् ह ो ङ) 'fat' --> {l~hau:gna.}
  vs. गाइसी 'thin' --> {ga-I.i}
ङा 'fish' : {gna} (long vowel) cf. Bur-Myan {gna:} (emphatic)

In गोङ्ङ 'cock', and फोङ्ङा 'pillow' , {~ng} ङ् coda of first syllable, and {gna.} ङ the onset of second.
Since Bur-Myan words tend to end with emphasis, I have given the emphatic instead of the long vowel.
[Rendering into Bur-Myan spelling is by UKT. It is to be checked by a Newar speaker.]

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UKT notes


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End of TIL file