Update: 2019-03-29 02:42 AM -0500


A Practical Sanskrit Dictionary


by A. A. Macdonell, 1893,
http://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/scans/MDScan/index.php?sfx=jpg 1929.
Nataraj ed., 1st in 2006, 2012

Edited, with additions from Pali sources, by U Kyaw Tun (UKT) (M.S., I.P.S.T., USA) and staff of Tun Institute of Learning (TIL) . Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone. Prepared for students and staff of TIL Research Station, Yangon, MYANMAR :  http://www.tuninst.net , www.romabama.blogspot.com

MC-indx.htm | Top

Contents of this page

{Ga.Ta.} - contd


{Gar~} : repha




UKT notes :
Bur-Myan herbal steam bath
ghanta - the prayer bell
Natural hot springs with curative powers
  - a possible connection between the destruction of ancient city of Halin, Tagaung, and the eruption of Mt. Popa volcano in ‎442 BCE.
  Note: Taking the approximate date as 444 BCE, the date can be remembered with a mnemonic as:
  " l: on: lon: hson / sa.ka: gnon // aun:ten ka. kra: / shw-poap~pa: //

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{Ga.Ta.} - contd


p089c1-b00/ p065-011

घट [ ghat-a ]
- a. zealous, active (in, lc.); m. jar, pitcher, pot: -ka, a. performing, promoting; procuring; m. pot, jar, pitcher; -karpara, m. N. of a poet; n. title of a poem composed by him; potsherd; -kra, -krit, m. potter.
11) घट (p. 65) ghat-a zealous, active (in, lc.);

घट ghaṭa
Skt: घट [ ghat-a ] - a. zealous, active (in, lc.); m. jar, pitcher, pot: - Mac089c1
Pal: {Ga.Ta.} - UHS-PMD0374
  UKT from UHS: group, thicken, promote, pot, water-pot

Skt: -karpara, m. N. of a poet; n. title of a poem composed by him; potsherd; - Mac089c1
Skt: घटकर्पर ghaṭakarpara - n. fragments of a pot - SpkSkt

See my note on Ghatakarpara
घटकर्पर  कাव्यं  of Kalidasa

घटक [ ghat-aka ]
Skt: [ -ka] - a. performing, promoting; procuring; m. pot, jar, pitcher - Mac089c1
BHS: ghaṭaka - m., or adj., who or which reveals or expounds - FE-BHS219-2c1-b00


p089c1-b01/ p065-010

घटन [ ghat-ana ]
- n. union with (in. or --): , f. course of action, doings, practice; striving for (lc. or --); exertion; discharging (arrows, --); accomplishment, success; union with (--); literary composition; procuring, finding; producing, creating.
10) घटन (p. 65) ghat-ana union with (in. or --):


p089c1-b02/ p065-009

घटयितव्य [ ghat-ay-i-tavya ]
- fp. to be joined or closed.
9) घटयितव्य (p. 65) ghat-ay-i-tavya to be joined or closed.


p089c1-b03/ p065-008

घटा [ ghat- ]
- f. multitude, host, troop.
8) घटा (p. 65) ghat- multitude, host, troop.


p089c1-b04/ p065-065

घटादि [ ghat-di ]
- pl. the gana beginning with ghat (gr.).
65) घटादि (p. 65) ghat-di beginning with ghat (gr.).


p089c1-b05/ p065-066

घटिका [ ghat-ik ]
- f. pot, jar, pitcher.
66) घटिका (p. 65) ghat-ik pot, jar, pitcher.


p089c1-b06/ p065-007

घटी [ ghat- ]
- f. jar, pot; a measure of time: 24 minutes: -yantra, n. water-wheel: -ka, n. small water-wheel.
7) घटी (p. 65) ghat- jar, pot;


p089c1-b07/ p065-006

घटोत्कच [ ghata‿utkaka ]
- m. N. of a Rkshasa; -‿dhn, a. f. having a jar-shaped udder (cow).
6) घटोत्कच (p. 65) ghata̮utkaka -̮dhn, a. f.


p089c1-b08/ not online

घ्ट्ट [ ghatt ]
- i. . (only with vi and sam ) ghatta , and cs. ghattaya , p. pass over, touch; shake, stir. ava , cs. touch; besmear; stir. pari , cs. rub all over (ear). vi , break; cs. disperse, scatter, sever; shake, rub against; open (door). sam , grind; cs. cause anything (ac.) to rub against (in.); stir, touch, collect: pp. laid together, clapsed (hands).


p089c1-b09/ p065-005

घट््ट [ ghatt-a ]
- m. shock, collision; landing stair, bathing-place: -gvin, m. ferryman.
5) घट्््ट (p. 65) ghatt-a shock, collision;


p089c1-b10/ p065-004

घट्््टन [ ghatt-ana ]
- n. stroke, contact; stirring.
4) घट्््टन (p. 65) ghatt-ana stroke, contact;

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p089c1-b11/ p065-024

घण्टा [ ghant ]
= घ ण ् ट ा
- f. bell: -karna, n. N. of a Rkshasa; -tda, a. striking a bell; -patha, m. high-road; title of a commentary on the Kirtrgunya; -rava, m. sound of a bell; -rva, m. id.; -vat, a. furnished with a bell or bells.
24) घण्टा (p. 65) ghant bell:

See my note on ghanta - the worship bell


p089c1-b12/ p065-023

घण्टिक [ ghant-ika ]
- m. alligator; -ik, f. little bell; -in, a. furnished with a bell.
23) घण्टिक (p. 65) ghant-ika alligator;

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p089c1-b13/ p065-022

घन [ ghan- ]
- a. striking; slaying; firm, hard; dense, solid, thick; uninterrupted; dark, murky; deep (tone); whole; --, full of: -m, ad. closely, firmly; m. slaying; slayer; club, hammer; lump, solid mass; --, nothing but, pure (cognition); cloud: pl. rabble.
22) घन (p. 65) ghan- striking; slaying;


p089c1-b14/ p065-021

घनकाल [ ghana-kla ]
- m. rainy season; -t, f. density, solidity; condition of a cloud; -tmasa, a. pitch dark; -timira, n. cataract (of the eye); -tva, n. density, toughness; -padav, f. (cloud-path), sky; -vartman, n., -vthi, f. id.; -vri, n. rain-water; -vyapya, m. disappearance of the clouds, autumn; -samaya, m. rainy season; -sra, a. firm, strong; m. camphor.
21) घनकाल (p. 65) ghana-kla rainy season;


p089c1-b15/ p065-020

घनागम [ ghana‿gama ]
- m. arrival of the clouds, rainy season; -‿atyaya, m. departure of the clouds, autumn; -‿anta, m. id.
20) घनागम (p. 65) ghana̮gama arrival of the clouds, rainy season;


p089c1-b16/ p065-019

घनाघन [ ghan-ghan ]
- intv. a. fond of striking, warlike; m. dense cloud.
19) घनाघन (p. 65) ghan-ghan fond of striking, warlike;


p089c1-b17/ p065-018

घनाय [ ghan-ya ]
- den. . be in crowds.
18) घनाय (p. 65) ghan-ya . be in crowds.


p089c1-b18/ p065-017

घनास्थिक [ ghana‿asthika ]
- a. hvg. a hard bone.
17) घनास्थिक (p. 65) ghana̮asthika hvg. a hard bone.

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p089c1-b19/ not online

घनीकृ [ ghan-kri ]
- make thick; strengthen; -bh , become thick or dense


घनी करोति { घनीकृ }  ghanī karoti {ghanīkṛ}
- v. thicken - SpkSkt

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p089c1-b20/ p065-016

घनोरू [ ghana‿ur ]
- a. f. having firm thighs.
16) घनोरू (p. 65) ghana̮ur having firm thighs.

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p089c1-b21/ p065-015

घरट््ट [ gharatta ]
- m. hand-mill: -ka, m. id.
15) घरट्््ट (p. 65) gharatta hand-mill:

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{Gar~} : repha

p089c1-b22/ p065-014

घर्घर [ ghar-ghar-a ]
- a. rattling; m. laughter: -dhvani, m. snorting.
14) घर्घर (p. 65) ghar-ghar-a rattling;


p089c1-b23/ p065-013

घर्घरिका [ gharghar-ik ]
- f. little bell as an ornament; kind of musical instrument.
13) घर्घरिका (p. 65) gharghar-ik little bell as an ornament;

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p089c2-b00/ p065-012

घर्म [ ghar-m ]
- m. heat (both of sun and of fire); hot season; milk-kettle (for the Asvin sacrifice); hot milk or other hot libation (esp. for the Asvins).
12) घर्म (p. 65) ghar-m heat (both of sun and of fire);


p089c2-b01/ p065-039

घर्मकाल [ gharma-kla ]
- m. hot season; -kkheda, m. (end of the heat), rainy season; -gala, n. sweat; -toya, n. id.; -ddhiti, m. sun; -dgha, -dh (nm. -dhk), a. yielding warm milk; -dyuti, m. sun; -payas, n. sweat; -bhnu, -rasmi, m. sun; -vri, n. sweat; -sd, a. dwelling in the glow.
39) घर्मकाल (p. 65) gharma-kla hot season;


p089c2-b02/ p065-038

घर्मांशु [ gharma‿amsu ]
- m. (hot-rayed), sun.
38) घर्मांशु (p. 65) gharma̮amsu (hot-rayed), sun.


p089c2-b03/ p065-037

घर्मान्त [ gharma‿anta ]
- n. end of the heat, rainy season; -‿ambu, n. sweat; -‿ambhas, n. id.
37) घर्मान्त (p. 65) gharma̮anta end of the heat, rainy season;


p089c2-b04/ p065-036

घर्मित [ gharm-ita ]
- pp. heated; -n, a. offering the hot libation.
36) घर्मित (p. 65) gharm-ita heated;


p089c2-b05/ p065-035

घर्मेष्टका [ gharma‿ishtak ]
- f. kind of brick; -‿udaka, n. sweat.
35) घर्मेष्टका (p. 65) gharma̮ishtak brick;

See my note on Bur-Myan herbal steam bath

p089c2-b06/ p065-034

घर्म्य [ gharm-ya ]
- n. vessel for preparing the hot libation.
34) घर्म्य (p. 65) gharm-ya vessel for preparing the hot libation.


p089c2-b07/ p065-033

घर्ष [ gharsh-a ]
- m. friction, collision; -ana, n. friction, grinding; rubbing in.
33) घर्ष (p. 65) gharsh-a friction, collision;


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UKT 190328: Skt-Dev speakers cannot pronounce /θ/. They pronounce it as /s/. I'm not sure of how to show the nuclear vowel of , I've decided to use , as I did in case of {}. Thus, in two successive stages:
  घस्  = {G} --> {GS}

p089c2-b08/ not online

घस् [ ghas ]
= {GS}
- ii. p. ghas-ti , eat, devour; des. gighatas , wish to devour, - rob


p089c2-b09/ p065-032

घस [ ghas-a ]
- m. devourer, N. of a demon of disease; N. of a Rkshasa; -ana, n. devouring.
32) घस (p. 65) ghas-a devourer,

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p089c2-b10/ p065-062

घस्मर [ ghas-mara ]
- a. voracious; eager for (--); -vara, a. voracious.
62) घस्मर (p. 65) ghas-mara voracious;


p089c2-b11/ p065-031

घात [ ght-a ]
- a. killing (--); m. blow (with or on, --); killing; sacking, destruction; -aka, a. () killing; destroying; m. murderer; -ana, n. killing, murdering; -an, f. kind of club.
31) घात (p. 65) ght-a killing (--);


p089c2-b12 / not online

घातय [ ghta-ya]
- p. (.) den. chastise: kill; destroy; cause to kill. vi , defeat; torment ; impede, interrupt.


p089c2-b13/ p065-030

घातिन्् [ ght-in ]
- a. killing, murdering; destroying; injurious; m. murderer; -ya, fp. to be killed or destroyed.
30) घातिन्् (p. 65) ght-in killing, murdering;


p089c2-b14/ p065-029

घार्तिक [ ghrtika ]
- m.(?) kind of pastry.
29) घार्तिक (p. 65) ghrtika pastry.


p089c2-b15/ p065-028

घास [ ghs- ]
- m. food; fodder: -kta, n. hayrick.
28) घास (p. 65) ghs- food; fodder:

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p089c2-b16 / not online

घु [ ghu ]
- cry out, shreik


p089c2-b17/ not online

घुट् [ ghut ]
- only pp. ghotta with ava , cushioned, and gd. -ghutya , and pp. -ghutita with vi‿ , returned


p089c2-b18/ p065-027

घुण [ ghuna ]
- m. wood worm; -ktaka, m. id.; -gargara, a. worm-eaten; -‿akshara, n. worm mark in wood looking like a letter: -nyyena, -vat, ad. quite accidentally, by a lucky chance.
27) घुण (p. 65) ghuna wood worm;


p089c2-b19/ p065-026

घुत्कारवत् [ ghut-kra-vat ]
- a. filled with the screeches of (--).
26) घुत्कारवत् (p. 65) ghut-kra-vat filled with the screeches of (--).


p089c2-b20/ p065-025

घुमघुमाय [ ghuma-ghum-ya ]
- den. . hum.
25) घुमघुमाय (p. 65) ghuma-ghum-ya . hum.


p089c2-b21/ not online

- . rattle in the throat, snort


p089c2-b22/ not online

[ ghush ]
- i. p. () ghosha , resound; fill with sound ; proclaim ; pp. resounding, loud; offered; cs. ghoshya, proclaim, anu, name aloud. ava, proclaim: pp. offered; summoned. , listen to; proclaim. us, cs. cause to sound aloud; proclaim, pra‿ud, cs, proclaim. vi, id, sam, only pp. -ghush/a, resounding; offered.


p089c2-b23/ p065-003

घुष्टस्वर [ ghushta-svara ]
- a. with a loud voice; -‿anna, n. food offered by invitation.
3) घुष्टस्वर (p. 65) ghushta-svara with a loud voice;


p089c2-b24/ p065-002

घूक [ gh-ka ]
- m. owl.
2) घूक (p. 65) gh-ka owl.


p089c2-b25/ p065-001

घूत्कार [ ght-kra ]
- m. screech.
1) घूत्कार ( p. 65) ght-kra screech.


p089c2-b26/ not online

[ ghrn ]
- ghrna , sway ; rock, roll, quiver : pp.ghrnitra; cs. ghrnaya, roll, ava, roll, , vave; roll: pp. shaking; rolling. vi, roll; cs. move about (tr.).


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p089c3-b01/ p065-061

घूर्ण [ ghrn-a ]
- a. swaying; vacillating; -ana, n., , f. swaying, waving, oscillation.
61) घूर्ण (p. 65) ghrn-a swaying; vacillating;

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p089c3-b02/ not online

घृ [ ghri ]
- iii. p. gighar-ti , sprinkle, abhi , pp. abh-ghrita , sprinkled. ...



p089c3-b03/ not online

घृण [ ghri-na ]
- m. heat; , f. warm sympathy, compassion; pity; contempt; disgust.
60) घृण (p. 65) ghri-na heat;


p089c3-b04/ p065-059

घृणालु [ ghrin-lu ]
- a. compassionate.
59) घृणालु (p. 65) ghrin-lu compassionate.


p089c3-b05/ p065-058

घृणि [ ghr-ni ]
- m. heat; sunshine; ray; day.
58) घृणि (p. 65) ghr-ni heat; sunshine;


p089c3-b06/ p065-057

घृणित्व [ ghrini-tva ]
- n. compassion; contempt.
57) घृणित्व (p. 65) ghrini-tva compassion;


p089c3-b07/ p065-056

घृणिन् [ ghrin-in ]
- a. wild, impetuous; warm hearted, compassionate; fretful, morose.
56) घृणिन् (p. 65) ghrin-in wild, impetuous;


p089c3-b08/ p065-055

घृत [ ghri-t ]
Skt: घृत [ ghri-t ] - pp.; n. clarified butter that has cooled, ghee; fat (=fertility). - Mac089c3
55) घृत (p. 65) ghri-t clarified butter that has cooled, ghee;

UKT 170706: Bur-Myan people, and especially those of Chinese descent, cannot digest cow's milk because of its lactose (milk-sugar) content, and generally do not consume milk-products. Ghee is unknown to them. As the word here implies "best food", ghee should be translated as {hsi-U:htau:pt} 'the first pressing of oil from vegetable oil seeds' or the best food.


p089c3-b09/ p065-054

घृतकीर्ति [ ghrita-krt ]
- f. mention of ghee; -kumbha, m. pot of ghee; -ghata, m. id.; -p&usharp;, a. clarifying ghee; -pra, m. kind of pastry; ()-prishtha, a. whose back is dripping with ghee; ()-pratka, a. whose face is shining with ghee; -prsana, n. eating ghee; -prsh, a. scattering ghee or showering blessings; -madhu-maya, a. consisting of ghee and honey; ()-vat, a. abounding in ghee; -skt, a. dripping ghee; -sn, 1. a. dipped in ghee; ()-snu, 2. a.= ghrita-prishtha; -havishka, a. accompanied by a ghee offering; -homa, m. offering of ghee.
54) घृतकीर्ति (p. 65) ghrita-krt mention of ghee;


p089c3-b10/ p065-053

घृताक्त [ ghrita‿akta ]
- pp. anointed with fat.
53) घृताक्त (p. 65) ghrita̮akta anointed with fat.



घृताची [ ghrita‿ak- ]
- a. f. abounding in ghee; f. sacrificial ladle for ghee.
52) घृताची (p. 65) ghrita̮ak- abounding in ghee; f. sacrificial ladle for ghee.


p089c3-b12/ p065-051

घृतान्न [ ghrita‿anna ]
- n. whose food is ghee; -‿abdhi, m. ocean of ghee; -‿hut, f. libation of ghee.
51) घृतान्न (p. 65) ghrita̮anna whose food is ghee;


p089c3-b13/ p065-050

घृतेष्टका [ ghrita‿ishtak ]
- f. kind of brick.
50) घृतेष्टका (p. 65) ghrita̮ishtak brick.


p089c3-b14/ p065-049

घृतौदन [ ghrita‿odana ]
- n. rice with ghee.
49) घृतौदन (p. 65) ghrita̮odana rice with ghee.


p089c3-b15/ p065-048

घृत्य [ ghrt-ya ]
- a. consisting of ghee.
48) घृत्य (p. 65) ghrt-ya consisting of ghee.


p089c3-b16/ not online

घृष् [ ghrish ]
- i. p. gharash , rub, grind : . rub oneself ; ps. ghrisshya , be ground or worn out; pp. ghrishia, pounded; scratched, sore; os, gharahays, rub,grind. ava, rub off, wear away. nd, id.; strike (a bell). sam, rub away; vie with (asha).


p089c3-b17/ p065-047

घृषु ghrsh-u, घृष्वि [ ghrsh-vi ]
- a. exuberant, wild.
47) घृषु (p. 65) ghrsh-vi exuberant, wild.

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p089c3-b18/ p065-046

घेद् gha̮id, घेम् [ gha‿m ]
- v. � gha.
46) घेद् (p. 65) gha̮m � gha.

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p089c3-b19/ p065-045

घोट ghota, -˚क [ -ka ]
- m. horse.
45) घोट (p. 65) -ka horse.


p089c3-b20/ p065-044

घोणा [ ghon ]
- f. nose; snout; beak.
44) घोणा (p. 65) ghon nose; snout; beak.


p089c3-b21/ p065-043

घोर [ gho-r ]
- a. [√ghu] awful, sublime; terrible, dreadful; violent (pain, etc.); n. horror, terror; magic; spell.
43) घोर (p. 65) gho-r [√ghu] awful, sublime;

See my note on Ghauramanta {Gau:ra.mn~ta.}


p089c3-b22/ not online

[ ghora-t ]
- f. -tva , n. awfulness; horribleness ; -darsana , a. terrible-looking ; -rpa , a. of terrible form


p089c3-b23/ p065-042

घोराकार [ ghora‿kra ]
- a. of terrible appearance; -‿kriti, a. id.; -‿atighora, a. excessively terrible (designation of a hell); -‿saya, a. cruelly disposed towards (lc.).
42) घोराकार (p. 65) ghora̮kra of terrible appearance;


p089c3-b24/ p065-041

घोल [ ghola ]
- m. curdled milk mixed w. cream.
41) घोल (p. 65) ghola curdled milk mixed w. cream.


p089c3-b25/ p065-040

घोलय [ ghola-ya ]
- den. P. stir together, knead.
40) घोलय (p. 65) ghola-ya P. stir together, knead.


p089c3-b26/ p065-064

घोष [ ghsh-a ]
- m. noise, din; shout, battle-cry; roar (of waters); cry, yell (of animals); sound; rumour; proclamation; herdsman's station; herdsman.
64) घोष (p. 65) ghsh-a noise, din; shout, battle-cry;


p089c3-b27/ p065-064

घोषक [ ghosha-ka ]
- m. crier, bell-man.
63) घोषक (p. 65) ghosha-ka crier, bell-man.

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UKT notes

Bur-Myan herbal steam bath

- UKT120209

When a very hot brick is placed in water containing herbs,  copious steam loaded with essential oils and other medicinal constituents from the herbs is produced. When a patient  is placed in a simple contraption for such herbal steam bath, the infection can be sweated out. Such a treatment is also given to a woman a few days after childbirth to 'purify blood'. I wonder if the above entry refers to this kind of sweating.

It is the personal experience of my wife Daw Than Than, when a part of placenta remained in her body after each childbirth. Both our children were born in the best clinic in Rangoon, and each time she was discharged from the clinic after a week. Her mother, Daw Th Th, a villager from Kyaukchaung village in Henzada district, because of her distrust of the modern methods, insisted that her daughter (my wife) take a herbal steam bath. In both childbirth the placenta that had remained discharged by itself the next day.

UKT 190329: Whenever I think of Myanmar-steam baths, I remember the hot-springs of Myanmarpr.
See my note on: Natural hot springs with curative powers

Go back herbal-steam-bath-note-b

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ghanta - the prayer bell

- UKT 141007:

Ideas in the practices and rituals of the Eastern-derived faiths: Buddhism (Mahayana, Theravada, Vijayana), Christianity (Catholic, Coptic, Orthodox, Reforms such as Anglican, Baptist, Lutheran), Hinduism (Devi-worship, Shiva-worship, Vishu-worship) are very similar but fundamentally different. Unless you are certain, you should not say that they are the same. As an example let's look into the use of musical instruments and recitation & singing.

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ghanta 120209

A ghanta is an Indian bell used in Hindu rituals. The same term is also used to describe [Mahayana]  Buddhist bells.

UKT 141007: Myanmar Theravada pagodas and sometimes monasteries have rather large bells which are struck at the end of good deeds to proclaim the deed to the seen entities such as humans and animals, and, unseen entities such as Asuras, Brahmas, Devas (in alphabetical order) down to the inmates of various Purgatories (note there is no such thing as eternal Hell as you would find in Christianity, Jewish and Islamic faiths).

The idea is to pass on the message of a good deed being done, so that those who would and could also enjoy the the merits of the deed. It is known as {a.mhya.w-hkring:} 'broadcasting the joy of good deed'. Those who received the message would respond {a-du.} 'well-done' three times. Instead of the bell a brass triangular gong would be struck producing a note that goes up and down.

Myanmarpr boasts the largest functioning brass bell, (brass weight: 90,718 kilograms or 199,999 pounds), in the world. It is known as the Mingun bell and is located at the pagoda of the same name near Mandalay.

The bell is generally made out of brass. A clapper is attached to the inside and the bell makes a high pitched sound when rung. The top of the bell handle is usually adorned with a brass figure - bells intended for use in the worship of Lord Shiva will have a figure of Lord Nandi [the Bull the mount of Shiva], while those used in the worship of Lord Vishnu or his avatars as Rama, Narasimha or Krishna will have a figure of Garuda [the GaLoan-bird the mount of Shiva] or Panchajanya shanka or Sudarshana Chakra.

Because the ghanta is believed to chase away Asuras and summon the Devas (Gods), it is used in a lot of Hindu rituals such as puja. Generally the ghanta is held in the left hand during worship and rung continually while the various items are offered with the right hand. A second person may ring the ghanta if both hands are needed for the offering.

A bell hangs at the gate of many Hindu temples, which is rung at the moment one enters the temple.

UKT: More in the Wikipedia article

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-- UKT 141007
घट ghaṭa {Ga.Ta.}

From: http://www26.us.archive.org/.../GhatakaparaKavyaOfKalidasa...djvu.txt 120209,
pdf download 141007

With the Commentary of ABHINAVAGUPTA. The Kashmir Series of Texts and Studies, No. LXVII.

From pdf download:
घटकर्पर  कাव्यं

INTRODUCTION: The poem which is presented in the following pages is called Ghatakarpara and consists of twenty one stanzas in all. It is called Ghatakarpara because in the concluding stanza the word Ghatakarpara is used by the author who takes a vow that he would voluntarily accept the service, even so mean as that of bearing water in a broken pot, of him who defeats him in the art of writing alliterative verses.

alliteration n. 1. The repetition of the same consonant sounds or of different vowel sounds at the beginning of words or in stressed syllables, as in on scrolls of silver snowy sentences Hart Crane [From ad- Latin littera letter] -- AHTD

The author of the poem according to Abhinavagupta whose commentary accompanies the text in the present edition is the famous poet of India, namely, Kalidfisa.

In the Bombay edition of the Ghatakarpara the number exceeds by one stanza, although strictly speaking even the twentieth stanza is an interpolation on the authority of Abhinavagupta, The present edition differs also from the Bombay edition in the matter of the arrangement of the stanzas. The former begins jw&fa the stanza ^ri^T etc. and the latter with ftf%?T etc.

The poem describes the sad plight of a young lady whose husband is away from her during the rainy season. The stanzas 2, 3, 4, 5, 8, 9, 10, 11,12,13 and 14 are put in the mouth of the young lady and the 6th and the 7th in the mouth of the female messenger from the husband. In the last two stanzas there appears the poet himself as a speaker.

The author of the Vivriti or the commentary is Abhinavagupta as is mentioned above. He refers to his famous teacher in the poetics, Indurij. In the exposition of the text Abhinava has tried his best as an advocate of the Dhvant School of the Rhetoricians to lay stress more on the implied sense than on the denotation of the words.

The edition in question forms the 67th issue of the Kashmir Series of Texts and Studies, and is based on the transcript, prepared by the copying branch of the Research Department, from the Manuscript of the Raghunatha Temple Library, Jamnriu.

UKT: More in the article which I cannot read.

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UKT 141008, 170706:
The word {Gau:ra.} is part of the name of one of the Five Great Gods, worshipped in the Bur-Myan Worship of the Nine Worshipables aka Bura . Note: I am using the term "worshipable" for Bur-Myan {Bu.ra:} 'someone who should be worshipped', whether out of respect (such as worship of Gautama Buddha and his Arahats), out of fear (such as worship of Planet-gods), or out of expectations (such as worship of Divinities, Nats, aka Gods.). The name is Gawra-manta {Gau:ra.mn~ta. nt} who Dr. Htin Aung assumes to be Vishnu aka Peikthano {bai~a.no: nt}. It is obvious he had based his view of Hinduism as that of the Vishnavite-Hindus. If only he had taken into account the views of Shaivite-Hindus, he might have taken him to be Nataraj - the South-India Supreme god or Shiva who would dance the Tandava dance to destroy the human world. See my dissension to Folk Elements in Buddhism by Maung (Dr.) Htin Aung
- flk-ele-indx.htm > ch01.htm & ch02.htm (link chk 170706)
See also: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tandava 170706
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Natural hot springs with curative powers

- UKT 180522, 190329

Ref to: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hanlin,_Burma 190328

Whenever, I think of herbal steam bath, natural hot springs with curative powers, came back to me. One site that I would like to visit, not only because of its hot spring, but also because of my interest in history based on archaeology is Halin, Myanmarpr.
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hanlin,_Burma 180522

"Hanlin (aka Halingyi, Halin and Halim) is a village near Shwebo in the Sagaing Division. In the era of the Pyu city-states it was a city of considerable significance, possibly a local capital replacing Sri Ksetra. Today the modest village is noted for its hot springs and archaeological sites. Hanlin, Beikthano, and Sri Ksetra, the ancient cities of the Pyu Kingdom were built on the irrigated fields of the dry zone of the Irrawaddy River basin. [UKT]

UKT 180522: To be exact, it was not "Irrawaddy River", but "Proto-Irrawaddy" before the eruption of Mt. Popa in ‎442 BCE. According to a local legend cited in the Wikipedia article: "There are many legends to explain the sudden disappearance of the Pyu kingdoms. In one legend it is said that a hot sand storm destroyed most of Hanlin." Another legend states: ""a rain of ash and molten matter [to] pour down heavily and bury[ing] the city completely". [5] 
  [fn5] - Long, Douglas (28 July 2014). "Legends of Hanlin". Myanmar Times. Retrieved 9 November 2015.
Note: Taking the approximate date of the last and major eruption of Popa volcano as 444 BCE, the date can be remembered with a mnemonic as:
  " l: on: lon: hson / sa.ka: gnon // an:ten ka. kra: / shw-poap~pa: //

UKT 190329: From: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hanlin,_Burma#cite_note-Long-5 190329
"At a museum near the archaeological site of Shwegugyi [Pagoda] there are exhibits which show archaeological finds from excavations including: human skeletal remains, along with pottery, jewelry, and bronze rattles laid in graves in a series of rows, found below ground. Carbon dating of some of the earliest grave finds indicate that they are almost 5,000 years old. [5] The museum also has exhibits of finds of: silver coins, gold ornaments, bricks with inscriptions of texts, and many antiquities recovered from the Hanlin sites. The Pyu alphabet with links to Sanskrit and the present day Bamar language, inscribed on a tomb stone, is also on display. [4] "

"They were inscribed by UNESCO on its List of World Heritage Sites in Southeast Asia in May 2014 for their archaeological heritage traced back more than 1,000 years to between 200 BC and 900 AD."

UKT 180522: Of the three cities, Halin, Beikthano, and Sri Ksetra, the last two names are from Skt-Dev connected with Hinduism, which are in southern Burma which was under Mon sway. However, Halin is far in the north and is too far from the Mons. I conjecture that Halin or Tagaung had a culture closely similar to ancient Magadha in north-eastern India - the native country of Gautama Buddha. Language-wise the Pyu-Bamah speech as well as Magadhi speech are Tib-Bur, not related to Mon (of Aus-Asi group), or Sanskrit (of IE group) speeches.- Please note, my conjecture may change with increase in my knowlege.

Personal note: Too old at age 85, with walking problems, I can only travel in Cyberspace.

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