Update: 2019-03-30 03:51 AM -0500


A Practical Sanskrit Dictionary
to be read with Nepali Dictionary


by A. A. Macdonell, 1893,
http://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/scans/MDScan/index.php?sfx=jpg 1929.
Nataraj ed., 1st in 2006, 2012

Included by U Kyaw Tun, in the dictionary of A. A. Macdonell, 1893,
http://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/scans/MDScan/index.php?sfx=jpg 1929. Nataraj ed., 1st in 2006, 2012
The aim is to compare three languages: Skt-Dev, Nepali-Dev, and Bur-Myan

To understand how difficult it is for the Sanskrit speakers to pronounce the True Kha {hka.} /kʰ/ , a comparison of four languages: Skt-Dev, Nepali-Dev, Newari-Dev and Bur-Myan, is needed. U Kyaw Tun has to rely on the following:
# A Comparative and Etymological Dictionary of Nepali Language (Gau-IE) by R L Turner
  Downloaded files TIL HD-nonPDF and SD-nonPDF libraries:
  - Turner-NιpalDict<Τ> / bkp<Τ> (link chk 180523)

Edited, with additions from Pali sources, by U Kyaw Tun (UKT) (M.S., I.P.S.T., USA) and staff of Tun Institute of Learning (TIL) . Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone. Prepared for students and staff of TIL Research Station, Yangon, MYANMAR :  http://www.tuninst.net , www.romabama.blogspot.com

MC-indx.htm | Top

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There are more entries of {Ga.} in Nepali compared to those in Sanskrit. The following are the pages from Turner's dictionary:
p153.htm  p154.htm  p155.htm  p156.htm  p157.htm  p158.htm  p159.htm
p160.htm  p161.htm

Similarly, there are more {hka.} in Nepali. Why?
UKT 190330: Note that {hka.} and {Ga.} are listed as "aspirates" by the IE speakers. I contend that they not in Bur-Myan.

Nepali p152
{Ga.}/ {Gδn}
Conjuncts of ग {ga.} : though listed by Turner in this file, actually they belong to previous files
Nepali p153




UKT notes :


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Nepali p152
{Ga.}/ {Gδn}

घँगौरो ghãgauro
- v. ghaṅauro.

• घंच-मंच ghaṁca-maṁca
- v. ghaca-maca.

• घंट ghaṁṭa
- v. ghaṇṭa.

• घंटा ghaṁṭā
- v. ghaṇṭā.

• घंटि ghaṁṭi
- v. ghaṇṭi

• घंसान् ghaṁsān
- v. ghamsān

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• घकार् ghakār
- s. The letter gh. [lw. Sk. ghakāra-.]

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• घङौरो ghaṅauro
- s. A partic. kind of small thorny tree.

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• घचारो ghacāro
- s. Rush; congestion; crowd. -- kām ko gh˚ pressure of work. -- mānche ko gh˚ crowd of people. [S. ghacaru m. stroke on a gong; -- v. ghaccā]

• घचेटाइ ghaceṭāi or ghaceṭeĩ,
- s. Thrust, push. [der. ghaceṭnu.]

• घचेटा-घचेट् ghaceṭā-ghaceṭ
- s. Scuffle. [der. ghaceṭnu.]

• घचेटिनु ghaceṭinu
- vb. intr. To be pushed, be jerked, be jolted. [pass. of ghaceṭnu.]

• घचेटेइँ ghaceṭeĩ
- v. ghaceṭāi.

• घचेटो ghaceṭo
- s. A push, jerk. [Ku. ghaceṭo; -- cf. ghaccā.]

• घचेट्नु ghaceṭnu
- vb. tr. To push, thrust; jog, jolt; jerk. [v. ghaceṭo.]

• घच्-घच् ghac-ghac
- adv. Jerkily, with a jerky uneven motion. -- gh˚ hĩṛnu to move along jerkily. [cf. ghaccā]

• घच्घच्याउनु ghacghacyāunu
- vb. tr. To knock at, rap; clash on; clutch at (so as to support), clutch; awaken by shaking.
-- hāta le ṭyāp-ṭyāp gari gh˚ to pat with the hand. [der. ghac-ghac.]

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Conjuncts of

• ग्वाङ्रो gwāṅro =
- adj. Stupid. [perh. &bigbracket; *goṅga-ḍa-, cf. gwāṅo, gũgo.]

• ग्वार् gwār ΒΉ,
- s. Cowherd; a tribe belonging to the Tarai. [lw. Bi. gwār (&bigbracket; Sk. gopālαḥ, v.s.v. gwālo), rather than & bigbracket; *gocāra- (cf. Sk. gocārakaḥ: K. gūru m.).]

• ग्वार् gwār &super2;,
- v. guhār

• ग्वारे gwāre
- v. guhāre.

• ग्वार्ग्वार्ति gwārgwārti
- adv. In crowds.

• ग्वालिनि gwālini
- s. Wife of a gwālo; milkmaid. [Pk. govāliṇī f.; B. goyāliṇī, H. goālin, goālinī f., G. govāḷṇī f.; -- v. gwālo.]

• ग्वालो gwālo
- s. (f. gwālini) Cowherd, milkman. [Sk. gopālαḥ m.: Pa. gopālako m., Pk. govālaa- m.; WPah. rām. pog. ḍoḍ. paṅ. cur. bhaṭ. guāl, cam. guāḷ, guāḷū, B. goyālā, O. goāḷa, Bi. gwār, H. goāl, goālā m., P. gawāl, -ā m., S. g̠awāru m., G. govāḷ m., M. govḷā m.]

• ग्वाहि gwāhi
- v. gawāi.

• ग्वेँलो gwẽlo
- v. guhẽlo.


• घच्च ghacca
- v. ghaccā.

• घच्चा ghaccā , or ghacca,
- s. Thrust, push.
-- gh˚ dinu to press, push (e.g. in a crowd).
-- gh˚ lāunu c. lāi to trouble. [cf. ghaceṭnu and H. ghic-pic crowded; S. ghac-paci f. overcrowdedness, G. ghacḍā-ghacḍī f.]

• घच्चे ghacce
- s. = ghaccā q.v.

• घञ्च-मञ्च ghaca-maca
- s. Pressure of work, one thing after another.

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• घट् ghaṭ ΒΉ,
- s. (obl. -a) Mind, thought.
-- ghaṭa mā ghām lāgnu a light to dawn on the mind. [H. P.ghaṭ f., S. ghaṭu m., G. ghaṭ m.]

घट् ghaṭ &super2;,
- s. Decrease.
-- ghaṭ-baṛ v.s.v. [H. G. ghaṭ f.; -- v. ghaṭnu.]

• घटना ghaṭanā
- s. Accident. [prob. lw. Sk. ghaṭanā acting (lw. in G. ghaṭanā f.)?
-- cf. A. ghaṭiba to happen; B. ghaṭanā event; O. ghaṭaṇā, ghaṭibā to happen.]

• घटाउ ghaṭāu
- s. Decrease, ebbing. [H. ghaṭāw m., P. ghaṭāu m.; -- v. ghaṭnu.]

• घटाउनु ghaṭāunu
- vb. tr. To make decrease, make smaller; degrade; modify; mitigate; extenuate.
-- māsā gh˚ (mil.) to lower the sights of a rifle. [Ku. ghaṭūṇo, A. ghaṭāiba, H. ghaṭānā, P. ghaṭāuṇā, S. ghaṭāiṇu, G. ghaṭāḍvũ, M. ghaṭaviṇẽ;
-- caus. of ghaṭvũ.]

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Nepali p153

• घटा-घट् ghaṭā-ghaṭ
adj. Making a gulping sound (as in drinking rapidly); making a rattling sound in the throat (as a dying man), being on the point of death (e.g. tyo gh˚ cha he is on the point of death). [cf.ghaṭ- kāunu.]

• घटा-घटि ghaṭā-ghaṭi Ή,
- s. The last gasp (of a dying person). -- gh˚ hunu to be on the point of death(e.g. tyo gh˚ bhai rahecha he is about to die). [der. ghaṭā-ghaṭ.]

• घटा-घटि ghaṭā-ghaṭi &super2;,
- s. Gradual decrease. [der. ghaṭnu.]

• घटि ghaṭi
- s. Decrease; want, lack; disadvantage, failure.
-- gh˚ jānu to cease.
-- ghaṭi-baṛhi decrease and increase, fluctuation. [A. B. ghāṭi, H. P. S. ghaṭī f.;
-- v. ghaṭnu.]

• घटिया ghaṭiyā
- adj. Deficient, defective; bad (opposite of baṛiyā). [H. ghaṭiyā inferior; -- v. ghaṭnu.]

• घटुवारे ghaṭuwāre
- s. Ferryman, waterman, boatman. [lw. Bi. ghaṭwār m. &bigbracket; *ghaṭṭapāla -: H. ghaṭwāl m.]

• घटोत्कच् ghaṭotkac
- s. Name of the son of Bhīmsen by the Rākṣasī Hiḍimbā. [lw. Sk. id.]

• घट्काउनु ghaṭkāunu
- vb. tr. To quaff, drink off. [H. ghaṭaknā to swallow down, G. ghaṭakvũ, ghaṭokāvvũ; M. ghaṭghaṭ sound of gulping.]

• घट्ट ghaṭṭa
- s. Watermill. [cf. Ku. ghaṭ.]

• घट्टे ghaṭṭe
- s. Miller, owner of a watermill (= more usu. ghaṭṭero). [der. ghaṭṭa.]

• घट्टेरो ghaṭṭero
- s. Miller, owner of a watermill. [ &bigbracket; *ghaṭṭa- kara-; -- v. ghaṭṭa.]

• घट्ति ghaṭti
- s. Scarcity, decrease, diminution. [H. ghaṭtī f.; -- der. ghaṭnu.]

• घट्नु ghaṭnu
- vb. intr. To become less, decrease, diminish, dwindle, wane; become exhausted.
-- gh˚ baṛnu to decrease and increase, fluctuate. [cf. Pk. ghaṭṭaο falls; D. kal. gāṭ - to decrease; K. gaṭun, goṭu insufficient; WPah. bhaṭ. ghaṭṭ little; Ku. ghaṭṇo to decrease, A. ghāṭiba, B. ghāṭā, H. ghaṭnā; P. ghaṭnā, ghaṭṭ few, ghāṭṭā m. decrease; L. ghaṭṭaṇ, ghaṭṭ, ghāṭā m.; S. ghaṭaṇu, ghāṭo m. loss; G. ghaṭvũ, M. ghaṭṇẽ.
-- & [*ghaṭṭ - which J. Bloch (s.v.) connects with M. ghāṭṇẽ to rub out &bigbracket; Sk. ghr̥ṣṭaḥ rubbed, Pk. ghaṭṭha - (which has regular development in S. gaṭho rubbed): doubtful. See ghoṭnu.]

• घट्-बड् ghaṭ-baṛ, or - baṛh,
- s. Rise and fall (e.g. in market rates). [cmpd. ghaṭ&super2; and baṛ.]

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• घण्ट ghaṇṭa
- s. Bell. [lw. Sk. id.]

• घण्टा ghaṇṭā
- s. Gong, bell; hour.
-- gh˚ ko rālo the clapper of a bell.
-- ghaṇṭā ghaṇṭā from time to time.
-- ghaṇṭā-ghar the name of the Clock Tower in Kāṭhmāṇḍu.
-- gh˚ bajāunu or sunāunu to sound a gong. [lw. H. ghaṇṭā m.; -- v.s.v. ghγ̄ṛo.]

• घण्टि ghaṇṭi
- s. Small bell; gong.
-- rudra-gh˚ v.s.v. [lw. H. ghaṇṭī; -- v. ghaṇṭā.]

• घड़ा ghaṛā
- s. Earthenware pot, pitcher, watervessel. [lw. H. ghaṛā m. &bigbracket; Sk. ghaṭaḥ, ghaṭakaḥ m.: Pa. ghaṭo, ghaṭako m., Pk. ghaḍaga- m.; Rom. eur. khoro, syr. g&abreveacute;ri, Sh. gāˊĭ f., K. gaḍa m. (lw. with ); A. ghāra earthen cooking-place (?); B. ghaṛā pitcher, O. ghaṛi, Bi. ghaṛā (lw. with ṛ), H.P. ghaṛā m., L. ghaṛolī f., S. ghaṛo m., G. ghaḍo m., M. ghaḍā m.
-- ghaṭa - perh. onom. formation 'hollow vessel in which liquid gurgles', cf. gāgro, ghāgi, ghārghur.
-- Connection, if any, with ghalco, ghailā, ghaĩṭo not clear.]

• घड़ि ghaṛi , or ghari,
- s. A measure of time, 24 minutes;
-- one hour; -- small clock, watch. -- ghaṛi ghaṛi frequently.
-- gh˚ thāpnu to measure time, be on the point of (e.g. swāsni le gh˚ thāpeki cha the woman is nearing her confinement).
-- ui gh˚ immediately. -- uttinai gh˚ id.
-- bhiruwā gh˚ a watch to wear. [Sk. ghaṭikā f. a waterjar, a period of 24 minutes; Pa. ghaṭikā f. pitcher,Pk. ghaḍiā f.; Sh. găṛν f. clock (lw. with ); K. gόrudotdot; f. waterclock; WPah. kiś ghaṛī a period of time; Ku. ghaṛī critical time; B.O. ghaṛi, H. ghaṛī f. clock, 24 minutes; P. ghaṛī f. a waterclock consisting of a jar with a hole in it which fills and sinks in 24 minutes, S. ghaṛī f. G. M. ghaḍī f.;
-- N. ghaṛi is lw. prob. fr. H.]

• घड़ियाल् ghaṛiyāl
- s. Crocodile. [B. ghaṛiyāl alligator, O. ghaṛiāḷa, H. ghaṛyāl m.; S. ghaṛyālu m. long- snouted porpoise;
-- cf. Sk. lex. ghaṇṭikaḥ m. alligator.]

• घड़िवाला ghaṛiwālā , (Darj.)
- s. Watchmaker. [der. ghaṛi.]

• घड़ेरि ghaṛeri
- s. The site of a house, the place where there has been a house, ruin.
[&bigbracket; *ghareṛī poss. &bigbracket; *ghara-gaḍḍa-, v. ghar and gāṛnu.]

• घड़्घ़ड़े ghaṛghaṛe
- adj. Obstinate, stubborn, headstrong (esp. of children). [cf. ghiṛghiṛe.]

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• घत् ghat
- s. Heart, mind;
-- conjecture; considered action.
-- ghat mā linu to take to heart.
-- ghat lāgdo effective (e.g. ghat lāgdo kuro an effective word). [cf. ghaṭΒΉ.]

• घति ghati
, adj. Effective; impressive; acting with effect after consideration (e.g. gh˚ juwāṛe a gambler who watches opportunities and makes an effective stake). [der. ghat.]

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• घद्र्याग्-घुद्रुक् ghadryāg-ghudruk
- s. Any loud sound such as is made by the prancing of a horse.

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• घन् ghan
- s. (obl. -a) Large hammer, sledge-hammer. [Sk. ghanαḥ m.: Pa. ghano m., Pk. ghaṇa- m.; K. gan m. log of wood; Ku. ghaṇ sledge-hammer, Bi. H. ghan m., P. ghaṇ m., G. ghaṇ f., M. ghaṇ m.]

• घनिष्ट ghaniṣṭa , l. ghaniṣṭha,
- adj. Very thick, very

UKT 190330: This work will be temporarily suspended until I have covered
the {sa.}-row of Skt-Dev.


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UKT notes


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End of TIL file