Update: 2019-03-28 03:36 AM -0500


A Practical Sanskrit Dictionary


by A. A. Macdonell, 1893,
http://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/scans/MDScan/index.php?sfx=jpg 1929.
Nataraj ed., 1st in 2006, 2012

Edited, with additions from Pali sources, by U Kyaw Tun (UKT) (M.S., I.P.S.T., USA) and staff of Tun Institute of Learning (TIL) . Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone. Prepared for students and staff of TIL Research Station, Yangon, MYANMAR :  http://www.tuninst.net , www.romabama.blogspot.com

MC-indx.htm | Top

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UKT notes :
Column #c4 in Akshara matrix: uniqueness
Vedic Rishi honoured by Gautama Buddha
Words from Turner's Npali Dictionary


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UKT 141113, 170705, 190327: The glyph r1c4 is pronounced as {hk} /kʰ/ in Mon-Myan. Because of this it is assumed to be an "aspirate". This is similar to {ha.hto:} sound. However, it is not so in Bur-Myan and Pali-Myan. Theravada Buddhist monks doubly make sure that we pronounce with a deep-H sound, which comes from the throat, when as children we entered the Buddhist order as novices and as full-fledged monks.

The Pali-Myan (Tib-Bur) dictionary by UHS begins this section with entries on {Gn} which is not the case with Macdonell Skt-Dev (IE), and F. Edgerton with BHS-Lat (Tib-Bur?). However, for the sake of Pal-Myan (Tib-Bur) readers, I shall begin with an entry from U Hoke Sein UHS-PMD, and entries from Npali languages, particularly Nwari (Tib-Bur), which I conjecture are directly descended from Old Magadhi (Tib-Bur) - the mother-tongue of Gautama Buddha. Unfortunately, I am still in the process of going through A Comparative and Etymological Dictionary of Nepali Language by R L Turner. It is on Gohkali (IE influenced by Tib-Bur). Downloaded files TIL HD-nonPDF and SD-nonPDF libraries:
- Turn-NepalDict<> / bkp<> (link chk 170805)
> p152.htm to p161.htm
घङौरो ghaṅauro - s A partic. kind of small thorny tree. - Turn152
घ्वार् ghwār - s. Snoring. -Turn161
BPal: {Gn-a.ti.} -- UHS-PMD0374
  UKT from UHS: rub, abrasive, push into, sharpen, restrictive
See also my note on: Column #c4 in Akshara matrix: uniqueness

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p088-2c123-b00/ p064-126

  घ . [gha], घा [ gh ] {Ga} घा
- V. enc. pcl. (almost entirely limited to the RV.), just, indeed, certainly: gnly. to be rendered by stress only; used after other pcls., prns., & prps., & before m & d.
126) (p. 64) gh m & d.


p088-2c123-b01/ p064-125

घ [ . gha ]
- a. striking, killing (--).
125) (p. 64) 2. gha striking, killing (--).

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p088-2c123-b02/ not online 

घट् [ghat ]
- i. . ghata , be zealous or active; work, strive for (ac., d., lc., or prati, -artham, -arthe); take place; be possible, succeed; be suitable or appropriate; accumulate; unite with (in.); cs. ghataya, (Ā.) P. join, unite (with, in.); hug closely; place upon (lc.); fetch; make, fashion, produce; perform; do anything (ac.) for (g.); pp. ghatita, made of (-). ud, cs. ghtaya, open; uncover; disclose, betray; begin. sam-ud, cs. open; uncover the head = be able to show oneself in public. pari, cs. strike or sound (a musical instrument). vi, go or fly asunder, disperse, separate; be interrupted, marred, or frustrated; cs. -ghtaya, tear, rend; separate; frustrate, ruin. pra-vi, pp. hewn off; cs. disperse. sam, assemble; cs. -ghtaya, collect, assemble; strike, sound (a note).

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UKT notes

Column #c4 in Akshara matrix: uniqueness

UKT 160118, 160223, 170702, 190327:

Caution: To avoid confusion, neither IPA nor IAST transcriptions are given.
Only Romabama transcription is used.
   Remember, the following is my conjecture, and it may change as my study of Skt-Dev progresses.

We will now look at the shapes of the glyphs in the written language aka script.

#1. Devanagari Velar r1c4 {Ga.} & dental r4c4   {Da.}: 
Both shapes and pronunciation are so similar that they can be mistaken one for the other.

#2. Myanmar Velar r1c4 {Ga.} & retroflex r3c4 {a.}:
Related shapes, but in different in pronunciation.

Now, listen to Mon-Myan, concentrating on the vowel part //:

Mon , is pronounced as // {hk}: Mon-r1<)) 
Mon , is pronounced as // {ht}: Mon-r3<))

Based on shapes and pronunciations, I've to conclude that there is something noteworthy in column c4.

We also find a similar but of a different kind of uniqueness when we compare row r3 to the more commonly used row r4. This has prompted many in Myanmarpr to suggest that row r3, and column c4 are only applicable to Pali, and not to Burmese, and should be excluded from Bur-Myan akshara table.

They have forgotten that Pali or more precisely Pali-Lanka is invented only in the time of King Asoka {a-au:ka. mn:}. Pali-Lanka was invented from Old Magadhi (the mother tongue of Gautama Buddha) and Lanka language. Old Magadhi have belonged to Myanmarpr - the land - long before the Buddhist era - to the time of King Abhiraza {a.Bi.ra-za mn:} of Tagaung.

Moreover, even before the time of King Abhiraza {a.Bi.ra-za mn:}, when humans and land-animals have been criss-crossing over the mountains between northern India and northern Myamarpr. The foothills of the Himalayan ranges extending from the west to east, and bending south Myanmarpr is the heartland of Tibeto-Burman languages. See Section 08: (link chk 190328)
Geology {Bu-mi.b-Da.} - geol-indx > myan-geol.htm
Geography {pa.hta.wi-wn} - geog-indx > fossil.htm

My caution is that if you forget to mention the close relation between north-eastern India and northern Myanmarpr, you will fail to impress upon the common people the close relationship that exists between the cultures of South Asia and SEAsia.

Even now we have differences and misunderstanding enough, even within the country of Myanmarpr. Destroying this unique relationship which we have inherited from the most humane king, the Buddhist Emperor Asoka  {a-au:ka. mn:} aka Asoka-the-Great who had rightfully belonged to our area.

It is also significant that {Ga.} घ & {Ga} घा almost entirely limited to the Rig Veda suggests that there was a common language from which Pal-Myan (Mag-Myan or Mag-Asokan) are derived. It is language of {I.i.} or {iRi.i} or  - the Vdic language. See my note on Rig Vda
- MCv2pp-indx.htm > p056-2.htm (link chk 190328) 

This has led me to suggest that there was a parent language, say the language of the Rishis, from which the Asokan (Brahmi) and its related languages such as Bur-Myan and Nwari had descended.

In my note I have quoted Gautama Buddha's position on Rig Veda Rishis
  "In the Buddhist Vinaya Pitaka of the Mahavagga (I.245) [7] section the Buddha pays respect to Vishwamitra {wai~a mait~ta. ra..} by declaring that the Veda in its true form *  became known was declared to the Vedic rishis [because of their {a.ma.hta.}-practice*] "Atthako, Vmako, Vmadevo, Vessmitto, Yamataggi, Angiras, Bhradvjo, Vsettho, Kassapo, and Bhagu" [ten in number] [8] and because that true Veda was altered by some priests he refused to pay homage to the altered version. [9] "
-- Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vishvamitra 150529

* UKT 170702: {a.ma.hta.}-practice of the ancient Rishis have been interpreted as "austerities" because it is done while abstaining from "sex", "drink", and "energy-generating food" for a period of time which can stretch up to many hours.

I am quite used to it: only taking pure water - no sugar drinks - for as many as 150 hours at a stretch.

The body's stomach juices begin attacking the small intestines and the whole digestive track leading to passing what is known "black tarry stools" which alarms the Western-trained physicians. I had taken a vow to myself not to break the fast for full 150 hours (150/24 = over 6 days.). Since the recovery procedure was well-known to me, nothing had alarmed me. During this period I concentrated my mind on a particular problem, and I can get a solution to it or an understanding of its nature. I presume, it was because of such practices the ancient rishis came to know the true Veda. I maintain it is not some unseen entity who has revealed the secret.

I presume the story of Bhrigu Rishi bhṛgu aka Bhagu kicking Vishnu Dva-god in the chest, and another story of the same rishi chastising Shiva Deva-god with a curse to be remembered only a lingam stuck in a yoni, because the two Devas are said to have taken the task of looking after the human-world, yet failing in their duties. I've downloaded 2 Hindu Devas chastise by a human rhisi.
- BhriguLaxmiVishnu<> (link chk 190327)
- BhriguParvatiShiva<> (link chk 190327)

Go back Col-c4-note-b

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Vedic Rishi honoured by Gautama Buddha

The Vedic Rishi honoured by Gautama Buddha are 10 in number. The names given in Vinaya Pitaka of the Mahavagga (I.245) [7]:  "Atthako, Vmako, Vmadevo, Vessmitto, Yamataggi, Angiras, Bhradvjo, Vsettho, Kassapo, and Bhagu" . The same 10 Rishis are mentioned in Sixth Synod version of Anguttara Nikaya

Go back Rishi-honour-Buddha-note-b

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Words from Turner's Npali Dictionary 

घंच-मंच ghaṁca-maṁca
, v. ghaca-maca.

घंट ghaṁṭa
, v. ghaṇṭa.

घंटा ghaṁṭā
, v. ghaṇṭā.

घंटि ghaṁṭi
, v. ghaṇṭi

घंसान् ghaṁsān
, v. ghamsān

घकार् ghakār
, s. The letter gh. [lw. Sk. ghakāra-.]

घङौरो ghaṅauro
, s. A partic. kind of small thorny tree.

घचारो ghacāro
, s. Rush; congestion; crowd. -- kām ko gh˚ pressure of work. -- mānche ko gh˚ crowd of people. [S. ghacaru m. stroke on a gong; -- v. ghaccā]

घचेटाइ ghaceṭāi
, or ghaceṭeĩ, s. Thrust, push. [der. ghaceṭnu.]



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End of TIL file