Update: 2016-02-23 03:05 PM -0500

TIL

A Practical Sanskrit Dictionary

p088-1.htm

by A. A. Macdonell, 1893,
http://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/scans/MDScan/index.php?sfx=jpg 1929.
Nataraj ed., 1st in 2006, 2012

Edited, with additions from Pali sources, by U Kyaw Tun (UKT) (M.S., I.P.S.T., USA) and staff of Tun Institute of Learning (TIL) . Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone. Prepared for students and staff of TIL Research Station, Yangon, MYANMAR :  http://www.tuninst.net , www.romabama.blogspot.com

MC-indx.htm | Top
MCc1pp-indx.htm

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{g~ra.} / {gra.} : Note: We are still with unusual conjuncts {g~na.}, {g~ma.}, {g~ya.}, {g~ra.}, {g~wa.}
  listed in the previous file.**

  {gra.ha.}
  p088-1c1
  p088-1c2
  {gra.hi.}
  {gra.h}
  {gra}
  {gra-Ba.}
  {gra-ma.}
  {gra-wa.}
  p088-1c3
  {gra-a.}
  {gra-ha.}
  {gra-hi.}
  {gri}
  {gr}
{g~la.}

UKT notes :

**UKT 160222: Skt-Myan {g~ra.} is definitely rhotic, whereas Bur-Myan {gra.} is non-rhotic and is the same as {gya.}.
It is interesting to note that U Hoke Sein in his PMD0352 to 0374 does not list any words with {gra.}. However, U Tun Myint in his UTM-PDMD043 to 044 lists some because of which I would refer to this orthography as Bur-Myan or Skt-Myan instead of Pal-Myan. However, you might still find it as Pal-Myan because of my previous usage. What we generally take to be Pal-Myan that is found extensively in Astrology and Indigenous Bur-Myan Medicine is actually derived from Skt-Dev, and should be termed Skt-Myan. Whether it is Pal-Myan or Skt-Myan, {gra.} is only slightly rhotic. What about Nwari and Old Magadhi?
  See: English to Nepal Bhasa Dictionary by Sabin Bhuju सबिन भुजु , 2005
  - SBhuju-NewarDict<> / bkp<> (link chk 160221)
  Being both Tib-Bur languages Bur-Myan and Nwa-Dev have words beginning with {nga.} ङ,
  e.g. for <fish> न्या ; ङा
  Mon-Myan {gra.} is similar to Skt-Myan, but Bur-Myan is similar to Pali-Myan.
  Beware of possible mix-ups.

Mahaboat {ma.ha-Boat} and Nine-Gods Purja {Bu.ra: ko:hsu} {pu-zau pw:}.
"Bur-Myan speakers of Theravada Buddhist faith, do not worship the Planets let alone their animals. We supply them food, flowers and light during our worship of the Nine-Gods Puja. We worship the Buddha and his saints in our {Bu.ra: ko:hsu} {pu-zau pw:}. We invoke or call up the Planets with our Mantras (which they must obey) to enjoy the provisions given to them. At the end of the ceremony, we ask them to leave which in Bur-Myan is 'expulsion' by reciting another set of Mantras (which they must obey). It should be compared and differentiated from the worship of Hindu Navagraha  {na.wa.gra.ha.} नवग्रह = न व ग ् र ह ". See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Navagraha 130116, 160118 
I have downloaded a Hindu Navagraha Puja from - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=35O5yRyNhIc 160223
Since, there is very little video to be watched, I am presenting here only what you can hear in mp3 format.
- NavagrahaPuja<)) / bkp<))
Listen carefully, and you will hear a lot of Skt-Dev, ॐ OṀ (ending with closed lips). It is the equivalent to {ON} (ending with open lips) which is from Hinduism. In purely Buddhist recitation there is no {ON}. ॐ OṀ & {ON} are {::tn} 'dot above' sounds. There many 'dot-above' sounds because of which I hold that these Mantras were Tib-Bur in origin. I hold that the Vedic language before Panini was Tib-Bur, which Panini formalized into Classical Sanskrit.
See also: Folk Elements in Buddhism -- flk-ele-indx.htm > ch02.htm (on Nine Gods) (link chk 160118)

 

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{gra.ha.}

UKT 160117: The meaning of {gra.ha.} 'seizer' is not appropriate according to
Burmese Astrology Mahaboat {ma.ha-Boat}.

p088-1c1

p088-1c1-b01

ग्रह [ grh-a ]
- a. (--) seizing, holding; gaining; perceiving; m. seizer, esp. Rhu, who seizes and thus eclipses sun and moon; planet (which seizes men by magical influence: generally reckoned to be five in number: Mars, Mercury, Jupiter, Venus, and Saturn, or seven: the same + Rhu and Ketu, or nine: the same + sun and moon); demon of disease; imp; crocodile; booty; vessel (for drawing Soma); draught (of Soma); organ (of which eight are enumerated); seizure, grasp, grip; draught (of a fluid); theft, robbery; insistence on (lc., --), endeavour; receipt; welcome; mention; perception, understanding.

 

p088-1c1-b02

ग्रहग्रस्त [ graha-grasta ]
- pp. possessed by a demon.

 

p088-1c1-b03

ग्रहण [ grah-ana ]
- a. holding (--); n. grhana, seizing, holding, capturing; eclipse; obtaining, receiving; buying; reverberation; catching, absorbing; putting on (clothes), assuming (a body); undergoing; pronouncing, mentioning; using an expression, employment, word mentioned; learning; perception, understanding; taking to mean.

 

p088-1c1-b04

ग्रहणचतुर [ grahana-katura ]
- a. expert in seizing; -dvaya, n. eclipse of sun and (or) moon; -sambhava, a. arising from the taking away (of, g.); -‿anta, a. done with learning; -‿antika, a. id.

 

p088-1c1-b05

ग्रहणीय [ grah-anya ]
- fp. to be accepted or pondered.

 

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p088-1c2

p088-1c2-b00

  ग्रहपीडन [ graha-pdana ]
- n., -pd, f. calamity caused by Rhu, eclipse; -maya, a. () consisting of planets; -yaga, m. sacrifice to the planets; -yuti, f. conjunction of the planets; -yuddha, (pp.) n. conflict --, opposition of the planets; -yoga, m.=graha-yuti; -varsha, m. planetary year; -samgama, m. conjunction of the planets; -‿agre-sara, m. ep. of the moon (chief of the planets).

 

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{gra.hi.}

p088-1c2-b01

ग्रहिल [ grah-ila ]
- a. sensible to (--); sensitive; frantic.

 

p088-1c2-b02

ग्रहीतव्य [ grah--tavy ]
- fp. to be taken, received, -drawn (fluid); --tri, m. seizer; receiver; purchaser; perceiver; hearer.

 

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{gra.h}

p088-1c2-b03

ग्रहोक्थ [ graha‿uktha ]
- n. hymn recited while drawing Soma.

 

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{gra}

{gra-Ba.}

p088-1c2-b04

ग्राभ [ grbh ]
- m. seizer; handful.

 

p088-1c2-b05

ग्राम [ gr&asharp;-ma ]
= ग ् र ा म --> {gra-ma.}
- m. inhabited place, village; community, clan; host; multitude, aggregate of (--); scale in music: pl. inhabitants, people.
Pal: {ga-ma.} - UHS PMD0363
  UKT from UHS: community, village

 

p088-1c2-b06

ग्रामकाम [ gr&asharp;ma-kma ]
- a. desirous of a village; fond of village life; -kukkuta, m. (village=) tame cock; -ghta, m. plundering of a village; -kary, f. village ways= sexual enjoyment; -kaitya, m. sacred tree of the village; -gta, pp. grown in a village or in cultivated soil; -n, m. leader of a host; chief of a community; *barber (chief person in a village); -t, f. number of villages; -dasa‿sa, m. chief of ten villages; -dhar, f. N. of a rock (supporting villages); -dharma, m. village custom; -nivsin, a. dwelling in villages, tame (birds); -pishta, pp. ground at home; -ygaka, -ygin, a. sacrificing (through avarice) for all members of the community (whether admissible or not); -vsin, a. living in villages, tame (animal); m. villager; -vriddha, m. old man of the village; -sm, f. village field; -skara, m. domestic hog.

 

p088-1c2-b07

 

p088-1c2-b08

ग्रामिक [ grm-ika ]
- m. village chief; -n, a. ruling a community; m. villager; peasant: (i)-putra, m. peasant-boy.

 

p088-1c2-b09

ग्रामीण [ grm-na ]
- n. rustic, illiterate; m. villager, peasant; -eya-ka, m. villager.

 

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{gra-ma.}

p088-1c2-b10

ग्राम्य [ grm-y ]
- a. referring to, coming from, prepared in or inhabiting villages; tame; cultivated; raised by cultivation; rustic, coarse; m. villager; domestic animal; n. sensuality.

 

p088-1c2-b11

ग्राम्यकुक्कुट [ grmya-kukkuta ]
- m. domestic cock; -t, f., -tva, n. coarse diction; -dharma, m. villager's duty; sensuality; -mriga, m. (domestic animal), dog; -skara, m. domestic hog.

 

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{gra-wa.}

p088-1c2-b12

ग्रावन् [ gr&asharp;-van ]
- m. rock, stone, esp. for pressing Soma.

 

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p088-1c3

p088-1c3-b00

ग्रावग्राभ [ grva-grbh ]
- m. (handling the Soma stones), a priest, later grvastut; -stt, m. a kind of priest; -stotra, n. invocation of the pressing-stones at noon: -ya, a. relating to the invocation of the pressing stones.

 

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{gra-a.}

p088-1c3-b01

ग्रास [ grs-a ]
- m. swallowing; eclipse; mouthful, morsel; food; --, a. swallowing; -pramna, n. size of a morsel; -‿kkhdana, n. sg. food and clothing.

 

p088-1c3-b02

 

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{gra-ha.}

p088-1c3-b03

ग्राह [ grh- ]
- a. () seizing, holding, taking, receiving (--); m. id.; mentioning; whim; beast of prey, crocodile, shark, serpent.

 

p088-1c3-b04

ग्राहक [ grha-ka ]
- a. (ik) receiving; apprehending, perceiving; m. bailiff; policeman; buyer: -tva, n. power of comprehension; -krikara, m. decoy partridge; -vihamga, m. decoy-bird.

 

p088-1c3-b05

ग्राहयितव्य [ grh-ay-i-tavya ]
- (cs.) fp. to be caused to undertake (ac.).

 

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{gra-hi.}

p088-1c3-b06

ग्राहिन् [ grh-in ]
- a. (--) seizing, holding; catching; containing; receiving, gaining, keeping; buying (with in. of price); searching through; perceiving; pondering; -y, fp. to be seized, -clasped; -apprehended; -obtained; -accepted; -insisted on; -perceived, -comprehended; -learned; -understood; -recognised, -regarded.

 

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{gri}

UKT 160223: {gri} (2 blk) is orthographically different from {gRi} गॄ (2 blk)
derived from rhotic Skt-Dev vowel-pair ऋ {iRi.} (1blk); ॠ {iRi} (2 blk).
Refer to p044-2-p062c2 - MCv2pp-indx.htm > p056-2.htm (link chk 160223)
Common sense dictates that only one form {gri} or {gRi} is allowable.
I will have to come back to this note as I become more familiar with Skt-Dev.

p088-1c3-b07

  ग्रीव [ gr-va ]
- m., &asharp;, f. [√gr, swallow], neck.

 

p088-1c3-b08

ग्रीष्म [ grsh-m ]
- m. summer, hot season: -samaya, m. summer time.

 

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{gr}

p088-1c3-b09

ग्रैव [ graiva ]
- n. neck-chain (of an elephant).

 

p088-1c3-b10

ग्रैवेय [ graiv-eya ]
- m. n. id.: -ka, n. id.; necklace; -ya, a. relating to the neck.

 

p088-1c3-b11

ग्रैष्म [ grashma ]
- a. referring to the hot season; i-ka, a. id.

 

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{g~la.}

p088-1c3-b12

 

p088-1c3-b13

ग्लपन [ glap-ana ]
- n. relaxation; withering.

 

p088-1c3-b14

ग्लपय [ gla-paya ]
- cs. of √glai.

 

p088-1c3-b15

 

p088-1c3-b16

 

 

p088-1c3-b17

ग्लह [ glh-a ]
- m. game of dice; throw (at dice); stake; die; dice-box; contention, wager; prize; -ana, n. throwing of dice.

 

p088-1c3-b18

  ग्लान [ gl-na (pp. √glai) ]
- n., -�� -ni, f. lassitude; inertness; diminution; -vn, a. inert; -snu, a. relaxed; withered; sick.

 

p088-1c3-b19

 

 

p088-1c3-b20

 

 

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UKT notes

Mahaboat {ma.ha-Boat}

- UKT 160118

The Astronomical travelling luminaries (including one dark "planet") are connected to the 8 points of compass, 7 days of the week, and 8 animals. Astrologically, these "astronomical-planets" are supposed to have influence on the mundane affairs of Man, his health, and the economy and politics of the country of his residence. Thus they are called Gra'ha or Seizers. (Note: I have spelled the astronomical planets with small letter-p and the Astrological Planets with cap-letter-P.):

1. Sun (North-east, Sunday Planet lord of Ga'loan-Bird),
2. Moon (East, Monday Planet lord of Tiger-Feline),
3. Mars (South-east, Tuesday Planet lord of Lion-Feline),
4. Mercury (South, Wednesday-morning Planet lord of Tusker-Elephant),
5. Saturn (South-west, Saturday Planet lord Naga-Serpant), 
6. Jupiter (West, Thursday Planet lord of Mouse-Rodent ),
7. Rahu (South-west, Wednesday-evening Planet lord of Tuskless-Elephant)
8. Venus (North, Friday Planet lord of Guinea-pig-Rodent),

Unlike the Greek-Roman male-, female-, hermaphrodite-gods, all the Planet lords are males with characteristics of the animal over which he influenced. For my astrological predictions, I base the effects of the Planets on the sexuality of Greek-Roman gods and goddesses, and the known animal behaviour of the animals.

The Planets are not Dva or Asura of Buddhism and Hinduism, but protectors in an earlier folk-religion. They are not tutelary gods. They are not to be feared, nor are they to be insulted.

The indigenous Folk Astrology of Myanmarpr, Ma'ha'boat {ma.ha-Boat} - unlike Vdic Astrology, particularly the present-day Hindu Astrology - is based the behaviour of the Planets. Each human individual, of maximum 108 years of life span, would be influenced by a particular Planet and not in any way "seized" by him.

Bur-Myan speakers of Theravada Buddhist faith, do not worship the Planets let alone their animals. We try to supply them food, flowers and light during our worship of the Nine-Gods Puja. We worship the Buddha and his saints in our {Bu.ra: ko:hsu} {pu-zau pw:}. We invoke or call up the Planets with our Mantras (which they must obey) to enjoy the provisions given to them. At the end of the ceremony, we ask them to leave which is Bur-Myan is 'expulsion' by reciting another set of Mantras (which they must obey). It should be compared and differentiated from the worship of Hindu Navagraha  {na.wa.gra.ha.} नवग्रह = न व ग ् र ह . See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Navagraha 130116 

The 108 years are divided as: Sunday, 6 years; Monday, 15 yr.; Tuesday, 8 yr.; Wednesday, 17 yr.; Saturday, 10 yr.; Thursday, 19 yr.; Rahu, 12 yr.; Friday, 21 yr.. Each human individual, depending on the year according to Burmese lunar calendar, and the day of birth could begin his life in a time-duration of any Planet. For example, a person may begin in life in Monday-Planet life of 15 yr. He might be born at exactly 12th yr - 5th month point and would remain in it for 2 yr. and 7 mm., and then pass on to Tuesday Planet life. Mahaboat is very simple and you can learn it in a few days and set up your own shop.

According to my now-departed friend Daw Hla Than aka Bogyi (Captain in Burma Air Force) Ma Hla Than, Mahaboat is purely indigenous to Myanmarpr. It is also practiced in Cambodia and Thailand.

See: Folk Elements in Buddhism -- flk-ele-indx.htm > ch02.htm (on Nine Gods) (link chk 160118)

Go back Mahaboat-note-b

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End of TIL file