Update: 2019-03-26 04:21 AM -0500


A Practical Sanskrit Dictionary


by A. A. Macdonell, 1893,
http://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/scans/MDScan/index.php?sfx=jpg 1929.
Nataraj ed., 1st in 2006, 2012

Edited, with additions from Pali sources, by U Kyaw Tun (UKT) (M.S., I.P.S.T., USA) and staff of Tun Institute of Learning (TIL) . Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone. Prepared for students and staff of TIL Research Station, Yangon, MYANMAR :  http://www.tuninst.net , www.romabama.blogspot.com

MC-indx.htm | Top

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Hanging Na : Bur = Mon (listen to Mon-Myan pronunciations
Hanging-consonants in Mon-Myan)

{g~na} : See Mon-Myan for examples where the unusual conjuncts are tranliterated as disylllable .

Hanging Ma : Bur = Mon (listen to Mon-Myan pronunciations
Hanging-consonants in Mon-Myan)

{gRa.}** : rhotic

Note: Unusual conjuncts are continued in next file.


UKT notes :
Hanging-consonants in Mon-Myan
Silent Letters in English
Universal Mother
  - the anthropomorphic form of Atta and Atman

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{g~na} : spelled with "hanging" {na.} from Mon-Myan.

UKT 140920, 170626, 190325: I am finding that unless I refer to Mon-Myan, I would be helpless in writing {by:hsw:}. Here the 'hanging akshara' is {na.}. You will notice that {by:hsw:} occur as the onset of the syllable. In Bur-Myan, such as {ya.ping.} & {ra.ric} are monosyllabic and non-rhotic. However, {na.hsw:}, {ma.hsw:}, and similar {by:hsw:} cannot be pronounced as monosyllables. To make them easy to pronounce, a schwa is generally inserted in the pronunciation after the first akshara, and pronounced as disyllabic. We also find them in {la.hsw:} and {wa.hsw:}. The following table is my reconstruction of the table of Hanging consonants from Fundamentals of Mon Speech & Script (in Bur-Myan), by Nai Maung Toe, www.monlibrary.com, Yangon, 2007 , p047-048 (Romabama may be applicable in NMT)
- MonMyan-NMgToe-Mon-Bur<> / bkp<> (link chk 180513)

Listen to how Mon-Myan {na.hsw:}, {ma.hsw:}, {ya.ping.}, {ra.ric}, {la.hsw:} and {wa.hsw:} are pronounced in my notes on - p076C.htm (link chk 190325)
The sound clips are from Learn Mon Yourself (SpkAll) programme of 61 lessons
- spk-all-indx.htm (link chk 190325) 


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p087c2-b19/ p064-095

ग्ना [ gn ]
= ग ् न ा
- f. divine female, goddess.
95) ग्ना (p. 64) gnaN divine female, goddess.

UKT 120207, 140920, 170624: Who is this Divine female or goddess? I'm relying on orthography to find out. Skt-Dev ग्ना [ gn ] = ग ् न ा  aks-to-aks to Mon-Myan gives {g~na}. The orthography shows that g is hung-on to by n . See my note on
- Hanging consonants in Mon-Myan
However, be careful of English Silent letters where in kn & gn sounds k and g are both turned into <kn> --> <n>, and <gn> --> <n>.
See my note on Divine female or goddess, or as I would conjecture
Universal Mother {m-tau} the anthropomorphic form of Atta and Atman {t~ta.} - the antithesis of {a.nt~ta.} of Buddhism.


p087c2-b20/ p064-094

ग्नास्पति [ gns-pti ]
- m. spouse of a goddess; -ptn, f. divine consort.
94) ग्नास्पति (p. 64) gns-pti spouse of a goddess; 

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p087c3-b00/ p064-093

ग्मत् [ gm-t ]
- V. pr. pt. of √gam.
93) ग्मत् (p. 64) gm-t √gam.



ग्मन् [ gm-an ]
- V. 3rd pl. impf. of √gam.
92) ग्मन् (p. 64) gm-an 3rd pl. impf. of √gam.


p087c3-b02/ p064-091

ग्मा [ gm ]
- f. earth: only ab. g. gms .
91) ग्मा (p. 64) gmaN earth:

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{gRa.} : spelled with full-hooded {ra.ric} , and pronounced rhotic.

p087c3-b03/ not online

ग्रथ् [ grath ] , ग्रन्थ् [ granth ]
- ix. p. grath-n , -n , -n , tie, connect; compose : pp. grathit , strung, bound, wreathed, woven; joined ; studded with ( -) ; intricate (plot). ud , tie up; loosen, untie. vi , tie together. sam , id.

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p087c3-b04/ p064-090

ग्रथन [ grath-ana ]
- n. connexion; intricacy: , f. tying, uniting; -anya, fp. to be joined or united.
90) ग्रथन (p. 64) grath-ana connexion; intricacy:



ग्रथिन्् [ grath-n ]
- a. (knotty), unintelligible.
89) ग्रथिन्् (p. 64) grath-n (knotty), unintelligible.

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p087c3-b06/ p064-088

ग्रन्थ [ granth-a ]
- m. knot; composition; verse (of 32 syllables); treatise, book; text, wording; chapter; -ana, n. connecting, tying.
88) ग्रन्थ (p. 64) granth-a knot; composition;


p087c3-b07/ p064-107

ग्रन्थि [ granth- ]
- m. knot; knot in a garment for keeping money, etc.; joint: -ka, m. narrator, rhapsodist; astrologer; -kkhedaka, m. cut-purse.
107) ग्रन्थि (p. 64) granth- knot; knot in a garment for keeping money, etc.;


- Mac-orphan/ p064-117

ग्रन्थिशमन [ granthi-samana ]
- n. (bringing a garment to an end with a knot =) money knot.
117) ग्रन्थिशमन (p. 64) granthi-samana (bringing a garment to an end with a knot =) money knot.


p087c3-b08/ p064-106

ग्रन्थिन् [ granth-in ]
- a. reading books.
106) ग्रन्थिन् (p. 64) granth-in reading books.


p087c3-b09/ p064-105

ग्रन्थिपर्णक [ granthi-parnaka ]
- n. (?) kind of fragrant plant; -bheda, m. cut-purse; -mat, a. tied, knit, entwined.
105) ग्रन्थिपर्णक (p. 64) granthi-parnaka -bheda, m. cut-purse;


p087c3-b10/ p064-104

ग्रन्थिल [ granthi-la ]
- a. knotty.
104) ग्रन्थिल (p. 64) granthi-la knotty.

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p087c3-b11/ not online

ग्रप्स [ grapsa ]
- bunch, bundle

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p087c3-b12/ not online

ग्रभ् [ grabh ]
- ix. gribh-n , v. form of grah (q.v.): pp. gribht , fruitful (tree). anu , receive kindly. ud , draw out. pari , clasp. prati , accept; grasp.


p087c3-b13/ p064-134

ग्रभ [ grbh-a ]
- m. seizure; --tri, m. seizer.
134) ग्रभ (p. 64) grbh-a seizure;


orphan/ p064-008

8) गृभय (p. 64) gribh-ya P. grasp, seize.

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p087c3-b14/ not online

ग्रस् [ gras ]
- i. grsa , seize with mouth, swallow, devour; eclipse (sun, moon); hush up (a suit): pp. grasit , grasta , seized, possessed, attacked, tormented by ( -)


p087c3-b15/ p064-87

ग्रसन [ gras-ana ]
- n. swallowing; kind of partial eclipse; jaws; -ishnu , a. wont to swallow, -absorb ; -tri , m. swallower, eclipser.
87) ग्रसन (p. 64) gras-ana swallowing; kind of partial eclipse;

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BPal: {ga.ha.} - UHS PMD0362
  UKT from UHS: . house. . mfn. take, hold, seize. m. astrology planet-god, to take, eclipse of Moon or Sun.

UKT 160222: The astrological term {groh} is the god of the astronomical planet. It is not a dva-god. These planet-gods are all males in Bur-Myan native astrology called Mahaboat {ma.ha-Boat}, and each has an animal to ride on. Unlike the Hindu-astrological entities they do not seize a person. They can be your guardian (to guard from evil) or your prison-guard (to inflict evil on you).

p087c3-b16/ not online

ग्रह् [GRAH], IX. grih-nấ, -nī,
 -n, seize, take (also of leeches), hold, catch, stop; grasp (-pấnim, the hand in marriage); gain possession of; capture; captivate (the heart); attack (of disease); eclipse; rob, deprive of; keep, retain; claim, appropriate; obtain, accept; receive (from ab.); assume, adopt; acquire; purchase (with in, of price); draw (water); pluck, gather; put on (clothes); take and place upon (in., lc.); take upon oneself, undergo; welcome, receive again (a rejected wife); utter, pronounce; perceive, trace out, understand, hear, see; learn, remember; approve, like; take to heart, follow; be of opinion, consider; with cs. mg. cause to take; anyath-, mistake; kryam-, accept a lawsuit; garbham-, become pregnant by (ab.); paramrthena-, take in earnest; pp. grihta, often-, lit, having a taken-, -taking with one, bearing, holding; gd. grihitv, grihya=with; pe. be meant by (in.); ca. grahaya, P. cause to seize, take, or grasp (the hand in marriage); give in marriage to (2 ac.); cause to be apprehended; cause to be plundered or taken away; cause to receive, deliver to; ask to take (a seat); cause to choose (2 ac.); teach, familiarise with (2 ac); des. gighrikaha, P. . be about to seize; desire to grasp or perceive. anu, rob after-wards; support; approve; treat graciously, wards; support; approve; treat graciously, favour (with in.); cherish; grace (a seat=deign to be seated): pp. rendered happy by (in.), spa, take away, sever. abhi, seize; receive; cs. catch ava, let go, relax; keep back, close; divide (words); gd, by violence. , pull, tighten (reins); learn. ud, raise, hold up; take away; draw (sword); rescue; cs. cause to be paid; explain, discuss. upa‿ud, raise; open; convey to the mouth. upa, hold from below, support; obtain, secure; accept; approve. ni, draw to one; tighten (reins); close (eyes); keep back, restrain; hold fast; capute, apprehend; imprison; check, subdue, curb; withhold, suppress. upa-ni, press down upon (lc.); bring near. pari, embrace, surround; put on (a garment); grasp; hold; gain, secure; accept; retain; profess (a doctrine); undergo; receive kindly; marry (a woman); assist; conform to, follow; excel, surpass: pp. united with, furnished with (in. or _). pra,stretch forth; hold; grasp; accept; stop; tighten (reins); keep separate (words in Sandhi); gd. pra-grihya, taking with one, accompanied by; with. sam-pra, accept. prati, grasp, take up; take possession of; regain; receive, accept; receive (hostilely), attach; welcome; marry; hear with pleasure, take as a good omen; acquiesce in, approve; cs. offer to, present with (2 ac.); des. desire to accept. vi, hold apart; separate; analyse (compounds); fight with (in. saha or srdham); wage war on (ac.); vie with, be a match for (srdham); seize (by, lc.); ca. cause to wage war against. sam, collect, grasp, take up; contain; curb; govern; unstring (bow); compel; receive kindly; comprehend; des. wish to marry. upa-sam, clasp (esp. the feet); apprehend, capture; conciliate, win; des. desire to clasp the feet of (ac.) saha, take along with one.

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UKT notes

Hanging-consonants in Mon-Myan :
pronunciation of disyllabic words

- UKT 140920, 170624

According Naing Maung Toe, there are Eleven Hanging-consonants. However the online program SpkAll lists only Eight for students to practise pronunciation. These Hanging-consonants to me are Conjunct-Medial formers .

Conjuncts are disyllabic, whereas Medials are monosyllabic. They are shown differently in orthography by Rev. Haswell, e.g. {t~na.} as t'na .

Note the hangers-on are shown differently in Bur-Myan and Mon-Myan. See above for Romabama version, which shows hangers-on {na.}, {ma.}, {la.} and {wa.}:

References in TIL Libraries:
Basic Mon-Myanmar Language (in Burmese) by Naing Maung Toe, 2007.
 - NaiMgToe-MonMyan<> / Bkp<> (link chk 170624)
Grammatical notes and Vocabulary of the Peguan Language, by J.M. Haswell,
 - JMHaswell-PeguanGrammVocab<> / bkp<> (link chk 170624)
Mon-Myan Language: Speech and Script (SpkAll)
 - spk-all-indx.htm > spk-all01.htm > Lesson 07-61 (link chk 170624)
  Eight hangers-on: {gna.}-coda, {a.}*, {na.}, {ma.};
------------------------- {ya.}, {ra.},
{la.}, {wa.} .
  * I have observed that if instead of Paltal-Approximant Nya'gyi {a.}, the Palatal-Plosive-nasal Nya'l {a.} has been used, it would be more in sync with Skt-Dev and Eng-Lat.


Hanging Na : Bur = Mon
{g~na.} - an usual conjunct spelled with "hanging" {na.} from Mon-Myan.
See Speaking Mon-Myan Language (MonSPK) - spk-all-indx.htm >
Lesson group#05, lessons33-38 - spk-all05.htm , and go to 
- Mon-Myan Hanging Na: {na.hsw:} - Lesson33<))   
Note: Mon pronounces Na {na.} as "n", and in {na.hsw:}, the hanger {na.} is different from Bur-Myan foot-less {na.}.

Hanging Ma : Bur = Mon
{g~ma.} - another usual conjunct: "hanging"  {ma.} from Mon-Myan
- Hanging Ma: {ma.hsw:} - Lesson34<))
Note: Mon pronounces Ma {m} as "m"


Go back Hanging-conson-note-b

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Silent Letters in English

kn & gn sounds both become n

- UKT: 120207, 140917, 170624 

The pronunciations of <kn> as in <know> /nəʊ/ (US) /noʊ/ and <gn> as in <gnome> /nəʊm/ (US) /noʊm/ are problems in English, which they solve by saying that <k> in <know> and <g> in <gnome> are silent.

Since  Bur-Myan and Skt-Dev are phonetic or phonemic, silent letters are not allowed, and I have been wondering how to pronounce them by looking into Skt-Dev pronunciations which can be derived from the orthography.

I am holding the tentative view that the only way is to insert a schwa /ə/ in pronunciation after the "silent letter". These letters or more precisely consonant-aksharas are found in Mon-Myan, where they are known as Hanging-akshara {hsw:by:}. See: 
Basic Mon-Myanmar Language (in Burmese) by Naing Maung Toe, Rangoon, 2007. See downloaded pages in TIL HD-PDF and SD-PDF libraries - NaiMgToe-MonMyan<> / Bkp<> (link chk 170625)
Medial-conjunct formers in Mon-Myan Language: Speech and Script
- spk-all-indx.htm > Lesson 07-61 (link chk 170625)

The following are some of the words that begin with kn in Monier-Williams, p318-c1:

knath cl. 1. P. ○thati, to hurt Dhātup. xix, 38 (cf. √krath, klath.)
knas cl. 4. P. ○syati, to be crooked (in mind or body) Dhātup. xxvi, 26
knu or knū, cl. 9. P. Ā. knunāti, ○nīte or knūnāti, ○nīte, to sound Dhātup. xxxi, 10

There are 11 Hanging-akshara {hsw:by:} in Mon-Myan, and the hanging {na.} as you would find in kn & gn is one of them. However there is a change in shape of the glyph and you would difficulty in identifying them.

Go back Silent-Letters-note-b

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Universal Mother
the anthropomorphic form of Atta and Atman

- UKT 170624

My father, U Tun Pe, a member of the Theosophy Soc. of Rangoon, before the outbreak of the WWII, had explained to me how Atta (the personal Soul or Self) is related Atman (the Universal Soul or Self). The example he had given of the Atman is a huge bonfire which gives out sparks. The individual (you or I - the essence of being is the personal soul) is an individual spark which has come out of the bonfire. Some sparks will fall back into the bonfire, but some would in turn become huge bonfires themselves.

From: Atman the Higher Self by Blavatsky Theosophy Group UK
https://blavatskytheosophy.com/atman-the-higher-self/ 170625

"The Sanskrit word Atma or Atman is one of the most important terms in the teachings of Theosophy, not to mention in Hinduism too. The word literally means Self. It does not refer to our personal or individual self but to our Higher Self, our Divine Self, which is why its always written with a capital S. Atma, Higher Self, and Spirit are all synonymous terms in the teachings of Theosophy.

"It is also often referred to simply as The Self, which is also what it is often called in the Upanishads, the Bhagavad Gita, and the teachings of the Vedanta philosophy of Hinduism in general, which is where this ancient teaching of the Higher Self originates. ..."

UKT 170622: Now refer to ग्ना [ gn ] = ग ् न ा - f. divine female, goddess. - Mac087c2
and also note {g~na} is transcribed as disyllable /t'na/ in Mon-Myan.

I would venture to say that it is the Universal Mother {m-tau}, she (may be he or it) the anthropomorphic Universal Energy represented by Sun being worshipped in Gayatri Mantra. Even the Hindu Trimurti is supposed to have recited this Mantra. A view I would support, because the Gayartri Mantra is the oldest mantra in the Rig Vda, whilst Vishnu-dva and Shiva-dva are later additions by Poannars {poaN~Na:} 'brahmin'. The Universal Mother doesn't need a husband ग्नास्पति [ gns-pti ]. It is pathetic to see some religions could not escape the idea of sex, and sexual intercourse to get children!
Listen to Gayatri Mantra: - bk-cndl-gayatri<))
and the Theravada Buddhist equivalent the Mora Sutta - bk-cndl-Mingun<))
Go back to Universal-Mother-note-b / Atta-Atman-note-b

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End of TIL file