Update: 2019-06-24 11:17 PM -0400


Practical Sanskrit Dictionary for Buddhists and Hindus


A Practical Sanskrikt Dictionary, by A. A. Macdonell, 1893,
http://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/scans/MDScan/index.php?sfx=jpg; 1929.
- Nataraj ed., 1st in 2006, 2012.
- https://dsal.uchicago.edu/dictionaries/macdonell/ 190516
The Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Grammar and Dictionary, BHS, vol.2, by F. Edgerton, pp. 627.
- FEdgerton-BHSD<> / Bkp<> (link chk 180627)
The Student's Pali English dictionary , by U Pe Maung Tin, 1920.
- (ref: UPMT-PEDxxx).  Downloaded copies in TIL HD-PDF and SD-PDF libraries:
- UPMT-PaliDict1920<> / bkp<> (link chk 190113)
  Pali-Myanmar Dictionary (in Pal-Myan), by U Hoke Sein,
- (ref: UHS-PMD). The dictionary in printed form is in TIL Research Library.
Latin-English Vocabulary II, by Hans H rberg, 1998
- HHOrberg-LinguaLatina<> / Bkp<> (link chk 190624)

Edited by U Kyaw Tun (UKT) (M.S., I.P.S.T., USA), Daw Khin Wutyi, Daw Thuzar Myint, Daw Zinthiri Han and staff of Tun Institute of Learning (TIL). Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone. Prepared for students and staff of TIL  Research Station, Yangon, MYANMAR 
 - http://www.tuninst.net , www.romabama.blogspot.com

MC-indx.htm | Top


Contents of this page

{gau:pa.} - cont


{g~na}* - unusual conjuncts, - are in a separate file p087C.htm  .


UKT 180430: Ancient Indians of Kashmere reared cattle mostly, and so ep. of Krishna is "cowherd".
Ancient Jews reared sheep mostly, and so ep. of Christ is "shepherd". Is it just a coincidence, or
is there something more to it?

UKT notes :
Goddess Gauri गौरी [ gaur ] - the harvest-goddess


Contents of this page

{gau:pa.} - cont


p087c1-b01/ p064-058

गोपयितव्य [ gopay-i-tavya ]
- fp. to be concealed.
58) गोपयितव्य (p. 64) gopay-i-tavya to be concealed.


p087c1-b02/ p064-057

गोपवेष [ gopa-vesha ]
- a. dressed as a cowherd.
57) गोपवेष (p. 64) gopa-vesha dressed as a cowherd.


p087c1-b03/ p064-056

गोपा [ go-p ]
- m. herd; watcher, protector; f. female watcher.
56) गोपा (p. 64) go-paN herd;


p087c1-b04/ p064-055

गोपाग्रहार [ gopa‿agrahra ]
- m. pl. N. of various Agrahras; -‿ditya, m. N. of a king of Cashmere; -‿adri, m. N. of a mountain.
55) गोपाग्रहार (p. 64) gopa̮agrahra Agrahras; -̮ditya, m. N. of a king of Cashmere;


p087c1-b05/ p064-054

गोपाय [ gop-y ]
- den. protect, guard, preserve; conceal.
54) गोपाय (p. 64) gop-y protect, guard,


p087c1-b06/ p064-053

गोपायन [ gopy-ana ]
- a. protecting; n. protection.
53) गोपायन (p. 64) gopy-ana protecting;


p087c1-b07/ p064-052

गोपाल [ go-pl ]
- m. cowherd; (protector of earth), king; ep. of Krishna; N. of a prince: (a)-ka, m. cowherd; ep. of Krishna; N. of a prince; i-k, f. wife of a cowherd; -kesava, m. N. of a statue of Krishna; -pura, n. N. of a town; -matha, m. N. of a college; -varman, m. N. of a king of Cashmere.
52) गोपाल (p. 64) go-pl cowherd; (protector of earth), king;

UKT 180430: Ancient Indians of Kashmere reared cattle mostly, and so ep. of Krishna is "cowherd".
Ancient Jews reared sheep mostly, and so ep. of Christ is "shepherd". Is it just a coincidence, or
is there something more to it?

p087c1-b08/ p064-051

गोपित्त [ go-pitta ]
- n. cow's gall (from which a yellow pigment is said to be obtained); -pth, m. . draught of milk; . protection; -pukkha, m. cow's tail; kind of monkey; -pura, n. city-gate; gate.
51) गोपित्त (p. 64) go-pitta cow's gall (from which a yellow pigment is said to be obtained); 


p087c1-b09/ p064-050

गोपेन्द्र [ gopa‿indra ]
- m. chief of herdsmen, ep. of Krishna; -‿sa, m. id.
50) गोपेन्द्र (p. 64) gopa̮indra chief of herdsmen,


p087c1-b10/ p064-049

गोप्तव्य [ gop-tavya ]
- fp. to be guarded or protected; -tr, m., -tr&isharp;, f. protector; concealer; -ya, fp. to be guarded, protected, preserved, or concealed.
49) गोप्तव्य (p. 64) gop-tavya to be guarded or protected;


p087c1-b11/ p064-048

गोप्रचार [ go-prakra ]
- m. pasture land for cows; -pratra, m. Oxford, N. of a place of pilgrimage on the Saray; -balvarda-nyya, m. the manner of cow-bull, i.e. excusable tautology; -brhmana, n. sg. a cow and (or) a Brhman.
48) गोप्रचार (p. 64) go-prakra pasture land for cows;


p087c1-b12/ not online

-- m. N. of a  writer of stras.

UKT 190323: See Sacred Books of the East, vol. 30, by F. Max Muller, 1892, on Grihya Sutras in TIL HD-PDF & SD-PDF libraries:
- FMaxMuller-SacredBooksVol30<> / Bkp<> (link chk 190323)
The original author was Gobhila. F. Max Muller writes in Introduction: "There are, as it seems, no direct traces of the Grthya ceremonies in the most ancient portion of Vedic literature."
UKT: I hold that the Vdas were originally those of the indigenous population written by the very first of the Rishis (not the travelling bards of later years singing praises of the male gods and their wives). The ancient Rishis revered by Gautama Buddha are about 10 in number who were devoted to the pursuit of "knowledge". They lived in remote areas in the foothills of Himalayas which extended from west to east and bent down south into the land of present day Myanmarpr. You can still find them in Myanmarpr who now keep the Buddhist five precepts.


p087c1-b13/ p064-047

गोभुज् go-bhug, -˚भृत् [ -bhrit ]
- m. prince, king.
47) गोभुज् (p. 64) -bhrit prince, king.


p087c1-b14/ p064-069

गोमत् [ g-mat ]
- a. possessing cows, rich in, or consisting of cows; abounding in milk; n. property in cattle: -, f. place abounding in cows; -&isharp;, f. N. of several rivers, esp. of a tributary of the Indus; -matallik, f. splendid cow.
69) गोमत् (p. 64) g-mat possessing cows, rich in, or consisting of cows;


p087c1-b15/ p064-068

गोमय [ go-mya ]
- a. consisting of cows; full of cowdung; (m.) n. cowdung (often pl.): -pyasya-nyya-vat, ad. after the manner of cowdung and milk-food, i.e. widely differing though identical in origin; -maya, a. () made of cowdung.
68) गोमय (p. 64) go-mya consisting of cows;


p087c1-b16/ p064-067

गोमयाय [ gomay-ya ]
- den. . taste like cow-dung.
67) गोमयाय (p. 64) gomay-ya . taste like cow-dung.


p087c1-b17/ p064-066

गोमायु [ g-myu ]
- a. bellowing like an ox; m. kind of frog; jackal; N. of a jackal.
66) गोमायु (p. 64) g-myu bellowing like an ox;


p087c1-b18/ p064-065

गोमिथुन [ go-mithuna ]
- n. sg. and du. bull and cow; -min, m. possessor of cattle; -mukha, m. kind of musical instrument; N. of several men; -mtra, n. cow's urine; -mrig, m. kind of buffalo; -mriga-kka-kary, f. manner of cows in walking, deer in standing, and crows in sitting; -medha, - yaga, m. cow-sacrifice.
65) गोमिथुन (p. 64) go-mithuna bull and cow;

UKT 180430: Notice the word, मिथुन [ mithuna ] 'n. mating, copulation" (SpkSkt).


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p087c1-b19/ p064-064

गोयान [ go-yna ]
- n. car drawn by oxen or cows; cart; -yukta, pp. yoked with oxen or cows; -yuga, n. couple of oxen, - animals; -raksha-ka, a. tending cattle, cattle-breeding; m. cowherd; -raksh, f. tending or keeping of cattle, cattle-breeding, pastoral life; -rakshya, n. id.; -rambha, m. N.; -rasa, m. cow's milk; -rokan, f. gall-stone in cows; -roman, n. cow's hair.
64) गोयान (p. 64) go-yna car drawn by oxen or cows;

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p087c1-b20/ p064-063

गोल gola, ˚क [ -ka ]
- m. bull; widow's bastard.
63) गोल (p. 64) -ka bull; widow's bastard.


p087c1-b21/ p064-061

गोलाङ्गूल [ go-lṅgla ]
- m. kind of monkey; -loman, n. cow's hair; -vadha, m. cow-killing; -vardhana, m. N. of a mountain near Mathur held up for seven days by Krishna for the purpose of sheltering cows threatened by Indra; N. of an author; ep. of Krishna; -vta, m. cow-pen; -vla, m. cow's hair; a. () having cow's hair; -vsa, m. cow-pen; -vid, a. procuring cattle; -vinda, m. ep. of Krishna or Vishnu: -rga, m. N. of a commentator on Manu, -svmin, m. N. of a Brhman; -vrisha, m. bull; -vrishana, m. scrotum of a bull; -vraga, m. cow-pen; -sakrit, n. cow-dung; -sl, f. cow-shed; -srsha, m. N. of a serpent demon; n. kind of sandal-wood: -ka, id.; -sriṅga, n. cow-horn; m. N. of a mountain.
61) गोलाङ्गूल (p. 64) go-lṅgla monkey;


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p087c2-b01/ p064-060

गोऽश्व [ go x sv ]
- n. sg. cattle and horses.
60) गो&100;श्व (p. 64) go ƶ sv cattle and horses.

See my note on Avagraha - Skt-Dev glyph ऽ 


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p087c2-b02/ p064-083

गोष्ठ [ go-shth ]
- m. cow-shed, cow-pen, stable; meeting-place; n. kind of srddha.
83) गोष्ठ (p. 64) go-shth cow-shed, cow-pen, stable;

UKT 180508: srddha - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/%C5%9Ar%C4%81ddha 180508
"Śrāddha or Shraaddha , श्राद्ध 'literally means anything or any act that is performed with all sincerity and faith Śraddhā . In the Hindu religion, it is the ritual that one performs to pay homage to one's Pitṛs  'ancestors' [UKT: Ma'nes {ro:ra-nt}] ... performed on the death anniversary or collectively during the Pitru Paksha or Shraaddha paksha 'fortnight of ancestors', right before Sharad Navaratri in autumn. [1] [2] [3] ... In Hindu amanta calendar (ending with amavasya), second half of the [Lunar] month Bhadrapada [Aug-Sep] is called Pitru Paksha:... "
UKT 180508: The person who performs the feast is known as karta {da.ka}. See: MLC MED2006 p.208c
See also Sharada Navratri - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Navaratri 180508
UKT: Navratri नवरात्रि 'nine nights' most observed as Durga Puja, in the bright half of the Lunar month of Ashvin (Sept-Oct). [3] [4]


p087c2-b03/ p064-082

गोष्ठिक [ goshth-ika ]
- a. less correct form of gaushthika: -karman, n. negotiation for a company; -srddha, n. kind of srddha.
82) गोष्ठिक (p. 64) goshth-ika gaushthika:


p087c2-b04/ p064-081

गोष्ठी [ go-shth ]
- f. assembly, company; fellowship, conversation: -ka, -- a. id.; -bandha, m. social assembly; -yna, n. carriage for company.
81) गोष्ठी (p. 64) go-shth assembly, company;


p087c2-b05/ p064-080

गोष्ठेशय [ goshthe-saya ]
- a. sleeping in a cow-shed.
80) गोष्ठेशय (p. 64) goshthe-saya sleeping in a cow-shed.


p087c2-b06/ p064-079

गोष्पद [ gosh-pada ]
- n. cow's footprint; small puddle: fig. = mere trifle.
79) गोष्पद (p. 64) gosh-pada cow's footprint;


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p087c2-b07/ p064-078

गोस्तन [ go-stana ]
- m. cow's udder; *pearl necklace with four strings; -svmin, m. owner of cows.
78) गोस्तन (p. 64) go-stana cow's udder;

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p087c2-b08/ p064-077

गोह [ gh-a ]
- m. hiding-place, lair.
77) गोह (p. 64) gh-a hiding-place, lair.


p087c2-b09/ not online

गोहत्या [ go-haty ]
- f. slaughter of a cow; -hantri, m. cow-killer; -hara, m.: -na, n. cow-stealing.


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p087c2-b10/ p064-075

गौड [ gauda ]
- a. made of sugar; m. n. (Sugar land), N. of a country (central Bengal); m. pl. its inhabitants; , f. rum distilled from sugar; -ya, a. relating to the Gaudas.
75) गौड (p. 64) gauda made of sugar;

UKT 180509: My grandmother, Daw Choak (b. ca 1873 - d. appr 1964), told me that her father, U Yan Shin had owned toddy-palm plantations from Myingyan district to Magw district. Her native villages were in the area of Mount Popa. She even suggested that I go her native village Gna'tha'yauk, and claim inheritance from the surviving descendants of her father, then known in the area as, Bo (Chieftain) Yan Shin. That he was a native Burmese chieftain is from the fact that at his death his forehead was gilded (pure gold), and his funeral bed had four golden umbrellas giving shade. I had replied: "lucky if I were to get a single palm."
See my note on Toddy climbers of Myanmarpr


p087c2-b11/ p064-074

गौण [ gauna ]
- a. () subordinate, secondary; figurative: i-ka, a. () relating to the three fundamental qualities.
74) गौण (p. 64) gauna () subordinate, secondary;


p087c2-b12/ p064-073

गौतम [ gautam ]
- a. () relating to Gotama; m. pat. from Gotama: N. of various men: -‿aranya, n. N. of a forest.
73) गौतम (p. 64) gautam () relating to Gotama;


p087c2-b13/ not online 

गोतमी [gautam ]
- f. N. of several women; N. of a river


p087c2-b14/ p064-072

गौर [ gaur ]
- a. (&isharp;) whitish, yellowish, reddish; m. kind of buffalo; white mustard (a grain of it = a measure); -mukha, m. N.; -mriga, m. kind of buffalo.
72) गौर (p. 64) gaur () whitish, yellowish, reddish;


p087c2-b15/ p064-071

गौरव [ gaurava ]
- a. relating to the preceptor; n. heaviness; prosodical length; importance, value; dignity; respect (for, lc.), reverence, honour.
71) गौरव (p. 64) gaurava relating to the preceptor;


p087c2-b16/ p064-133

गौरसर्षप [ gaura-sarshapa ]
- m. white mustard; a grain of it used as a weight.
133) गौरसर्षप (p. 64) gaura-sarshapa white mustard;


p087c2-b17/ p064-097

गौरी [ gaur ]
- f. female of the Gaura buffalo; girl (of eight) prior to menstruation; N. of Siva's wife; N.: -guru, m. Gaur's father, the Himlaya; -ntha, -pati, m. ep. of Siva; -pg, f. worship of Gaur, N. of a festival in the month of Mgha; -bhartri, m. ep. of Siva; -vrata, n. vow of Gaur, N. of a rite; -‿sa, m. ep. of Siva.
97) गौरी (p. 64) gaur female of the Gaura buffalo;

See my note on Goddess Gauri - the harvest-goddess.
- worshipped in the lunar month of Mgha माघ māgha is a lunar month in India. It is the the eleventh month of the year, corresponds with Jan/Feb. Bur-Myan equivalent is {pra-o la.}


p087c2-b18/ p064-096

गौष्ठिक [ gaushthika ]
- a. relating to an assembly.
96) गौष्ठिक (p. 64) gaushthika relating to an assembly.

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UKT notes


UKT 120207:

I have been confused by अवग्रह avagraha denoted by glyph  ऽ . The meaning given by A. A. Macdonell serves as an illustration:

गो ऽ श्व go x sva [ go x sv ] -- n. sg. cattle and horses.
   गो 'cattle'
  अश्व = अ श ् व 'horse' . अ has been dropped
    --> श्व , and reduced to an apostrophe denoted by ऽ .
See UHS-PMD0130 for prefix {a.wa.} अव ava


From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Avagraha 120207

Avagraha अवग्रह avagraha) ऽ is a Devanāgarī symbol used to indicate prodelision of an अ a. [UKT ]

-- elision of the initial vowel of a word <Latin bonum'st for bonum est is an example of prodelision >
-- http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/prodelision 120207

It is usually transliterated with an apostrophe, as in the Sanskrit philosophical expression:

शिवो ऽहम् Śivo ham
(Śivaḥ aham without sandhi) I am Shiva.

The avagraha is also used for prolonging vowel sounds in modern languages, for example Hindi माँऽऽऽ! for M! when calling to ones mother. [UKT ]

Sometimes it is also used to signify long or heavy syllables in metrical poetry, for example can the syllables in the word छंदः chandaḥ metre (in nominative) be expressed as ऽ ऽ , as two long syllables.

Go back avagraha-note-b

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Goddess Gauri - the harvest-goddess

- UKT 170626, 180507:

See also: Chapter 02. Nine Gods, in Folk Elements in Buddhism
- flk-ele-indx.htm > ch02.htm (link chk 180507)
and also downloaded Buddhist Legends, translated from the original Pali text of the Dhammapada Commentary, by Eugene Watson Burlingame, Harvard Univ. Press ,1921, in TIL HD-PDF and SD-PDF libraries
- EWBurlingame-BuddhistLegends<> / Bkp<> (link chk 180507)

I hold that indigenous peoples of India of the Brass Age, speaking Tib-Bur languages had worshipped the Mother Goddess or Mdaw {m-tau}. At various times in history these Brass Age peoples were militarily overwhelmed by the Iron Age peoples, and were made into slaves. The priests of the invaders, the Poannars {poaN~Na:}, both Vaishnavites {braah~ma.Na. poaN~Na:} and the Shaivite {i-wa. poaN~Na:}, rewrote many stories of the Mdaw {m-tau} and her kind, making them wives of their gods, in particular those of Shiva-dva who became the most promiscuous god in India. Thus, Mother-goddess Gauri - the harvest-goddess became one of the many wives of Shiva-dva.

In northern Myanmarpr, which has been connected to the mainland India by overland routes, we find a harvest-goddess known as Poan'ma'kri {poan:ma.kr rhn-ma.}. For the story of Poan'ma'kri, see: Myanmar Traditional Nat History (in Bur-Myan), by U Htw Han & U Ba Nyunt, Rangoon, 1981, p.126, in TIL library. According to the authors, the story is derived from the story of {ka-La. yak~hki.ni} or {ka-Li. yak~hki.ni} in Dhammapada Aṭṭhakathā - 1. story #4.

UKT 170627: The name of the Yakkhini is {ka-La. yak~hki.ni} in the Pali version, whilst in the Bur-Myan translation it is {ka-Li. yak~hki.ni}, prompting me to remember the Hindu Mother-goddess Kali-Maa कालिका kālimā. For Kali-Maa - Hindhu Mother-goddess see:
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shaktism 170627
- a grand-mix up with Universal Mother - the anthropomorphic form of Atta and Atman.
See my note on p087C.htm .
Inset pix: Book cover of Sixth Theravada Buddhist Synod, held in Rangoon lasting 1954 to 1956
See Wikipedia for the event: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sixth_Buddhist_council 170627

The story begins with the line:

na. hi. w-r-na-ti. I.mn Dm~ma.d-a.nn t~hta z-ta.wa.n wi.ha.rn~taau:
 ~a.ti.rn w~Zait~htin a-rb~Ba. ka.ht-i.

{I.mn Dm~ma.d-a.nn} - this Darma-sermon; {t~hta} - the Buddha
{z-ta.wa.n} - at Ztawun monastery; {wi.ha.rn~taau:} - while residing
{~a.ti.rn w~Zait~htin} - a certain barren woman
{a-rb~Ba.} - in connection with; {ka.ht-i.} - is delivered 

Prose: This Darma-sermon is delivered by the Buddha, while residing at the Ztawun monastery, in connection with a certain barren woman.

and recorded in story #4 in Dhammapada Aṭṭhakathā - 1.

From: The Golden Bough: a study of magic and religion, by James George Frazer, 1890, 2009 ed., p.077

" In some parts of India the harvest-goddess Gauri is represented both by an unmarried girl and by a bundle of the wild flowering balsam plant touch-me-not (Impatiens sp.) which is tied up in a mummy-like figure with a woman's mask, dress, and ornaments. Before being removed from the soil to represent the goddess the plants are worshipped. The girl is also worshipped. Then the bundle of plants is carried and the girl who personates the goddess walks through the rooms of the house, while the supposed footprints of Gauri herself are imprinted on the floor with red paste. "

Go back Gauri-note-b


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Toddy climbers of Myanmarpr

UKT 170625, 180509:

Gowda (aka Gauda or Gouda) is a surname used predominantly in vokkaliga caste also used by different castes in (Karnataka), India. [1] [2] Gowda was originally a honorific used by the administrative head of a village. Typically, such a head owns land and holds political and social power in the village. [3]
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gowda 170625

From Wikipedia: - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gamalla 180509

The Gamalla are an Indian caste whose traditional occupation was that of toddy tapping. They also produced and sold the arrack [1]

From Wikipedia, edited by UKT: - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arrack 180509

Arrack, also spelt arak, [1] is a distilled alcoholic drink {hkyak-a.rak}, typically produced in the Indian Subcontinent and Southeast Asia, made from:
# the fermented sap of coconut flowers,
# sugarcane :
  UKT 180509: from mother liquor of evaporated pressed juice of the stems, left over after crystallization of sugar crystals.
  The main form is Rum
# grain (e.g. red rice) :
  UKT 180509
# fruit,
# sap from fronds of certain palms, such as Toddy palm, Borassus flabellifer L. , in Myanmarpr.
  See: Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Borassus_flabellifer 180509
and PhD thesis Toddy Palm Culture in Myanmar (1752-1885), by Aye Aye Thant, Dept. of History, Univ. of Mandalay, Myanmar, 2013
in TIL HD-PDF and SD-PDF libraries
- AyeAyeThant<> / Bkp<> (link chk 180509)

Go back Toddy-climbers-note-b

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End of TIL file