Update: 2017-06-23 06:18 PM -0400


A Practical Sanskrit Dictionary


by A. A. Macdonell, 1893,
http://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/scans/MDScan/index.php?sfx=jpg 1929.
Nataraj ed., 1st in 2006, 2012

Edited, with additions from Pali sources, by U Kyaw Tun (UKT) (M.S., I.P.S.T., USA) and staff of Tun Institute of Learning (TIL) . Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone. Prepared for students and staff of TIL Research Station, Yangon, MYANMAR :  http://www.tuninst.net , www.romabama.blogspot.com

MC-indx.htm | Top

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{gau:pa.} - cont

Note 170623: Splitting p087.htm is still in progress
{g~na}* : this and the following are unusual conjuncts, {g~na.}, {g~ma.}, {g~ya.}, {g~ra.}, {g~wa.}.
  See Mon-Myan for examples where is tranliterated as disylllable .
{g~ra.} (rhotic disyllable)/ {gra.}** (lightly rhotic monosyllable)

Note: Unusual conjuncts are continued in next file.


UKT notes :
Akshara-r1c5 across BEPS languages


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{gau:pa.} - cont



गोपयितव्य [ gopay-i-tavya ]
- fp. to be concealed.



गोपवेष [ gopa-vesha ]
- a. dressed as a cowherd.



गोपा [ go-p ]
- m. herd; watcher, protector; f. female watcher.



गोपाग्रहार [ gopa‿agrahra ]
- m. pl. N. of various Agrahras; -‿ditya, m. N. of a king of Cashmere; -‿adri, m. N. of a mountain.



गोपाय [ gop-y ]
- den. protect, guard, preserve; conceal.



गोपायन [ gopy-ana ]
- a. protecting; n. protection.



गोपाल [ go-pl ]
- m. cowherd; (protector of earth), king; ep. of Krishna; N. of a prince: (a)-ka, m. cowherd; ep. of Krishna; N. of a prince; i-k, f. wife of a cowherd; -kesava, m. N. of a statue of Krishna; -pura, n. N. of a town; -matha, m. N. of a college; -varman, m. N. of a king of Cashmere.



गोपित्त [ go-pitta ]
- n. cow's gall (from which a yellow pigment is said to be obtained); -p th, m. 1.
draught of milk; 2. protection; -pukkha, m. cow's tail; kind of monkey; -pura, n. city-gate; gate.



गोपेन्द्र [ gopa‿indra ]
- m. chief of herdsmen, ep. of Krishna; -‿sa, m. id.



गोप्तव्य [ gop-tavya ]
- fp. to be guarded or protected; -tr, m., -tr&isharp;, f. protector; concealer; -ya, fp. to be guarded, protected, preserved, or concealed.



गोप्रचार [ go-prakra ]
- m. pasture land for cows; - pratra, m. Oxford, N. of a place of pilgrimage on the Saray; -balvarda-ny ya, m. the manner of cow-bull, i. e. excusable tautology; -brhmana, n. sg. a cow and (or) a Brhman.





गोभुज् go-bhug, -˚भृत् [ -bhrit ]
- m. prince, king.



गोमत् [ g-mat ]
- a. possessing cows, rich in, or consisting of cows; abounding in milk; n. property in cattle: -, f. place abounding in cows; -&isharp;, f. N. of several rivers, esp. of a tributary of the Indus; -matallik, f. splendid cow.



गोमय [ go-mya ]
- a. consisting of cows; full of cowdung; (m.) n. cowdung (often pl.): -p
yasya-nyya-vat, ad. after the manner of cowdung and milk-food, i. e. widely differing
though identical in origin; -maya, a. () made of cowdung.



गोमयाय [ gomay-ya ]
- den. . taste like cow-dung.



गोमायु [ g-myu ]
- a. bellowing like an ox; m. kind of frog; jackal; N. of a jackal.



गोमिथुन [ go-mithuna ]
- n. sg. and du. bull and cow; -min, m. possessor of cattle; -mukha, m. kind of musical instrument; N. of several men; -mtra, n. cow's urine; -mrig, m. kind of buffalo; -mriga- kka-kary, f. man ner of cows in walking, deer in standing, and crows in sitting; -medha, - yaga, m. cow-sacrifice.


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गोयान [ go-yna ]
- n. car drawn by oxen or cows; cart; -yukta, pp. yoked with oxen or cows; -yuga, n. couple of oxen, -animals; -raksha-ka, a. tending cattle, cattle-breed ing; m. cowherd; - raksh, f. tending or keeping of cattle, cattle-breeding, pastoral life; -rakshya, n. id.; -rambha, m. N.; -rasa, m. cow's milk; -rokan, f. gall- stone in cows; -roman, n. cow's hair.


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गोल gola, ˚क [ -ka ]
- m. bull; widow's bastard.



गोलाङ्गूल [ go-lṅgla ]
- m. kind of monkey; -loman, n. cow's hair; -vadha, m. cow-killing; - vardhana, m. N. of a mountain near Mathur held up for seven days by Krishna for the purpose of sheltering cows threatened by Indra; N. of an author; ep. of Krishna; -vta, m. cow-pen; -vla, m. cow's hair; a. () having cow's hair; -vsa, m. cow-pen; -vid, a. procuring cattle; -vinda, m. ep. of Krishna or Vishnu: -rga, m. N. of a commentator on Manu, -svmin, m. N. of a Brhman; -vrisha, m. bull; -vrishana, m. scrotum of a bull; -vraga, m. cow-pen; -sa krit, n. cow-dung; -sl, f. cow-shed; -srsha, m. N. of a serpent demon; n. kind of sandal-wood: -ka, id.; -sriṅga, n. cow-horn; m. N. of a mountain.


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गो&100;श्व [ go &zip; sv ]
- n. sg. cattle and horses.


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गोष्ठ [ go-shth ]
- m. cow-shed, cow-pen, stable; meeting-place; n. kind of srddha.



गोष्ठिक [ goshth-ika ]
- a. less correct form of gaushthika: -karman, n. negotiation for a company; -srddha, n. kind of srddha.



गोष्ठी [ go-shth ]
- f. assembly, company; fellowship, conversation: -ka, -- a. id.; -ban dha, m.
social assembly; -yna, n. carriage for company.



गोष्ठेशय [ goshthe-saya ]
- a. sleeping in a cow-shed.



गोष्पद [ gosh-pada ]
- n. cow's footprint; small puddle: fig.=mere trifle.


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गोस्तन [ go-stana ]
- m. cow's udder; *pearl necklace with four strings; -svmin, m. owner of cows.


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गोह [ gh-a ]
- m. hiding-place, lair.



गोहत्या [ go-haty ]
- f. slaughter of a cow; -hantri, m. cow-killer; -hara, m.: -na, n. cow-stealing.


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गौड [ gauda ]
- a. made of sugar; m. n. (Sugar land), N. of a country (central Bengal); m. pl. its inhabitants; , f. rum distilled from sugar; -ya, a. relating to the Gaudas.



गौण [ gauna ]
- a. () subordinate, secondary; figurative: i-ka, a. () relating to the three
fundamental qualities.



गौतम [ gautam ]
- a. () relating to Gotama; m. pat. from Gotama: N. of various men: -‿aranya, n. N. of a forest.





गौर [ gaur ]
- a. (&isharp;) whitish, yellowish, reddish; m. kind of buffalo; white mustard (a grain of it=a measure); -mukha, m. N.; -mriga, m. kind of buffalo.



गौरव [ gaurava ]
- a. relating to the preceptor; n. heaviness; prosodical length; importance, value; dignity; respect (for, lc.), reverence, honour.



गौरसर्षप [ gaura-sarshapa ]
- m. white mustard; a grain of it used as a weight.



गौरी [ gaur ]
- f. female of the Gaura buffalo; girl (of eight) prior to menstruation; N. of Siva's wife; N.: -guru, m. Gaur's father, the Himlaya; -ntha, - pati, m. ep. of Siva; -pg, f. worship of Gaur, N. of a festival in the month of Mgha; -bhartri, m. ep. of Siva; -vrata, n. vow of Gaur, N. of a rite; -‿sa, m. ep. of Siva.



गौष्ठिक [ gaushthika ]
- a. relating to an assembly.


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UKT 170622: Refer to ग्ना [ gn ]
= ग ् न ा - f. divine female, goddess. - Mac087c2
Note {g~na} is transcribed as disyllable /t'na/ in Mon-Myan.
I am working on several hunches that this unusual word, {g~na}, is a form of Universal Self or the personal Atta {t~ta.} {gnaa} (- the antithesis of Anatta {a.nt~ta.} the basis of Buddhism. Remember I am postulating that the akshara r1c5 has 2 distinct sounds: as a non-nasal in words in which this akshara appears as the onset, and, as a nasal in words in which it appears as the coda as in English < -ing >.

That this {g~na} is the same as {gnaa} 'personal soul' which is a part of Atman 'Universal Soul' is the result of several personal hunches given below. See Wikipedia for Atman
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/%C4%80tman_(Hinduism) 170622

My hunches:
 #1. There is a pair of words {g~na} (female) & {g~na.} (male).
 #2. The pair is derived from Bur-Myan {ngaa.} & {ngaa}.
 #3. My suggestion based on the absence of /g/ sound in Peguan Mon-Myan.
 #4. Mon-Myan and Skt-Dev are related as in the case of Bur-Myan and Magadhi-Myan
  (Pali spoken in Myanmarpr) 
See Eight Medial-Conjunct formers in Mon-Myan Language: Speech and Script
- spk-all-indx.htm > spk-all01.htm  and listen to - lesson07-61cap<)) (link chk 170622)
Ref 1: Haswell, Double & Compound consonants, p006/pdf031, lists 10.
Ref 2: NaingMaungToe, Hanging consonants, p047/pdf051, lists 11.


ग्ना [ gn ]
= ग ् न ा
- f. divine female, goddess.

UKT: Being the Universal Mother {m-tau}, she (may be he or it) the anthropomorphic Universal Energy represented by Sun being worshipped in Gayatri Mantra, even by the Trimurti, she doesn't need a husband ग्नास्पति [ gns-pti ]. It is pathetic to see some religions cannot escape the idea of sex, and sexual intercourse to get children! Listen to Gayatri Mantra: - bk-cndl-gayatri<))
and the Theravada Buddhist equivalent the Mora Sutta - bk-cndl-Mingun<))



ग्नास्पति [ gns-pti ] : UKT160117 {g~na.} (male) ?
- m. spouse of a goddess; -ptn, f. divine consort.


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ग्मत् [ gm-t ]
- V. pr. pt. of √gam.



ग्मन् [ gm-an ]
- V. 3rd pl. impf. of √gam.



ग्मा [ gm
- f. earth: only ab. g. gms.





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{g~ra.} / {gra.}



ग्रथन [ grath-ana ]
- n. connexion; intricacy: , f. tying, uniting; -anya, fp. to be joined or united.



ग्रथिन्् [ grath-n ]
- a. (knotty), unintelligible.


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ग्रन्थ [ granth-a ]
- m. knot; composition; verse (of 32 syllables); treatise, book; text, word ing; chapter; -ana, n. connecting, tying.



ग्रन्थि [ granth- ]
- m. knot; knot in a garment for keeping money, etc.; joint: -ka, m. narrator, rhapsodist; astrologer; -kkhedaka, m. cut-purse.

ग्रन्थिशमन [ granthi-samana ]
- n. (bringing a garment to an end with a knot =) money knot. - Mac-orphan



ग्रन्थिन् [ granth-in ]
- a. reading books.



ग्रन्थिपर्णक [ granthi-parnaka ]
- n. (?) kind of fragrant plant; -bheda, m. cut-purse; -mat, a. tied, knit, entwined.



ग्रन्थिल [ granthi-la ]
- a. knotty.


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UKT 160222: cf. {gra.ga.} below.





ग्रभ [ grbh-a ]
- m. seizure; --tri, m. seizer.


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ग्रसन [ gras-ana ]
- n. swallowing; kind of partial eclipse; jaws; -ishnu, a. wont to swallow, - absorb; -tri, m. swallower, eclipser.


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Pal: {ga.ha.} - UHS PMD0362
  UKT from UHS: . house. . mfn. take, hold, seize. m. astrology planet-god, to take, eclipse of Moon or Sun.

UKT 160222: The astrological term {groh} is the god of the astronomical planet. It is not a dva-god. These planet-gods are all males in Bur-Myan native astrology called Mahaboat {ma.ha-Boat}, and each has an animal to ride on. Unlike the Hindu-astrological entities they do not seize a person. They can be your guardian (to guard from evil) or your prison-guard (to inflict evil on you).


ग्रह् [GRAH], IX. grih-nấ, -nī,
 -n, size, take (also of leeches), hold, catch, stop; grasp (-pấnim, the hand in marriage); gain possession of; capture; captivate (the heart); attack (of disease); eclipse; rob, deprive of; keep, retain; claim, appropriate; obtain, accept; receive (from ab.); assume, adopt; acquire; purchase (with in, of price); draw (water); pluck, gather; put on (clothes); take and place upon (in., lc.); take upon oneself, undergo; welcome, receive again (a rejected wife); utter, pronounce; perceive, trace out, understand, hear, see; learn, remember; approve, like; take to heart, follow; be of opinion, consider; with cs. mg. cause to take; anyath-, mistake; kryam-, accept a lawsuit; garbham-, become pregnant by (ab.); paramrthena-, take in earnest; pp. grihta, often-, lit, having a taken-, -taking with one, bearing, holding; gd. grihitv, grihya=with; pe. be meant by (in.); ca. grahaya, P. cause to seize, take, or grasp (the hand in amrriage); give in marriage to (2 ac.); cause to be apprehended; cause to be plundered or taken away; cause to receive, deliver to; ask to take (a seat); cause to choose (2 ac.); teach, familiarise with (2 ac); des. gighrikaha, P. . be about to seize; desire to grasp or perceive. anu, rob after-wards; support; approve; treat graciously, wards; support; approve; treat graciously, favour (with in.); cherish; grace (a seat=deign to be seated): pp. rendered happy by (in.), spa, take away, sever. abhi, seize; receive; cs. catch ava, let go, relax; keep back, close; divide (words); gd, by violence. , pull, tighten (reins); learn. ud, raise, hold up; take away; draw (sword); rescue; cs. cause to be paid; explain, discuss. upa‿ud, raise; open; convey to the mouth. upa, hold from below, support; obtain, secure; accept; approve. ni, draw to one; tighten (reins); close (eyes); keep back, restrain; hold fast; capute, apprehend; imprison; check, subdue, curb; withhold, suppress. upa-ni, press down upon (lc.); bring near. pari, embrace, surround; put on (a garment); grasp; hold; gain, secure; accept; retain; profess (a doctrine); undergo; receive kindly; marry (a woman); assist; conform to, follow; excel, surpass: pp. united with, furnished with (in. or _). pra,stretch forth; hold; grasp; accept; stop; tighten (reins); keep separate (words in Sandhi); gd. pra-grihya, taking with one, accompanied by; with. sam-pra, accept. prati, grasp, take up; take possession of; regain; receive, accept; receive (hostilely), attach; welcome; marry; hear with pleasure, take as a good omen; acquiesce in, approve; cs. offer to, present with (2 ac.); des. desire to accept. vi, hold apart; separate; analyse (compounds); fight with (in. saha or srdham); wage war on (ac.); vie with, be a match for (srdham); seize (by, lc.); ca. cause to wage war against. sam, collect, grasp, take up; contain; curb; govern; unstring (bow); compel; receive kindly; comprehend; des. wish to marry. upa-sam, clasp (esp. the feet); apprehend, capture; concilliate, win; des. desire to clasp the feet of (ac.) saha, take along with one.

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UKT notes

Akshara-r1c5 across BEPS languages

UKT 160117, 160222, 170622: You'll see two related notes under this head

* Note#1: I am working on several hunches that ग्ना [ gn ] = ग ् न ा 'goddess', is a form Atta. {t~ta.} sometimes known as Atman - the Universal Self. It is the antithesis of Anatta {a.nt~ta.} the basis of Buddhism.

My hunches:
 #1. There is a pair of words {g~na.} (male) and {g~na} (female) & .
 #2. The pair is derived from Bur-Myan {ngaa.} & {ngaa}.
 #3. My suggestion is based on the absence of /g/ sound in Peguan Mon-Myan.
 #4. Mon-Myan and Skt-Dev are related as in the case of Bur-Myan and Magadhi-Myan (Pali spoken in Myanmarpr).
   Mon-Myan Language - MonMyan-indx.htm > spk-all-indx.htm > spk-all01.htm (lessons01-09)
 and look in lesson 07-61 for Eight Medial-Conjunct formers ,
 {nga.}, {a.}, {na.}, {ma.}, {ya.}, {ra.}, {la.}, {wa.}, covered by Spk-all lessons
 and listen to how the hangers-on are pronounced les07-61<)) (link chk 160117)
 Ref 1: Haswell, Double & Compound consonants, p006/pdf031, lists 10.
 Ref 2: NaingMaungToe, Hanging consonants, p047/pdf051, lists 11.

** Note#2: In going from Skt-Dev to Skt-Myan in my BEPS work, I have to deal with r1c5 akshara with a rhotic sound. Remember, Bur-Myan {gra.} is a non-rhotic medial pronounced like the medial {gya.}.
   It is interesting to note that U Hoke Sein in his PMD0352 to 0374 does not list any words with {gra.}. However, U Tun Myint in his UTM-PDMD043 to 044 lists some because of which I would refer to this orthography as Bur-Myan or Skt-Myan instead of Pal-Myan.
   We find the orthography {gra.}-rhotic extensively in Astrology and Indigenous Bur-Myan Medicine. It is unfortunate that, many in Myanmarpr has taken that this {gra.}-rhotic is derived from Pal-Myan. However, as stated above since U Hoke Sein does not give list any such word, I opine that {gra.}-rhotic is derived from Sanskrit.
  The question of showing {gra.}-rhotic as {g~ra.} is ruled out, because it would play havoc in Mon-Myan, where r1c5-akshara is {gn}. Since there is no /g/ sound in Peguan-dialect of Mon-Myan, unless used in words beginning with r1c5 as in the word for "bird" {gnak}, I have to postulate that it would be better to transcribe this sound in 2 ways: {gn}-onset and {ng}-coda.
   Whether it is Pal-Myan, the Rakhine dialect of Bur-Myan, or Skt-Myan, {gra.} is only slightly rhotic. What about Nwari and Old Magadhi is now my question. See: English to Nepal Bhasa Dictionary by Sabin Bhuju सबिन भुजु , 2005
  - SBhuju-NewarDict<> / bkp<> (link chk 160221)
  Being both Tib-Bur languages Bur-Myan and Newa-Dev have words beginning with {gna.} ङ,
  e.g. for <fish> न्या ; ङा
  Mon-Myan {gra.} is similar to Skt-Myan, but Bur-Myan is similar to Pali-Myan.
  Beware of possible mix-ups.

Go back Akshara-r1c5-note-b


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